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Importance of Intensive Interventions: Definitions and Illustrations Sharon Vaughn The University of Texas at Austin.

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Presentation on theme: "Importance of Intensive Interventions: Definitions and Illustrations Sharon Vaughn The University of Texas at Austin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Importance of Intensive Interventions: Definitions and Illustrations Sharon Vaughn The University of Texas at Austin

2 Recognition Goes to… Jack Fletcher and David Francis, University of Houston Greg Roberts, Elizabeth Swanson, and Stephanie Stillman, The University of Texas at Austin Jeanne Wanzek, Florida State University Jade Wexler, University of Maryland Carolyn Denton, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

3 NAEP Grade 4 National Results

4 NAEP Grade 8 National Results

5 Percentage of Students Ages 6–21 Served Under Individuals With Disabilities Education Act SOURCE: Office of Special Education Programs, Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of IDEA, 1990–2010; IDEA database,

6 What Is So Disturbing? In 2011, 68% of fourth-grade students and 62% of eighth-grade students with disabilities scored below basic on NAEP Reading. In 2011, 29% of fourth-grade students and 20% of eighth-grade students without disabilities scored below basic on NAEP Reading. From 2009 to 2011, reading results for students with disabilities declined.

7 Synthesis of Intensive Interventions: Grades 4 Through 12 More than 75 sessions No studies for grades 10–12 11 experimental or quasi-experimental studies for secondary, 19 for elementary Wanzek, J., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Research-based implications from extensive early reading interventions. School Psychology Review, 36(4), 541–561. Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Scammacca, N. K., Metz, K. L., Murray, C. S., Roberts, G., & Danielson, L. (in press). Extensive reading intervention for struggling readers in grades 4 through 12: Implications from research. Review of Educational Research.

8 Mean Effect Sizes Elementary (K–3) Comprehension.46 (25 effects) Reading Fluency.34 (11 effects) Word Reading.56 (53 effects) Spelling.40 (24 effects) Secondary (4–12) Comprehension.09 (37 effects) Reading Fluency.12 (8 effects) Word Reading.20 (22 effects) Spelling.20 (5 effects)

9 Why Larger Effects in Elementary? It may be that the interventions are not less effective but that we have fewer false positives than with secondary students. OR… It may be that older students have more intractable reading problems. OR…

10 Minimal Responders Over Time: 3 Years of Treatment Within an RTI Framework

11 Grades 6–7 students (fall 2006) Random assignment Sufficient progress Insufficient progress Random assignment Insufficient progress Grades 6–7 on-track readers Typical instruction Grades 7–8 Typical instruction Grade 8 Typical instruction (Tier I only) Grades 6–7 Grades 6–7 struggling readers Tier III intervention Grades 7–8 Tier IV Individualized protocol 1:3 Grade 8 Standardized protocol 1:5 Individualize d protocol 1:5 Exit intervention Follow-up assessment Exit intervention Sufficient progress Tier II intervention 1:15 Grades 6–7

12 Figure 1. Participant movement across years per initial assignment. IND = individualized; STD = standardized.

13 Years 1 and 2: A Summary

14 Tier I Intervention All students in both treatment and comparison conditions received enhanced Tier I treatment: Comprehension instruction within content areas Academic vocabulary within content areas Text as a source of evidence Vaughn, S., Cirino, P. T., Wanzek, J., Wexler, J., Fletcher, J. M., Denton, C. A.,... Francis, D. J. (2010). Response to intervention for middle school students with reading difficulties: Effects of a primary and secondary intervention. School Psychology Review, 39(1), 3–21. Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., Wexler, J., Barth, A., Cirino, P. T., Fletcher, J.,... Francis, D. J. (2010). The relative effects of group size on reading progress of older students with reading difficulties. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 23(8), 931–956.

15 Year 1 Findings Year 1 addressed two primary questions: 1.Overall, how effective was the treatment in enhancing students’ outcomes in reading? 2.Do students who are assigned to small-group instruction outperform students in large-group instruction?

16 Question 1: Efficacy of Tier II Tier II treatment in addition to the enhanced classroom instruction (Tier I) was associated with gains in decoding, reading fluency, and comprehension (d = 0.16) over students with reading difficulties who received from the research team only the enhanced classroom instruction (Tier I)—although many of the Tier I-only students also received interventions from their schools.

17 Question 2: Effects of Group Size Both treatment groups outperformed comparison. There were no between-group treatment differences.

18 What Happened to High vs. Low Responders? Students who met threshold: No more treatment Students who did not meet threshold: Additional intervention in Year 2

19 Year 2 Research Question Do students with significant reading disabilities (low response to previous year treatment) make significantly better gains in standardized versus individualized treatments? Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Roberts, G., Barth, A. E., Cirino, P. T., Romain, M.,... Denton, C. A. (2011). Effects of individualized and standardized interventions on middle school students with reading disabilities. Exceptional Children, 77(4), 391–407.

20 Systematic and explicit Fast-paced instruction Ongoing progress monitoring Instruction in same components of reading (word study, comprehension, vocabulary, fluency) Specified use of time (3 phases of intervention) High control of curriculum and materials Modifications made at the group level Motivation through success only Standardized Intervention Individualized Intervention Flexibility in use of time Low control of curriculum and materials Modifications in response to individual student need Motivation through text selection, conferences, goal setting, positive calls home Year 2: Tier III Intervention

21 Conceptual Framework: Lesson Focus Group 1, 50-minute periods (weekly): Vocabulary/morphology: 35–45 minutes Comprehension/text reading: 170–180 minutes Attitude/motivation: 15–25 minutes Group 2, 50-minute periods (weekly): Word study/text reading: 100–110 minutes Vocabulary/morphology: 35–45 minutes Comprehension/text reading: 70–80 minutes Attitude/motivation: 15–25 minutes To view sample lessons, visit:

22 Findings, Year 2 (Tier III): Standardized/Individualized Comprehension/Fluency Cluster Posttest results: Median d = 0.23

23 Word Reading Cluster Posttest results Findings, Year 2 (Tier III): Standardized/Individualized

24 Findings, Year 3: How Did They Do?

25 Determine long-term effects of intensive interventions on outcomes for students with persistent reading disabilities within a response to intervention (RTI) framework Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Leroux, A. J., Roberts, G., Denton, C. A., Barth, A. E., & Fletcher, J. (2011). Effects of intensive reading intervention for eighth-grade students with persistently inadequate response to intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(3), 515–525. Year 3 Aim

26 Findings, Year 3: 3-Year Treatment Comprehension Cluster Gates-MacGinitie Passage Comprehension subtest: ES = 1.20 Woodcock-Johnson Letter-Word Identification subtest: ES = 0.49

27 When Is an ES of 1.20 on a Standardized Comprehension Test Inadequate?

28 Gates-MacGinitie Passage Comprehension Mean

29 Efficacy of RTI for T vs. C Students What is the efficacy of a 3-year, response-based, tiered model for allocating reading interventions across sixth through eighth grades? Does the 3-year, response-based, tiered model for struggling readers close the gap with typically achieving peers? Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Fletcher, J. M., Stuebing, K. K., & Barth, A. E. (in press). Effects of a response-based, tiered framework for intervening with struggling readers in middle school. Reading Research Quarterly.

30 Results Data multivariate normal 3-year trajectories fit for the originally sampled group (T and C) Treatment outperformed comparison (ES = 0.26). Based on a multi-indicator, multilevel model Based on a rather robust comparison condition

31 Results Considering slope over time Treated students outperformed typical readers Note. Solid line represents comparison group; dashed line represents treatment group; dotted line represents typical readers. Reading ability reflects the metric derived from the multiple-indicator, multilevel model.

32 Using the same 3-year sample of students, we examined effects for teacher ratings of attention: 1.Does reading intervention affect behavioral attention? 2.What is the causal sequence of the effect of intervention? Roberts, G., Rane, S., Fall, A.-M., Fletcher, J. M., & Vaughn, S. (in review). The impact of a longitudinal intervention for reading on level of attention in middle school students. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Impact of Treatment on Attention

33 Reading Intervention Associated With Behavioral Attention Improvement Growth Trajectory of Reading for Tier I and Tier II Groups Note. Values are latent estimates of average reading. Time 1 in Tier I reading fixed at 0. All other estimates (across time within Tier I and for all time points in Tier II) are relative to that baseline. Intervention Comparison

34 Test for Mediation Reading treatment had a direct effect on reading ability, and reading ability over time predicted behavioral attention. Finding: Improved reading (causal order) to improved attention Growth Trajectory of Attention for Tier I and Tier II Groups Note. Values are latent estimates of average reading. Time 1 in Tier I attention fixed at 0. All other estimates (across time within Tier I and for all time points in Tier II) are relative to that baseline.

35 Effects are stronger if interventions do the following: Use explicit instruction Increase time on task Provide opportunities to respond with feedback Reduce size of instructional groups Are comprehensive (multicomponent) and include a self-regulation component Differentiate according to instructional needs Teach in the context of academic content What Is Special About Special Education Instruction?

36 Sample Inference Instruction Follow along as the teacher reads this paragraph. Try to picture the scene in your head. Where does it take place? Who is talking? "Immigrant families were crowded everywhere, along with boxes and barrels of supplies. Everything smelled badly. Everywhere you turned, you bumped into someone or fell over a bundle. It was pure havoc. One or another of the boys was bawling most of the time, especially George. It took a lot of impatience for me to hit a child, but one night I had had it. In anger, I got up, struck a match, and lit the kerosene lamp on the wall. My eyes focused on the ceiling quite accidentally and I saw a mass of crawlers squirming and creeping into crevices. I examined George's body and found bedbugs crawling about, his body covered with red blotches, and then I knew why he was crying…" (Hoobbler, p. 101) 1. What do you think this paragraph is about? 2. Does this take place in the past or in the present? 3. How do you know? 4. What is an "immigrant"? 5. What does "havoc" mean ?

37 Essential Words Daily instruction of overarching concepts. Simplified definitions, visuals, sentence use, think-pair-share question. Word Study and Fluency Build reading speed, accuracy and expression. Begins with word reading and moves to sentence, paragraph, and whole passages. Individualized materials and instruction based on student need.

38 Vocabulary Close Reading In 1867, a boy found a large, glassy stone near Kimberley. When it proved to be a _______________________, fortune hunters came from all around the world. From that unexpected beginning, both gold and diamonds became a major source of revenue for South Africa.

39 Vocabulary

40

41 Text-based Reading

42 Text: Close Reading Vocabulary All around the world, fall is a time to harvest. It is the result of many months of work. In spring before anything is planted, the fields are bare. Farmers plant their seeds. As the little plants grow, the farmers care for them. They water them during the sweltering heat of summer. They pull weeds and protect the plants from bugs.

43 Close Text Reading: Teaching Vocabulary 1.Select text at sentence level for younger students or less proficient readers and paragraph level for more proficient readers. (See Slide 3) 2.Underline key vocabulary words. 3.Make text available to students. 4.Read text aloud together (teachers and students)

44 Cont. 5. Ask students to work in pairs or small groups and to read the text multiple times using the text as a source for determining the meaning of the underline word. 6. Students then report out their understanding of work meaning to class as a whole.

45 Vocabulary Maps Components 1. Word Recognition 2. Definitions 3. Illustrations 4. Context 5. Vocabulary Associations 6. Vocabulary Building 7. Application

46 Vocabulary Map for the Indian Wars Conflict 7. Provide: an example phrase, sentence, or definition. 3. Illustration A disagreement. 2. Definition: Underline the key words. 5. Word Associations: Choose two related words. A.Disagreement B.Thump C.Skip D.Argument The conflict between the two tribes started when both tribes wanted to settle In the same area by the lake. The conflict broke out of prison last night after the guards went to sleep. 4. Context: Circle the correct sentence. 6. Word Building: Choose a real word and then write another word. A.Conflicting B.Conflictment _______________

47 Text-based Reading

48 Stretch Text – teacher procedure 1. Explorers had been landing in America for some time before English settlers arrived in what is now Jamestown, Virginia, in But it was in that spot on the James River that English colonization began and with it, the history of America. James the First was king of England at that time, and he had granted approval for a group of businesspeople to settle in this new land. They were part of the Virginia Company, and they got the go- ahead in By December of that year, the expedition was ready. Question: Tell me what this part of the story is about. Possible answer: example: This was about some of the first settlers who came from England and started to colonize America in the early 1600’s. Student Material Jamestown: The First English Colony in America Explorers had been landing in America for some time before English settlers arrived in what is now Jamestown, Virginia, in But it was in that spot on the James River that English colonization began and with it, the history of America. James the First was king of England at that time, and he had granted approval for a group of businesspeople to settle in this new land. They were part of the Virginia Company, and they got the go- ahead in By December of that year, the expedition was ready. Text-based Reading

49 Text-based approach routine With a text-based approach to teaching comprehension, students are taught to refer back to text and re-read as a matter of habit. This approach can be used with general questions (i.e. Tell me what it’s about?), or more specific questions. Based on student response, the instructor provides appropriate scaffolds to restrict the amount of text the student has to address in order to find the answer. Instructors start with a section of text. If there is no response after an opportunity to re-read, then the instructor moves to the paragraph level and re- asks the question. If students continue to struggle the instructor moves to the sentence level or the word level if necessary. Instructors do not tell students answers. Students are required to find and support their answers with text content. Example How did the Native Americans help the Pilgrims? No answer. Look at the second paragraph to find out how the Native Americans helped the Pilgrims. No Answer. Look at the last sentence of the second paragraph to find out how the Native Americans helped the Pilgrims. No Answer. In the last sentence, there is a key word: showed. It tells me the Native Americans showed the Pilgrims something. What did the Native Americans show the Pilgrims? They showed them how to grow enough food to last the whole year. Correct. The Native Americans helped the Pilgrims by showing them how to grow enough food to feed themselves all year. Instructor provides appropriate scaffolds to restrict the amount of text the student has to address in order to find the answer. Instructors start with a section of text. Example How did the Native Americans help the Pilgrims? No answer. Look at the second paragraph to find out how the Native Americans helped the Pilgrims. No Answer. Look at the last sentence of the second paragraph to find out how the Native Americans helped the Pilgrims. No Answer. In the last sentence, there is a key word: showed. It tells me the Native Americans showed the Pilgrims something. What did the Native Americans show the Pilgrims? They showed them how to grow enough food to last the whole year. Correct. The Native Americans helped the Pilgrims by showing them how to grow enough food to feed themselves all year. Text-based Instructional Routine

50 Text-based approach routine With a text-based approach to teaching comprehension, students are taught to refer back to text and re-read as a matter of habit. This approach can be used with general questions (i.e. Tell me what it’s about?), or more specific questions. Based on student response, the instructor provides appropriate scaffolds to restrict the amount of text the student has to address in order to find the answer. Instructors start with a section of text. If there is no response after an opportunity to re-read, then the instructor moves to the paragraph level and re- asks the question. If students continue to struggle the instructor moves to the sentence level or the word level if necessary. Instructors do not tell students answers. Students are required to find and support their answers with text content. Example How did the Native Americans help the Pilgrims? No answer. Look at the second paragraph to find out how the Native Americans helped the Pilgrims. No Answer. Look at the last sentence of the second paragraph to find out how the Native Americans helped the Pilgrims. No Answer. In the last sentence, there is a key word: showed. It tells me the Native Americans showed the Pilgrims something. What did the Native Americans show the Pilgrims? They showed them how to grow enough food to last the whole year. Correct. The Native Americans helped the Pilgrims by showing them how to grow enough food to feed themselves all year. Word Work

51 Text-based approach routine With a text-based approach to teaching comprehension, students are taught to refer back to text and re-read as a matter of habit. This approach can be used with general questions (i.e. Tell me what it’s about?), or more specific questions. Based on student response, the instructor provides appropriate scaffolds to restrict the amount of text the student has to address in order to find the answer. Instructors start with a section of text. If there is no response after an opportunity to re-read, then the instructor moves to the paragraph level and re- asks the question. If students continue to struggle the instructor moves to the sentence level or the word level if necessary. Instructors do not tell students answers. Students are required to find and support their answers with text content. Example How did the Native Americans help the Pilgrims? No answer. Look at the second paragraph to find out how the Native Americans helped the Pilgrims. No Answer. Look at the last sentence of the second paragraph to find out how the Native Americans helped the Pilgrims. No Answer. In the last sentence, there is a key word: showed. It tells me the Native Americans showed the Pilgrims something. What did the Native Americans show the Pilgrims? They showed them how to grow enough food to last the whole year. Correct. The Native Americans helped the Pilgrims by showing them how to grow enough food to feed themselves all year. Word Work Model and teach (I do it.) Show students the correct way. Guided practice (We do it.) Students do it with teacher support. Independent practice (You do it.) Students practice alone. Cumulative practice (built into lessons) Students practice new items along with items already learned.

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