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AP Psychology Neuroscience Unit Unit II Phrenology: an incorrect theory about the head! Bum ps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and character.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Psychology Neuroscience Unit Unit II Phrenology: an incorrect theory about the head! Bum ps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and character."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Psychology Neuroscience Unit Unit II Phrenology: an incorrect theory about the head! Bum ps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and character traits ap

2 We start at the smallest aspect of neuroscience: The nerve cell *The nerve cell is the key to all communication in the nervous system *Signals everything to happen, yet they do not touch each other *Billions of nerve cells ap

3 Key Words: Action potential Polarization vs. Depolarization Refractory Period ap

4 Helpful analogy: Toilet bowl vs. nerve cell communication… Think: refractory period ap

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6  Basic Neurotransmitters to know:  Acetylcholine (ACH)…starts muscles, excitatory transmitter, released during REM also…linked to learning and memory  Dopamine: helps control muscle movement…opens pleasure pathways, too much: schizophrenia, linked to Parkinson’s and ADHD  Endorphins: a group of neurotransmitters that help relieve pain and give one a sense of well- being…natural form of morphine  Serotonin: linked to mood, sleep, hunger and disorders (e.g. too much=anxiety)….dominance? ap

7 Table 2.1 Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

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9 Chemical interaction in the nervous system ap

10 Figure 2.9 A simple reflex Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers The work of sensory, interneurons and motor neurons ap

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12 ap Note opportunity: Review the process of nerve cell communication….which part of the cell is first? Last?

13 Figure 2.7 The functional divisions of the human nervous system Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers The organization of the nervous system… ap

14 The biology of “Fight or Flight” ap

15 Note opportunity: State in your own words the function of the : central nervous system peripheral nervous system autonomic nervous system somatic nervous system

16 GLANDULAR SYSTEM and COMMUNICATION Endocrine System: Very slow, some messages stay longer a. HORMONES: Literally means: “to activate” they move through the bloodstream, they have specific structure or shape for each specific hormone. b. GLANDS: Produce hormones *** EVERYTHING works TOGETHER with the brain *** All glands and chemicals that are produced that are taken together are called the endocrine system c. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: glands and hormones The endocrine system ap

17 Figure 2.11 The endocrine system Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

18 Brain Anatomy We will start with the most basic in function, and first in development and end with the most ‘modern’ part of the brain, the cortex. This is also the most complex processing center. ap

19 HOW DO WE KNOW THAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE BRAIN? CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Following and recording people with brain disorders and diseases, helps with figuring out what parts control what. –A. MANIPULATING THE BRAIN: Purposefully destroying or putting a lesion in the brain and watching the results [only done in animals] –B. RECORDING THE BRAIN’S ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY: EEG, or electroencephalogram tracing the electricity in the brain as it responds to a stimulus –C. BRAIN IMAGING TECHNIQUES: 1. CT Scan: [computed Tomography] an x=ray of the brain 2. PET Scan: [positron emission Tomography the brain is more active by showing the intensity of fuel burning [glucose]] 3. MRI Scan: [magnetic resonance imaging] a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue: allows us to see structures in the brain ap

20 EEG ap

21 The PET scan ap

22 Figure 2.15 Brain reading Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

23 Figure 2.14 MRI scan of a healthy individual (left) and a person with schizophrenia (right) Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

24 Figure 2.16 The brainstem and thalamus Survival functions… ap

25 Figure 2.17 The brain’s organ of agility Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

26 Figure 2.18 The limbic system Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Next…emotional development and response…more survival structures too ap

27 Figure 2.19 The amygdale Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

28 Figure 2.20 The hypothalamus Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

29 Figure 2.21 Rat with an implanted electrode Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

30 Figure 2.22 Ratbot on a pleasure cruise Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

31 Figure 2.23 Brain structures and their functions Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

32 Note opportunity: How are the areas of the cortex and the areas of the lower/brainstem different?

33 Why are we smarter? ap

34 Figure 2.25 The cortex and its basic subdivisions Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers The cortex, or ‘neocortex’, or cerebral cortex….divisions for the human brain. ap

35 Left Right More fun stuff on this later… ap

36  The structure of the cortex is ‘wrinkly’  In addition to neurons:  Glial cells: support nourish and protect neurons ap

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38 Figure 2.26 Left hemisphere tissue devoted to each body part in the motor cortex and the sensory cortex Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Notice anything interesting? Correlation to function/sensitivity? ap

39 Figure 2.31 Phineas Gage reconsidered Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers One of neuroscience’s most famous case studies…damage to the FAA altered his personality and emotional control ap

40 ap

41 Parietal Lobe a. Primary somatic sensory center [sensation] b. Receives input from muscles and joint receptors and skin receptors, [touch, texture, pressure, etc…] pain receptors [Sensory Strip] c. The electrical stimulation is similar to the primary motor cortex ap

42 Occipital Lobe ap

43 Figure 2.28 New technology shows the brain in action Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

44 Case studies: (Case Western) and discussion…how would your speech be impacted if you had a lesion (destroyed tissue) in either speech area? *aphasia ? ap

45 Figure 2.29 The visual cortex and auditory cortex Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

46 Figure 2.30 Areas of the cortex in four mammals Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Association areas, ‘talk’ to other areas of the brain…very important. One of the human brain’s most important areas is the Frontal Association Area (which we discussed with Phineas… ap

47 Figure 2.32 Specialization and integration in language Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

48 Figure 2.33 Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking words Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

49 Figure 2.34 Brain plasticity Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers An amazing case study… ap

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51 Figure 2.35 The corpus callosum Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

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53 Figure 2.37 Testing the divided brain Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

54 This is Joe ;) savant and right Joe ap

55 Figure 2.39 The disappearing southpaws Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

56 Figure 2.40 The southpaw’s hazardous life Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers ap

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