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Week Nine Agenda Announcements Link of the week Review week eighth lab assignment Week nine expected outcomes Next lab assignment Break-out problems Upcoming.

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Presentation on theme: "Week Nine Agenda Announcements Link of the week Review week eighth lab assignment Week nine expected outcomes Next lab assignment Break-out problems Upcoming."— Presentation transcript:


2 Week Nine Agenda Announcements Link of the week Review week eighth lab assignment Week nine expected outcomes Next lab assignment Break-out problems Upcoming deadlines Lab assistance, questions, and answers

3 Link of the week This Web site contains information on: - Evolved firmware uses - Firmware and device drivers - Firmware support challenge in PCs - Firmware hacking DiverDetective Download driver updates automatically and safely. This software utility will keep your system up to date by automatically retrieving the latest drivers from your hardware’s manufacturer.

4 Link of the week Define Firmware: A computer program that is embedded in the hardware device. Firmware can be stored in flash memory or as a binary image file that can be uploaded onto an existing hardware by a user. In summary, firmware is a combination of hardware and software. Firmware applications include the following: - BIOS found in IBM-compatible PCs. - Open Firmware, used in computers marketed by Sun Microsystems and Apple Computers. - EPROM chips used in the Eventide H-3000 series of digital music processors. - The iPod’s control menus. - The Common Firmware Environment (CFE). - Cisco IOS


6 Review eighth week lab assignment ANSI The Institute oversees the creation, promulgation and use of thousands of norms and guidelines that directly impact businesses in nearly every sector: from acoustical devices to construction equipment, from dairy and livestock production to energy distribution, and many more. ANSI is also actively engaged in accrediting programs that assess conformance to standards – including globally-recognized cross-sector programs such as the ISO 9000 and ISO 9001. Membership: Comprised of Government agencies, Organizations, Companies, Academic and International bodies, and individuals, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) represents the interests of more than 125,000 companies and 3.5 million professionals.

7 Review eighth week lab assignment ANSI is the official U.S. representative to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has served in its capacity as administrator and coordinator of the United States private sector voluntary standardization system for more than 90 years.

8 Review eighth week lab assignment Linux /etc/sysconfig The /etc/sysconfig directory is where many of the files that control the system configuration are stored. /etc/sysconfig/clock Used to configure the system clock to Universal or local time and set some other clock parameters. /etc/sysconfig/init This file is used to set some terminal characteristics and environment variables.

9 Review eighth week lab assignment /etc/sysconfig/keyboard Used to configure the keyboard. Used by the startup script /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit. /etc/sysconfig/mouse This file is used to configure the mouse. /etc/sysconfig/network Used to configure networking options. All IPX options default to off. /etc/rc.d/rc.local This file is executed after the other init scripts. Put commands that performs some system customization.

10 Review eighth week lab assignment /etc/fstab - The fstab file is read by software applications. It is the duty of the system administrator to create and accurately maintain this file. - Each file system is described on a separate line. - Fields on each line are separated by tabs and spaces. - # comments - The order in which these records are listed is important.

11 Review eighth week lab assignment etc/fstab /dev/vg00/root / ext3 defaults 1 1 LABEL=/boot /boot ext3 defaults 1 2 none /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0 /dev/vg00/home /home ext3 defaults 1 2 /dev/vg00/opt /opt ext3 defaults 1 2 none /proc proc defaults 0 0 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 /dev/vg00/tmp /tmp ext3 defaults 1 2 /dev/vg00/usr /usr ext3 defaults 1 2 /dev/vg00/var /var ext3 defaults 1 2 /dev/vg00/swap swap swap defaults 0 0 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom udf,iso9660 noauto,owner,kudzu,ro 0 0 /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy auto noauto,owner,kudzu 0 0 /dev/vg02/shome /export/home ext3 defaults 1 2 #/dev/vg01/oracle /mnt/pkg1/oracle ext3 noauto 1 2 #NOTICE: oracle and shome are shared storage. Make sure they are not mounted # on the other side before mounting.

12 Review eighth week lab assignment Field description of /etc/fstab 1 st field describes the block special device or remote file system to be mounted. 2 nd field describes the mount point for the file system. 3 rd field describes the type of file system. 4 th field describes the mount options associated with the file system. 5 th field describes which file systems will need to be dumped by the dump() command. 6 th field is used by fsck to determine the order in which the file systems are checked at boot time.

13 Review eighth week lab assignment The exit code returned by fsck is the sum of the following conditions: 0 - No errors 1 - File system errors corrected 2 - System should be rebooted 4 - File system errors left uncorrected 8 - Operational error 16 - Usage or syntax error 32 - fsck canceled by user request 128 - Shared library error

14 Review week eight lab assignment Red Hat Package Manager (rpm) is a package management system. - Software package file format - Free software tool which installs, updates, uninstalls, verifies and queries other software packages in this format. - rpm was originally targeted for the Linux distributions; the file format RPM is the baseline package format of the Linux Standard Base.

15 Review week eight lab assignment Package Advantages: - Used in a uniform way for the user to install programs - Uninstalling programs is simple - Non-interactive installation makes it easy to automate - Original source archive (e.g..tar.gz,.tar.bz2) - Packages can be cryptographically verified with GPG and MD5.

16 Review week eight lab assignment A file format is a particular way to encode information for storage in a computer file. Disk drives or computer storage are represented in bits. A computer must convert information to 0s and 1s and vice-versa. A computer file format can be represented as either a binary image or ASCII file. Binary image files represent 256 different binary codes. ASCII files contain a small set of characters which are alphabetic letters, numeric digits, special symbols and a few control codes.

17 Review week eight lab assignment Binary image files can contain many more codes because they use all eight bits of the byte, whereas ASCII files use only seven bits. Executable software, most word processing files and databases, spread sheets and multimedia files are binary. However, text and source program files as well as HTML and XML files are ASCII.

18 Review week eight lab assignment The Internets SMTP mail protocol supports only ASCII. When a binary file is attached to an email message, the 8-bit format is converted to a temporary 7-bit format to pass through the mail servers. Encoding formats such as MIME, at the receiving end converts the 7-bit format back into 8-bit binary format. The 8-bit to 7-bit conversion makes files larger as they traverse the Internet.

19 Review week eight lab assignment Different file formats for different kinds of information. - JPEG format – designed to store static photographic images. - GIF format – designed to store still images and simple animation. - QuickTime format – designed as a container for many different types of multimedia.

20 Week nine expected outcomes Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to: Analyze processes of startup and shutdown. Apply startup scripts and controls to tune system. Describe basic "autonomous" processes in UNIX.

21 Next Lab Assignment “Initializing” or “booting” the machine steps 1.CPU is pre-set to RESET mode 2.CPU pre-programmed to seek 0xfffffff0 address location 3.BIOS reads MBR (Track 0, Sector 1) 4.First part of MBR contains the boot partition table and executable code 5.Second part of the MBR is used to locate the boot loader. It resides on the “active” partition known as the Boot Sector. 6.Device drivers are loaded (initrd-2.4.20-8.img) 7.Kernel is invoked 8.Kernel performs the following tasks Memory size determination Hardware configuration Kernel data structure initialization Mount root partition Hand crafted init process

22 Next Lab Assignment Computer starts by running the BIOS program. The user is usually allowed to set up the boot process with the firmware. The first sector on the booting media is then read by the bios program. The boot sector contains a small program which is run at this time. This program has the task of reading the operating system from the disk and running it. LILO is the program that Linux systems typically use to allow users to have a choice of operating systems to boot from.

23 Next Lab Assignment It is usually installed in the boot sector (otherwise known as the MBR). If the user chooses to boot Linux, LILO will load the Linux kernel into memory. Then the kernel will try to mount the root filesystem. The root filesystem is usually mounted read-only (this can be set in the same way as the place). This makes it possible to check the filesystem while it is mounted; it is not a good idea to check a filesystem that is mounted read-write.

24 Next Lab Assignment After the kernel starts the program "init" (located in /sbin/init) in the background (This process will always become process number 1). Init will start the services setup in the system.

25 Next Lab Assignment Master Boot Record (MBR) The MBR is not located in a partition, it is located at a Main Boot Record area in front of the first partition. When a data storage device has been partitioned with the MBR Partition Table scheme the master boot record contains the primary partition entries in its partition table. By convention, there are exactly four primary partition table entries in the MBR Partition Table scheme

26 Next Lab Assignment Linux Performance Tools sar command is performance monitoring tool. It can find out what Linux is doing all the time. It can generate report and email them to sys admin. vmstat command that reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity. free command displays the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory in the system, as well as the buffers used by the kernel.

27 Next Lab Assignment iostat command is used for monitoring system input/output device loading by observing the time the devices are active in relation to their average transfer rates i.e. it is useful to monitor disk throughput.

28 Next Lab Assignment Linux system run level modes 0 - Halt system 1 – Single user 2 – Multi-user mode 3 – Full multi-user 4 – unused 5 – X11 6 - Reboot Shutdown command shutdown Review the Startup/Shutdown lab assignment

29 Next Lab Assignment /etc/rc.d init.d rc0.d rc2.d rc4.d rc6.d rc.sysinit rc rc1.d rc3.d rc5.d rc.local /etc rc rc4.d init.d rc0.d rc5.d rc.sysinit rc1.d rc6.d rc2.d rc.d rc3.d rc.local

30 Next Lab Assignment Activities managed by the kernel Responsive - users Autonomous - daemons The kernel consists of a collection of low level procedures. These procedures are called system calls and they are the primary means for a program to interact with other parts of the system. Explain the difference between the K and S as a script prefix. Demonstrate Execution of the and scripts Provide examples of pids and ppids (

31 Next Lab Assignment Shell Commands df (disk space usage) df –i (file system inode utilization) sar (CPU usage) history (list commands previously input) tail (read records at end of file) head (read records at start of file) w (current snap shot of all users and what they are doing.

32 Break-out problems What functionality does the mingetty or getty perform? Define the kernel responsive and autonomous functions? What system functionality does the /etc/fstab file provide? What is the functionality does the /etc/sysconfig directory provide? What functionality does the /etc/inittab file provide? Commands ls -li who -r kill kill –l uptime w telinit sleep

33 Upcoming deadlines Installation Exercise, 8-1 is due June 28, 2009 Startup/Shutdown, 9-1 is due July 5, 2009 Account/LDAP Script, 10-1 is due July 12, 2009 Process Exercise, 10-2 is due July 12, 2009 Knoppix File System, 11-1 is due July 19, 2009 Final Outline posted by July 20, 2009

34 Lab assistance, questions and answers Questions Comments Concerns I am available after this Franklin Live session to discuss any problems and/or concerns regarding the lab assignments

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