Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Organisational Behaviour"— Presentation transcript:
0 Management and Organisational Behaviour 7th EditionPART 1Management and Organisational Behaviour
1 The Nature of Organisational Behaviour Management and Organisational Behaviour7th EditionCHAPTER 2The Nature of Organisational Behaviour
2 The behaviour of people The process of management The study of organisational behaviour (OB) embraces an understanding of -The behaviour of peopleThe process of managementThe organisational context of managementOrganisational processes and the execution of workInteractions with the external environment of which the organisation is part
3 The meaning of OBOB is a convenient shorthand that refers to the numerous interrelated influences on, and patterns of behaviour of people within organisationsPorter, Lawler and Hackman
4 The meaning of OBWilson challenges what constitutes OB & questions whether we should be interested only in behaviour that happens within the organisation. She suggests that we need to look outside of what is normally thought of as organisations & how we usually think of work
5 - what happens in rest & play - emotions & feelings The meaning of OBWilson believes that we can gain an insight into organisational life and behaviour by looking at:- what happens in rest & play- emotions & feelings- less organised work- the content in which work is deferred to as men’s work- the meaning of work for the unemployed
6 The organisation itself The environment Influences on OBIndividualsGroupsThe organisation itselfThe environment
7 Are a central feature of OB IndividualsAre a central feature of OBAre a necessary part of any behavioural setBring to the organisation their personality, skills and attributes, values, needs and expectationsCan create conflict if their needs and the demands of the organisation are incompatible
8 Management and the individual Management’s task is to integrate the individual & the organisation, providing a working environment that permits the satisfaction of individual needs & attainment of organisation goals
9 Exist in all organisations GroupsExist in all organisationsAre essential to organisational working and performanceComprise a range of different individualsCan develop their own hierarchies and leaders
10 GroupsCan have a major influence on behaviour and performance of individual membersHave their own structures and functions, role relationships and influences and pressureAn understanding of group structure and behaviour complements a knowledge of individual behaviour
11 Organisational structure is created by management to: The organisationIndividuals & groups interact within the structure of the formal organisationOrganisational structure is created by management to:- establish a relationship between individuals & groups- provide order and systems to direct efforts of the organisation into goal seeking activities
12 The organisationThe formal structure allows people/groups to carry out organisational activities to achieve aims & objectivesBehaviour is affected by patterns of organisational structure
13 The environment affects the organisation through: technological & scientific developmenteconomic activitysocial & cultural influencesgovernment activities
14 management of opportunities & risks EnvironmentThe effects of the operation of the organisation within its environment are reflected in the:management of opportunities & riskssuccessful achievement of organisational aims & objectives
15 Environment – its rate of change The increasing rate of change in environmental factors highlights the need to study the total organisation & the processes used to adapt to external demandsExample: globalisation has placed greater emphasis on organisational processes rather than organisational functions
16 Contrasting but related approaches PsychologicalLooks at individuals within the organisationA narrow approachSociologicalLooks at human behaviour in societyA broader approach
17 Behavioural science – a multidisciplinary approach A multidisciplinary behavioural science approach can make an important contribution to the field of OBBehavioural science has three main disciplines:- Psychology – personality systems- Sociology – social behaviour- Anthropology – science of mankind & study of human behaviour (cultural systems)
18 The organisational iceberg One way to recognise why people behave as they do at work is to view an organisation as an icebergWhat sinks a ship isn’t always what sailors can see, but what they can’t seeHellriegal, Slocum, & Woodman
23 The organisational iceberg Behavioural (covert) aspects AttitudesCommunication patternsInformal team processesPersonalityConflictPolitical behaviourUnderlying competencies & skills
24 Challenges of management People, capital, & technology … somewhere within our views or organizations we need to acknowledge the differences between machines and man.… the question of time is crucial, both because we humans operate in time with the past, the present & the future assuming importance’ and because they are phases, sequences of times and rhythms which are essentially human.Gratton
25 Organisational metaphors MachinesOrganismsBrainsCulturesMorganPolitical systemsPsychic prisonsFlux & transformationInstruments of dominationThe metaphors are not fixed categories and are not mutually exclusive
26 Orientations to workInstrumental orientation – individuals view work as a means to an end, there is a calculative or economic involvement with workBureaucratic orientation – work is defined as a central life issue, there is a sense of obligation to the work of the organisation & positive involvement in terms of a career structureSolidaristic orientation – work situation is viewed in terms of group activities, there is an ego involvement with work groups rather than with the organisation itself, work is more than just a means to an end Goldthorpe et al.
27 Challenges to work ethics Division of labour – work has been fractured in task and sub divided into special sub tasksDestruction of continuity in employment – individuals are likely to re-enter the job market several times, jobs are no longer for lifeHerman
28 Management as an integrating activity Figure 2.4Management as an integrating activity
29 The psychological contract The series of mutual expectations & satisfaction of needs arising from the people / organisational relationshipProcess of giving & receiving by the individual & the organisationCovers a range of expectations of rights and privileges, duties and obligations that do not form part of the formal agreements but still has important influence of people’s behaviourThe significant of the contract depends on the extent it is perceived to be fair
30 Formula for balancing unwritten needs of employees with the needs of the organisation Caring – demonstrating genuine concern for individualsCommunicating – really talking about what the company hopes to achieveListening – hearing not only the words but also what lies behind the wordsKnowing - those who work for you, their families, personal wishes, desires & ambitionsRewarding – money is not always necessaryStalker
31 Moral contractIncreasing global competition & turbulent change requires a management philosophy grounded in a different moral contractPeople should not be seen as a corporate asset from which value can be appropriated, but as a responsibility and a resource to be added toThis demands more from individuals – to abandon the idea of lifetime employment & embrace the concept of continuous learning & personal development Ghosal et al.
32 Factors leading to an increase in the global business environment Improvements in international communication facilitiesInternational competitive pressuresThe spread of production methods & other business processes across nations & regionsInternational business activity, e.g. overseas franchising or licensing agreements
33 Defining & conceptualising culture – A model of culture Figure 2.6Defining & conceptualising culture – A model of cultureSource: Reproduced with permission from F. Trompenaars and C. Hampden-Turner, Riding the Waves of Culture, Second edition, Nicholas Brealey (1999), p.22.
34 Factors affecting national culture Figure 2.8Factors affecting national cultureSource: Reproduced with permission from Ian Brooks, Organisational Behaviour: Individuals, Groups and Organisation, Second edition, Financial Times Prentice Hall (2003), p.266, with permission from Pearson Education Ltd.
35 Five dimensions of culture Power distanceUncertainty avoidanceIndividualismMasculinityConfucian work dynamism
36 Cultural differences that can affect OB Relationship & rulesIndividual or collective preferencesType of societies - neutral or emotional societiesDiffuse or specific cultureAchievement-based societiesTimeAttitude to the environmentTrompenaar
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