5Studying Development– Key Theoretical Debates Nature vs. Nurture-heredity vs. environment.Continuity vs. Stages-continuous and gradualvs. periods of abruptchange and then periods of little change.Stability vs. Change- characteristics maintained vs. characteristics different.
6Studying Development (Continued) BiologicalWhat position on these debates is correct? The interactionist perspective, which recently evolved into the biopsychosocial model.PsychologicalSocial
9Studying Development— Cultural Guidelines for Developmental Research Culture may be the most important determinant.Development cannot be studied outside its sociocultural context.Each culture’s ethnotheories are important determinants.Culture is largely invisible to participants.
10The Union of Sperm and Egg at Conception A total of 200 million or more sperm deposited during intercourse approach the egg 85,000 times their own size.The few that make it to the egg release digestive enzymes that eat away the egg’s protective coating, allowing a sperm to penetrate.The egg’s surface blocks out all others and within a half day, the egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse.
12The Union of Sperm and Egg at Conception Teratogen is a substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm the child. Smoking= low weight. Alcohol perhaps the most common and damaging.The symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome including mental retardation, inability to learn from experience, and impulsivity.
13Zygote, Embryo, and Fetus Fewer than half of fertilized eggs, called zygotes, survive.In the first week, cell division produces a zygote of some 100 cells, which are already beginning to differentiate, to specialize in structure and function.About 10 days after conception, the zygote’s outer part attaches to the uterine wall and becomes the placenta through which nourishment passes.The inner cells become the embryo. Heartbeat begins.
15Physical Development— Three Stages of Prenatal Development Germinal Period (conception to implantation in the uterus)Embryonic Period (uterine implantation through the eighth week)Fetal Period (eighth week until birth)
16Physical Development— Three Stages of Prenatal Development
17Physical Development— Hazards to Prenatal Development Teratogens (environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development by crossing the placenta barrier)Categories of teratogens include:Legal and illegal drugsDiseases and malnutritionExposure to X-rays and stress exposure
18Physical Development— Hazards to Prenatal Development
19Physical Development— Early Childhood Three key areas of change in early childhood:BrainMotorSensory/perceptualdevelopment
20Physical Development- Prenatal Brain Development
21Physical Development— Brain Development As child grows, neurons grow in size and the number of dendrites and axons increase.
22Physical Development- Lifespan Changes in Body Proportions
23Physical Development—Early Childhood Milestones in motor development
24Physical Development— Sensory and Perceptual Development Senses of smell, taste, touch and hearing are quite developed at birth.Sense of vision is poorly developed at birth.
26Physical Development- Adulthood Middle Age:For women menopause is an important life milestone.For men male climacteric occurs.Late Adulthood:Primary aging— gradual, inevitable changes versus changes due to disease, disuse, or neglect.
27Cognitive Development Jean Piaget believed infants begin at a cognitively “primitive” level and progress in distinct stages.Piaget’s schemas are the most basic unit of intellect, which act as patterns that organize interactions with the environment.
28Cognitive Development (Continued) Schemas grow and change due to:Assimilation (absorbing new information into existing schemas)Accommodation (adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with new information)
29Cognitive Development (Continued) Can you draw this “impossible figure” drawing without tracing it? If so, it’s because you have developed the required artistic schema.
30Cognitive Development— Piaget’s Four Stages Sensorimotor: birth to 2 yearsPreoperational: 2 to 7 yearsConcrete Operational: 7 to 11 yearsFormal Operational: 11 years and up
33Social-Emotional Development Social DevelopmentAttachment (strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time)Attachment and Harlow’s work with monkeys--feeding or contact comfort?
34Social-Emotional Development—Three Levels of Attachment Ainsworth’s strange situation procedure identified three types of attachment in children:1. Securely attached: child stays close to mother, shows moderate distress when separated, and is happy when mother returns.
35Social-Emotional Development—Three Levels of Attachment (Continued) 2. Avoidant: child treats mother and stranger the same and rarely cries when mother leaves.3. Anxious/Ambivalent: child is upset as mother leaves. When mother returns, child seeks closeness, but also squirms away.
36Social-Emotional Development—Romantic Love and Infant Attachment Research suggests that early infant to caregiver attachment patterns may carry over into adult romantic relationships.
37Social-Emotional Development—Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles 1. PermissivePermissive indifferent parents set few limits and give little attention or support.Permissive indulgent parents are highly involved but set few demands or controls.
38Social-Emotional Development—Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles 2. Authoritarian parents are rigid and punitive.3. Authoritative parents are tender and caring.Study Tip: To avoid confusion, note:Two “Rs” in AuthoRitaRian = “Rigid Ruler!”Two “Ts” in AuThoriTarian = “Tender Teacher!”
39Parenting StylesAuthoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience. They combine high control with little warmth. The rules are not explained. They expect the child to obey when the authority figure is near.Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive. They combine high control with high warmth. They explain the reasons & encourage discussion. They tend to have competitive children
40Parenting StylesPermissive offer warmth but little control. Parents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment. Children may develop specific competencies, not many.Neglectful parents provide neither warmth nor control. They may meet basic physical needs but minimize the amount of time they spend with their children and avoid becoming emotionally involved with them. They produce the least competent children.
41Parenting StylesChildren with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence generally have warm, concerned, and authoritative parents.However, correlation is not causation.Socially mature and agreeable children may evoke authoritative parenting, or competent parents and their competent children may share genes that predispose social competence.