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Psychology in Action (8e) PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9: Life Span Development I 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology in Action (8e) PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9: Life Span Development I 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology in Action (8e) PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9: Life Span Development I 1

2 Lecture Overview Studying Development Physical Development Cognitive Development Social-Emotional Development 2

3 Developmental Psychology (studies age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death) 3

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5 Studying Development– Key Theoretical Debates Nature vs. Nurture- heredity vs. environment. Continuity vs. Stages- continuous and gradual vs. periods of abrupt change and then periods of little change. Stability vs. Change- characteristics maintained vs. characteristics different. 5

6 Studying Development (Continued) Social What position on these debates is correct? The interactionist perspective, which recently evolved into the biopsychosocial model. Psychological Biological 6

7 Studying Development— Research Methods 7

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9 Studying Development— Cultural Guidelines for Developmental Research Culture may be the most important determinant. Development cannot be studied outside its sociocultural context. Each culture’s ethnotheories are important determinants. Culture is largely invisible to participants. 9

10 10 The Union of Sperm and Egg at Conception A total of 200 million or more sperm deposited during intercourse approach the egg 85,000 times their own size. The few that make it to the egg release digestive enzymes that eat away the egg’s protective coating, allowing a sperm to penetrate. The egg’s surface blocks out all others and within a half day, the egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse.

11 11 Figure 4.1 Life is sexually transmitted Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

12 12 The Union of Sperm and Egg at Conception Teratogen is a substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm the child. Smoking= low weight. Alcohol perhaps the most common and damaging. The symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome including mental retardation, inability to learn from experience, and impulsivity.

13 13 Zygote, Embryo, and Fetus Fewer than half of fertilized eggs, called zygotes, survive. In the first week, cell division produces a zygote of some 100 cells, which are already beginning to differentiate, to specialize in structure and function. About 10 days after conception, the zygote’s outer part attaches to the uterine wall and becomes the placenta through which nourishment passes. The inner cells become the embryo. Heartbeat begins.

14 14 Figure 4.2 Prenatal development Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

15 Physical Development— Three Stages of Prenatal Development 1. Germinal Period (conception to implantation in the uterus) 2. Embryonic Period (uterine implantation through the eighth week) 3. Fetal Period (eighth week until birth) 15

16 Physical Development— Three Stages of Prenatal Development 16

17 Physical Development— Hazards to Prenatal Development Teratogens (environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development by crossing the placenta barrier) Categories of teratogens include: – Legal and illegal drugs – Diseases and malnutrition – Exposure to X-rays and stress exposure 17

18 Physical Development— Hazards to Prenatal Development 18

19 Physical Development— Early Childhood Three key areas of change in early childhood:  Brain  Motor  Sensory/perceptual development 19

20 Physical Development- Prenatal Brain Development 20

21 Physical Development— Brain Development As child grows, neurons grow in size and the number of dendrites and axons increase. 21

22 Physical Development- Lifespan Changes in Body Proportions 22

23 Physical Development—Early Childhood Milestones in motor development 23

24 Physical Development— Sensory and Perceptual Development Senses of smell, taste, touch and hearing are quite developed at birth. Sense of vision is poorly developed at birth. 24

25 Physical Development— Adolescence and Puberty 25

26 Physical Development- Adulthood Middle Age: For women menopause is an important life milestone. For men male climacteric occurs.  Late Adulthood: Primary aging— gradual, inevitable changes versus changes due to disease, disuse, or neglect. 26

27 Cognitive Development Jean Piaget believed infants begin at a cognitively “primitive” level and progress in distinct stages. Piaget’s schemas are the most basic unit of intellect, which act as patterns that organize interactions with the environment. 27

28 Cognitive Development (Continued) Schemas grow and change due to:  Assimilation (absorbing new information into existing schemas)  Accommodation (adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with new information) 28

29 Cognitive Development (Continued) Can you draw this “impossible figure” drawing without tracing it? If so, it’s because you have developed the required artistic schema. 29

30 Cognitive Development— Piaget’s Four Stages Sensorimotor: birth to 2 years Preoperational: 2 to 7 years Concrete Operational: 7 to 11 years Formal Operational: 11 years and up 30

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33 Social-Emotional Development Social Development Attachment (strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time)  Attachment and Harlow’s work with monkeys--feeding or contact comfort? 33

34 Social-Emotional Development— Three Levels of Attachment Ainsworth’s strange situation procedure identified three types of attachment in children: 1.Securely attached: child stays close to mother, shows moderate distress when separated, and is happy when mother returns. 34

35 2. Avoidant: child treats mother and stranger the same and rarely cries when mother leaves. 3.Anxious/Ambivalent: child is upset as mother leaves. When mother returns, child seeks closeness, but also squirms away. Social-Emotional Development— Three Levels of Attachment (Continued) 35

36 Social-Emotional Development— Romantic Love and Infant Attachment Research suggests that early infant to caregiver attachment patterns may carry over into adult romantic relationships. 36

37 Social-Emotional Development— Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles 1. Permissive a. Permissive indifferent parents set few limits and give little attention or support. b. Permissive indulgent parents are highly involved but set few demands or controls. 37

38 Social-Emotional Development— Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles 2. Authoritarian parents are rigid and punitive. 3. Authoritative parents are tender and caring. Study Tip: To avoid confusion, note: Two “Rs” in AuthoRitaRian = “Rigid Ruler!” Two “Ts” in AuThoriTarian = “Tender Teacher!” 38

39 Parenting Styles Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience. They combine high control with little warmth. The rules are not explained. They expect the child to obey when the authority figure is near. Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive. They combine high control with high warmth. They explain the reasons & encourage discussion. They tend to have competitive children 39

40 Parenting Styles Permissive offer warmth but little control. Parents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment. Children may develop specific competencies, not many. Neglectful parents provide neither warmth nor control. They may meet basic physical needs but minimize the amount of time they spend with their children and avoid becoming emotionally involved with them. They produce the least competent children. 40

41 Parenting Styles Children with the highest self-esteem, self- reliance, and social competence generally have warm, concerned, and authoritative parents. However, correlation is not causation. Socially mature and agreeable children may evoke authoritative parenting, or competent parents and their competent children may share genes that predispose social competence. 41

42 42 Figure 4.37 Biopsychosocial influences on successful aging Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers


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