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Psychology in Action (8e)

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology in Action (8e)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology in Action (8e)
PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 9: Life Span Development I

2 Lecture Overview Studying Development Physical Development
Cognitive Development Social-Emotional Development

3 Developmental Psychology (studies age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death)


5 Studying Development– Key Theoretical Debates
Nature vs. Nurture- heredity vs. environment. Continuity vs. Stages- continuous and gradual vs. periods of abrupt change and then periods of little change. Stability vs. Change- characteristics maintained vs. characteristics different.

6 Studying Development (Continued)
Biological What position on these debates is correct? The interactionist perspective, which recently evolved into the biopsychosocial model. Psychological Social

7 Studying Development— Research Methods

8 Studying Development— Research Methods

9 Studying Development— Cultural Guidelines for Developmental Research
Culture may be the most important determinant. Development cannot be studied outside its sociocultural context. Each culture’s ethnotheories are important determinants. Culture is largely invisible to participants.

10 The Union of Sperm and Egg at Conception
A total of 200 million or more sperm deposited during intercourse approach the egg 85,000 times their own size. The few that make it to the egg release digestive enzymes that eat away the egg’s protective coating, allowing a sperm to penetrate. The egg’s surface blocks out all others and within a half day, the egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse.

11 Figure 4.1 Life is sexually transmitted Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

12 The Union of Sperm and Egg at Conception
Teratogen is a substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm the child. Smoking= low weight. Alcohol perhaps the most common and damaging. The symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome including mental retardation, inability to learn from experience, and impulsivity.

13 Zygote, Embryo, and Fetus
Fewer than half of fertilized eggs, called zygotes, survive. In the first week, cell division produces a zygote of some 100 cells, which are already beginning to differentiate, to specialize in structure and function. About 10 days after conception, the zygote’s outer part attaches to the uterine wall and becomes the placenta through which nourishment passes. The inner cells become the embryo. Heartbeat begins.

14 Figure 4.2 Prenatal development Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

15 Physical Development— Three Stages of Prenatal Development
Germinal Period (conception to implantation in the uterus) Embryonic Period (uterine implantation through the eighth week) Fetal Period (eighth week until birth)

16 Physical Development— Three Stages of Prenatal Development

17 Physical Development— Hazards to Prenatal Development
Teratogens (environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development by crossing the placenta barrier) Categories of teratogens include: Legal and illegal drugs Diseases and malnutrition Exposure to X-rays and stress exposure

18 Physical Development— Hazards to Prenatal Development

19 Physical Development— Early Childhood
Three key areas of change in early childhood: Brain Motor Sensory/perceptual development

20 Physical Development-
Prenatal Brain Development

21 Physical Development— Brain Development
As child grows, neurons grow in size and the number of dendrites and axons increase.

22 Physical Development- Lifespan Changes in Body Proportions

23 Physical Development—Early Childhood
Milestones in motor development

24 Physical Development— Sensory and Perceptual Development
Senses of smell, taste, touch and hearing are quite developed at birth. Sense of vision is poorly developed at birth.

25 Physical Development— Adolescence and Puberty

26 Physical Development- Adulthood
Middle Age: For women menopause is an important life milestone. For men male climacteric occurs. Late Adulthood: Primary aging— gradual, inevitable changes versus changes due to disease, disuse, or neglect.

27 Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget believed infants begin at a cognitively “primitive” level and progress in distinct stages. Piaget’s schemas are the most basic unit of intellect, which act as patterns that organize interactions with the environment.

28 Cognitive Development (Continued)
Schemas grow and change due to: Assimilation (absorbing new information into existing schemas) Accommodation (adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with new information)

29 Cognitive Development (Continued)
Can you draw this “impossible figure” drawing without tracing it? If so, it’s because you have developed the required artistic schema.

30 Cognitive Development— Piaget’s Four Stages
Sensorimotor: birth to 2 years Preoperational: 2 to 7 years Concrete Operational: 7 to 11 years Formal Operational: 11 years and up



33 Social-Emotional Development
Social Development Attachment (strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time) Attachment and Harlow’s work with monkeys--feeding or contact comfort?

34 Social-Emotional Development—Three Levels of Attachment
Ainsworth’s strange situation procedure identified three types of attachment in children: 1. Securely attached: child stays close to mother, shows moderate distress when separated, and is happy when mother returns.

35 Social-Emotional Development—Three Levels of Attachment (Continued)
2. Avoidant: child treats mother and stranger the same and rarely cries when mother leaves. 3. Anxious/Ambivalent: child is upset as mother leaves. When mother returns, child seeks closeness, but also squirms away.

36 Social-Emotional Development—Romantic Love and Infant Attachment
Research suggests that early infant to caregiver attachment patterns may carry over into adult romantic relationships.

37 Social-Emotional Development—Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles
1. Permissive Permissive indifferent parents set few limits and give little attention or support. Permissive indulgent parents are highly involved but set few demands or controls.

38 Social-Emotional Development—Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles
2. Authoritarian parents are rigid and punitive. 3. Authoritative parents are tender and caring. Study Tip: To avoid confusion, note: Two “Rs” in AuthoRitaRian = “Rigid Ruler!” Two “Ts” in AuThoriTarian = “Tender Teacher!”

39 Parenting Styles Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience. They combine high control with little warmth. The rules are not explained. They expect the child to obey when the authority figure is near. Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive. They combine high control with high warmth. They explain the reasons & encourage discussion. They tend to have competitive children

40 Parenting Styles Permissive offer warmth but little control. Parents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment. Children may develop specific competencies, not many. Neglectful parents provide neither warmth nor control. They may meet basic physical needs but minimize the amount of time they spend with their children and avoid becoming emotionally involved with them. They produce the least competent children.

41 Parenting Styles Children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence generally have warm, concerned, and authoritative parents. However, correlation is not causation. Socially mature and agreeable children may evoke authoritative parenting, or competent parents and their competent children may share genes that predispose social competence.

42 Figure Biopsychosocial influences on successful aging Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

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