2 PRE/POST-TEST Why does the moon have phases? How many phases are there?How long does it take the moon to go through all the phases?Name the phases in order and draw an example of each phase?Diagram the phases of the moon in relation to the Sun and Earth.
3 Why does the MOON have Phases? As the moon circles the Earth, the shape of the moon appears to change; this is because different amounts of the illuminated (or lit up) part of the moon are facing us.This should be demonstrated to the students.
4 How many Phases of the Moon are there to see? There are 8 phases of the moon that you can see each month.It takes our Moon about 29.5 days to completely cycle through all eight phases.
6 What you will need:A styrofoam ballA bright flashlightA pencilA dark room
7 The idea:Your head will represent the Earth (the top of your head will be the North Pole, under your chin will be the South Pole, your nose will be on the Equator), the light will be the Sun, and the small ball will be the Moon. You are going to follow the Moon through one complete "orbit" to see how the patterns of light and dark change on the Moon.
8 What to do:Have your partner hold the flashlight in a darkened room so the bulb is about the height of your eyesStand about 5 feet away from the light. Face the light.Stick the styrofoam ball on the end of the pencil (so it looks like a lollipop --- start with it in your left hand, make sure your fingers don't block the ball or the light).Use this activity to demonstrate the phases of the moon while you are reviewing slides with your class. Slides 8-13 are for your background information and should not be read to your students.
9 Hold the pencil with the ball on the end of it out at arm's length in front of you. Start with the Moon (ball) between you and the Sun (flashlight), this represents New Moon, the whole Moon looks dark (and you probably will have trouble seeing it because of the light).Then "orbit" the Moon (ball) to your left by turning your body while staying in the same spot. As you turn watch how the pattern of light and dark on the ball changes.When you are turned so your right shoulder is closest to the light, half of the Moon will be lit up, this represents First Quarter.
10 When you are turned so your back is to the light (you may need to lift the ball up higher to get it out of the shadow of your head), you will be at Full Moon and the whole side of the ball you can see will be lit up.Once you are at Full Moon, you may need to switch the ball to your other hand before continuing (so your hand doesn't block the light).
11 Keep turning to your left, once you reach the point where your left shoulder is closest to the light, you will be at Third Quarter and again only half of the Moon will be lit up (but this time the opposite half of what you saw at First Quarter will be lit).Continuing to turn to the left, you will eventually return back to New Moon and can start the phases all over again.It takes the moon about a month to go through one complete cycle of the phases.
12 Repeat the process of viewing the moon phases Repeat the process of viewing the moon phases. This time, make eight turn (verses the 4 turns your first time). Your first eighth of a turn you will notice the moon in the waning crescent phase. Rotate another one-eighth of a turn. You should now be one-quarter of the way around the complete turn. You should see the first quarter moon. Now rotate another one-eighth. You should see the waxing gibbous. Turn another one-eight of a turn. You should see the full moon phase.
13 Continue turning another one-eighth of a turn Continue turning another one-eighth of a turn. You should see the waning gibbous. Turn another one-eighth of a turn – you will see the third-quarter moon. Rotate another one-eighth of a turn. You should see a waning crescent. Complete the entire cycle of the moon phase by turning your final 1/8 of a turn. You should now see the new moon once again. You are now finish. Can you do the moon phases one last time? This time calling out each phase to your group.
14 Can you see anything here? PHASE ONE: NEW MOONCan you see anything here?Well believe it or not the moon’s here it’s just that the side of the moon facing the Earth is not lit up by the sun so you can’t see it!Focus On:The visual pattern of the moon phasesFull moonNew moonEnriching Vocabulary:WaxingWaning
15 Phase Two: Waxing Crescent A small part (less than 1/2) of the moon is lit up at this point. The part that is lit up is slowly getting bigger
16 Phase Three: First Quarter One half of the moon is lit up by the sun at this point. The part that is lit up is slowly getting bigger.
17 Phase Four: Waxing Gibbous At this time over half of the moon is lit up The part that is lit is slowly getting bigger. Waxing means to slowly get bigger.
18 Phase Five: FULL MOONThe side of the moon that is lit up by the sun is facing the Earth. The entire moon is lit up at this point.
19 Phase Six: Waning Gibbous The moon is not quite lit up all the way by sunlight. The part of the moon that is lit is slowly getting smaller. Waning means to slowly get smaller.
20 Phase Seven: Third Quarter Moon Half of the moon is lit up by the sun.The part that we can see lit up is slowly getting smaller.
21 Phase Eight: Waning Crescent A small part of the moon is lit up at this point.
24 COOL MOON FACT: Hence the old saying, “Once in a Blue Moon” When two full moons occur in a single month, the second full moon is called a“ BLUE MOON”.Hence the old saying,“Once in a Blue Moon”
25 Now Let’s Play the MOON PHASE CARD GAME! Here’s how you play:Divide into groups of 4 players. Distribute 16 index cards for each player. Color and label the eight phases of the Moon on their index cards, making two complete sets of Moon Phases. Then combine one set of Moon Phases from each member of the group; shuffle these and place them in the “Moon Pond” in the middle. Then have the students collect the second set to shuffle and deal to the players, with each player receiving eight cards.The object of the game is to collect as many pairs of phases as possible until all cards are gone, or the allotted time has expired.As in the card game “Go Fish,” each player in turn asks the student to their left for the cards they need to make pairs. If their neighbor does not have the requested card, they must “go fish” in the Moon Pond. As pairs are matched, they are placed in a pile to the side of the player. The Students should ask for Moon phases by name (“Do you have a waning gibbous?”)When a child collects all 8 sets, they call out “Month of Moons!” and place them in the correct sequential order to win!This could be your follow-up assessment. Don’t read this information to your students; these are your direction slides.