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Lecture Overview Studying Development Physical Development Cognitive Development Social-Emotional Development ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Studying Development Developmental Psychology: studies age- related changes in behavior & mental processes from conception to death ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Studying Development– Key Theoretical Debates Nature vs. Nurture: heredity vs. environment Continuity vs. Stages: continuous & gradual vs. periods of abrupt change followed by periods of little change Stability vs. Change: characteristics maintained vs. characteristics vary over time ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Studying Development (Continued) What position on these three debates is most correct? Most psychologists support the interactionist perspective, which recently evolved into the biopsychosocial model. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 SocialPsychological Biological
Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking Behaviorist John Watson said: “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, & my own specified world to bring them up in, & I'll guarantee to take anyone at random & train them to become any type of specialist I might select-- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, &, yes, even beggar man & thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, & race of his ancestors." (Boakes, 1984, pp. 226) Do you agree? Why or why not? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Cultural Guidelines for Developmental Research Culture is a very important determinant. Development cannot be studied outside its socio-cultural context. Each culture’s ethno-theories are important determinants. Culture is largely invisible to participants. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Physical Development— The Moment of Conception ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Physical Development— Three Stages of Prenatal Development 1.Germinal Period: conception to uterine implantation 2.Embryonic Period: uterine implantation through the eighth week 3.Fetal Period: eighth week until birth ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Physical Development— Three Stages of Prenatal Development ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Physical Development— Hazards to Prenatal Development Teratogens: environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development Categories of teratogens: – Legal & illegal drugs – Diseases & malnutrition – Exposure to X-rays & stress ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Physical Development— Hazards to Prenatal Development ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Physical Development— Early Childhood Three key areas of early childhood development: – Brain – Motor – Sensory/perceptual ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Physical Development— Prenatal Brain Development ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Physical Development— Brain Development As a child develops, his or her neurons grow in size & the number of dendrites & axons increase. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Lifespan Changes in Body Proportions ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Physical Development—Early Childhood Milestones in motor development ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Physical Development— Sensory & Perceptual Development Smell, taste, touch, & hearing are well developed at birth. Vision is poorly developed at birth. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Cognitive Development Jean Piaget believed infants begin at a cognitively “primitive” level & progress in distinct stages. Piaget’s schemas are the most basic unit of intellect, which act as patterns that organize interactions with the environment. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Cognitive Development (Continued) Schemas grow & change due to: – Assimilation: absorbing new information into existing schemas – Accommodation: adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with new information ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Cognitive Development— Sensorimotor: birth-2 years Preoperational: 2-7 years Concrete Operational: 7-11 years Formal Operational: 11 years & up ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Assessing Piaget’s Theory— Two Major Criticisms 1.Underestimated abilities (e.g., newborns can imitate facial expressions) 2.Underestimated genetic & cultural influences ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Social-Emotional Development Social Development Attachment: strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time – Harlow’s work with monkeys--feeding or contact comfort? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Social-Emotional Development— Three Levels of Attachment Ainsworth’s strange situation procedure identified three types of attachment in children: 1.Securely Attached Child stays close to mother, shows moderate distress when separated, & is happy when mother returns. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Three Levels of Attachment (Continued) 2. Avoidant: Child treats mother & stranger the same & rarely cries when mother leaves. 3.Anxious/Ambivalent: Child is upset when mother leaves. When mother returns, child seeks closeness, but also squirms away. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work Research suggests the attachment patterns we develop as infants may carry over into similar patterns in our adult romantic relationships. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Social-Emotional Development— Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles 1.Permissive (Permissive- Neglectful & Permissive- Indulgent) 2.Authoritarian 3.Authoritative Identified by degree of control/demandingness (C) & warmth/ responsiveness (W) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Social-Emotional Development— Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles 1. Permissive a.Permissive-Neglectful Few limits or control (Lo C), little warmth or responsiveness (Lo W) b.Permissive-Indulgent Few limits or control (Lo C), high warmth & responsiveness (Hi W) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Baumrind’s Three Parenting Styles (Continued) 2. Authoritarian Highly controlling (Hi C), little warmth or responsiveness (Lo W) 3. Authoritative Set & enforce firm limits (Hi C), high warmth or responsiveness (Hi W) Study Tip: Two “Rs” in AuthoRitaRian = “Rigid Ruler!” Two “Ts” in AuThoriTative = “Tender Teacher!” ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
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