Presentation on theme: "Sexuality Today: The Human Perspective Eighth Edition Part 1: Social and Biological Foundations of Human Sexuality Chapter 1 Historical, Research, and."— Presentation transcript:
Sexuality Today: The Human Perspective Eighth Edition Part 1: Social and Biological Foundations of Human Sexuality Chapter 1 Historical, Research, and Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality Copyright (c) 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Influences of Culture On Sexuality Psychosocial orientation –psychological factors –social conditioning factors –biological factors - sociobiology Eurocentric view influenced North America Sexuality in other cultures reveals diversity Homogenous vs. heterogeneous cultures Cross-cultural evidence of same-gender behavior
The Sexual Revolution in Western Cultures What contributes to change? –The counterculture movement and new approaches –Scientific research leading to greater acceptance –Technological developments in birth control & treatment of STDs –Media and Internet attention to sexuality –HIV and AIDS – “safer sex” Copyright (c) 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Three Categories: Assumptions About the Purpose of Sex North American sexual attitudes –Traditional or procreational Reproduction Sex for procreation – emphasis penile-vaginal intercourse –Relational natural part of intimate relationships –Recreational pleasure Sexual attitudes are strongly influenced by social groups to which people belong Copyright (c) 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ancient Hebrews: highly specialized gender roles but sex seen as profound experience Christianity spirituality equated with celibacy Sex as sinful
Middle Ages: contradictory images of women Virgin Mary (the Madonna): compassionate, pure and unattainable vs. Eve: temptress Sex Positive Shift Protestant Reformation Enlightenment; scientific rationalism temporary increase in respect for women
Victorian era women restrained & constrained women "… not troubled with sexual feelings of any kind" emotional & physical distance between husband & wife prostitution flourished
20th century Suffrage movement; women's right to vote; temperance movement; abolition of slavery right to own property & attend university World War II: roles were expanded & more flexible postwar return to stricter roles 1960s movement for gender equality 1980s and AIDS
Areas of Shifting Attitudes Areas of ShiftEarlier ViewsCurrent Views MasturbationDebilitatingNormal “Hooking Up”Not acceptedMore accepted, but with reservations Same-Gender Sexual Orientation, Alternative Lifestyles Illegal & SinfulMore acceptance & less discrimination. Varied views. Sexuality (Health, Rights, & Pleasure) Hidden & ShamefulHealthy sexuality is a “human right” Sex & Romance1960’s – 1980’s, “do- it-if-it-feels-good” Recognition of complicated consequences. Greater role of love & romance Sexuality EducationRole of parents, not school Most schools require. Varied views.
Shaping Our Attitudes Culture Society Politics Family History Biology Ethnocentric? Copyright (c) 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Media and Sexuality Fig1.2 The Evolution of Broken Taboos on TV.
Milestones in Research History Richard von Krafft-Ebing ● Masturbation is deviant Sigmund Freud ● Neuroses have sexual basis Henry Havelock Ellis ● Cross cultural studies Alfred Kinsey ● Legitimized sex research Masters & Johnson ● Sexual functioning Current Surveys ● Hunt Report ● Redbook Survey ● Hite Reports National Health and Social Life Survey ● Best available data
Methods & Ethics of Sexological Research Methods Surveys Case Studies Clinical Data Observation Ethnosexual Field Studies Experiments Ethics Unbiased examination of the data Protect subjects from physical & psychological harm Protect confidentiality Informed consent Copyright (c) 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.