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Chapter Two Neuroscience, Genetics, and Behavior.

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1 Chapter Two Neuroscience, Genetics, and Behavior

2 I. Neural Transmission Neurons Neurons 1. Definition: basic cell making up nervous system 1. Definition: basic cell making up nervous system 2. Parts: 2. Parts: a. Dendrites- bushy fibers that receive information a. Dendrites- bushy fibers that receive information b. Axon- fibers that pass message along to other b. Axon- fibers that pass message along to other neurons, muscles or glands. neurons, muscles or glands. c. Myelin Sheath- fatty tissue insulates axon to speed c. Myelin Sheath- fatty tissue insulates axon to speed info. info. d. Axon terminals- form junctions with other cells d. Axon terminals- form junctions with other cells

3 Figure 2.2 A motor neuron Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

4 3. Speed: 2 mph- 200 or more mph 3. Speed: 2 mph- 200 or more mph 4. Action Potential: Brief electrical charge that 4. Action Potential: Brief electrical charge that travels down the axon (the actual firing of a neuron) travels down the axon (the actual firing of a neuron)

5 Figure 2.3 Action potential Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

6 Resting potential- when a neuron is not firing and has a positive outside/negative inside state(charged and ready to fire) Resting potential- when a neuron is not firing and has a positive outside/negative inside state(charged and ready to fire) Refractory period-when a neuron recharges (can’t fire during this time) Refractory period-when a neuron recharges (can’t fire during this time) 5. Excitatory: like pushing the accelerator 5. Excitatory: like pushing the accelerator 6. Inhibitory: like pushing the brakes 6. Inhibitory: like pushing the brakes 7. All or nothing response: either fires or 7. All or nothing response: either fires or doesn’t doesn’t

7 B. How Neurons Communicate B. How Neurons Communicate 1. Synapse: A gap between an axon terminal and the next dendrite. (less than a millionth of an inch wide) 1. Synapse: A gap between an axon terminal and the next dendrite. (less than a millionth of an inch wide) 2. Neurotransmitters: Chemical messengers sent within 1/10,000th of a second. 2. Neurotransmitters: Chemical messengers sent within 1/10,000th of a second.

8 C. How Neurotransmitters Influence us C. How Neurotransmitters Influence us 1. Acetylcholine (Ach): Enables muscle action, learning, and memory 1. Acetylcholine (Ach): Enables muscle action, learning, and memory 2. Endorphins: natural painkillers in our bodies. 2. Endorphins: natural painkillers in our bodies. -Released in response to pain & vigorous exercise -Released in response to pain & vigorous exercise

9 I wanna grove but I can’t move I wanna grove but I can’t move Cause that Ach is gone Cause that Ach is gone My memory is lost and I’m paying the cost My memory is lost and I’m paying the cost I’m surprised I can write this song I’m surprised I can write this song I wanna learn, it’s just not my turn I wanna learn, it’s just not my turn With my Ach being gone With my Ach being gone But I’ll find that neurotransmitter But I’ll find that neurotransmitter ‘Cause its making me bitter ‘Cause its making me bitter With that Ach being gone. With that Ach being gone.

10 Table 2.1 Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

11 3. Effects of Drugs: 3. Effects of Drugs: - Agonists excite: may mimic neurotransmitter effects - Agonists excite: may mimic neurotransmitter effects Antagonists inhibit: inhibits a Antagonists inhibit: inhibits a neurotransmitter’s release neurotransmitter’s release

12 - Antagonists inhibit: inhibits a - Antagonists inhibit: inhibits a neurotransmitter’s release neurotransmitter’s release a. Botulin: paralysis by blocking ACh a. Botulin: paralysis by blocking ACh

13 Figure 2.7 The functional divisions of the human nervous system Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

14 4. Nerves: “cables” containing many axons. 4. Nerves: “cables” containing many axons. 5. Sensory Neurons: send info from the body’s tissues & sensory organs inward to the CNS. 5. Sensory Neurons: send info from the body’s tissues & sensory organs inward to the CNS. 6. Motor neurons: sends outgoing info from CNS to muscles and glands 6. Motor neurons: sends outgoing info from CNS to muscles and glands 7. Interneurons: CNS’s internal communication between sensory inputs and motor outputs. 7. Interneurons: CNS’s internal communication between sensory inputs and motor outputs.

15 B. Lower Level Brain Structures 1. Brain Stem 1. Brain Stem a. Definition: oldest & innermost region, begins where the spinal cord enters the skull. a. Definition: oldest & innermost region, begins where the spinal cord enters the skull. b. Medulla: where the brainstem swells, controls heartbeat & breathing b. Medulla: where the brainstem swells, controls heartbeat & breathing c. Reticular formation: fingerlike projections extending from brainstem into brain-keeps us alert c. Reticular formation: fingerlike projections extending from brainstem into brain-keeps us alert

16 2. Thalamus 2. Thalamus a. Definition and f(x): ”sensory switchboard”, receives info from all the senses (except smell) and routes it where it can be processed. a. Definition and f(x): ”sensory switchboard”, receives info from all the senses (except smell) and routes it where it can be processed.

17 3. Cerebellum 3. Cerebellum a. Definition and f(x): “little brain”, coordinates voluntary movement, walking, & balance. a. Definition and f(x): “little brain”, coordinates voluntary movement, walking, & balance.

18 4. Limbic System 4. Limbic System a. Definition and f(x): controls emotion a. Definition and f(x): controls emotion 5. Amygdala 5. Amygdala a. Definition and f(x): a part of the limbic system, influences aggression and fear a. Definition and f(x): a part of the limbic system, influences aggression and fear

19 6. Hypothalamus 6. Hypothalamus a. Definition and f(x): regulates hunger, thirst, and sex drive a. Definition and f(x): regulates hunger, thirst, and sex drive

20 C. Cerebral Cortex: covers cerebral hemispheres 1. Structure 1. Structure a. Frontal lobe: Problem solving, attention, judgment, reflection, coordination of movement, morality a. Frontal lobe: Problem solving, attention, judgment, reflection, coordination of movement, morality b. Parietal: Sense of touch. b. Parietal: Sense of touch. c. Occipital: Vision c. Occipital: Vision d. Temporal: hearing d. Temporal: hearing

21 2. Functions 2. Functions a. motor strip: controls movement of toes, ankle, knees, hip, trunk, arms, wrist, fingers, thumb, neck, brow, eye, face, lips, jaw, tongue, swallowing. a. motor strip: controls movement of toes, ankle, knees, hip, trunk, arms, wrist, fingers, thumb, neck, brow, eye, face, lips, jaw, tongue, swallowing. b. Sensory strip: controls the sensation of touch of the things listed above as well as teeth, gums, & genitals. b. Sensory strip: controls the sensation of touch of the things listed above as well as teeth, gums, & genitals.

22 c. Association functions: enable us to judge, plan, and process new memories. c. Association functions: enable us to judge, plan, and process new memories. d. Language: involves several coordinated areas of the brain d. Language: involves several coordinated areas of the brain - Broca’s area: involved in forming words (left frontal lobe) - Broca’s area: involved in forming words (left frontal lobe) - Wernicke’s area: helps understand words - Wernicke’s area: helps understand words (left temporal lobe) (left temporal lobe)

23 D. Hemispheres 1. Parts 1. Parts a. Corpus Callosum: fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres together. a. Corpus Callosum: fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres together. 2. Functions of each hemisphere: 2. Functions of each hemisphere: left= more logical, verbal left= more logical, verbal right= more abstract & creative thinks in pictures right= more abstract & creative thinks in pictures spinning dancer spinning dancer spinning dancer spinning dancer 3. Split Brain Experiments: HE-ART experiment, Spoon experiment 3. Split Brain Experiments: HE-ART experiment, Spoon experiment

24 The Endocrine System Endocrine System: consists of glands that secrete hormones. Endocrine System: consists of glands that secrete hormones.

25 Pituitary Gland: Pea sized “master gland” Growth: regulates the growth of muscles, bones, and other glands. Growth: regulates the growth of muscles, bones, and other glands. Prolactin: stimulates milk production in women Prolactin: stimulates milk production in women Oxytocin: stimulates labor in women Oxytocin: stimulates labor in women

26 Thyroid Gland Produces thyroxin: affects the body’s metabolism Produces thyroxin: affects the body’s metabolism

27 Adrenal Glands: located above the kidneys Cortical steroids: increase resistance to stress & promote muscle development Cortical steroids: increase resistance to stress & promote muscle development Causes liver to release stored sugar, making energy available for emergencies Causes liver to release stored sugar, making energy available for emergencies Adrenaline & noradrenalin: helps to cope with stressful situations Adrenaline & noradrenalin: helps to cope with stressful situations

28 Testes & Ovaries: produces testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone Testosterone: Male sex hormone, but found in females in small amounts Testosterone: Male sex hormone, but found in females in small amounts A. After 1 st 8 weeks of development: influences the sex of a child A. After 1 st 8 weeks of development: influences the sex of a child B. Adolescence: aids in muscle & bone growth, primary & secondary sex characteristics. (Reproduction/body hair) B. Adolescence: aids in muscle & bone growth, primary & secondary sex characteristics. (Reproduction/body hair)

29 Estrogen & Progesterone: female sex hormone, but found in males in small amounts A. Estrogen: primary and secondary sex characteristic (body hair & breast development) A. Estrogen: primary and secondary sex characteristic (body hair & breast development) B. Progesterone: stimulates growth of female reproductive organs & helps prepare the body for pregnancy B. Progesterone: stimulates growth of female reproductive organs & helps prepare the body for pregnancy C. Estrogen & Progesterone: regulate menstrual cycle C. Estrogen & Progesterone: regulate menstrual cycle

30 Higher levels of estrogen seem to be connected with optimal cognitive functioning & feeling of well-being among women. Higher levels of estrogen seem to be connected with optimal cognitive functioning & feeling of well-being among women.

31 Functional Organization of the Nervous System A. Basic Info A. Basic Info 1. Nervous system: 1. Nervous system: 2. Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord. 2. Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord. 3. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): all other nerves 3. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): all other nerves

32 Two Divisions: Two Divisions: 1) Somatic: voluntary. (activated by touch, pain, temp changes, etc) 1) Somatic: voluntary. (activated by touch, pain, temp changes, etc) 2) Autonomic: Regulates the bodies vital functions (heartbeat, breathing, digestion, & blood pressure) 2) Autonomic: Regulates the bodies vital functions (heartbeat, breathing, digestion, & blood pressure)

33 Autonomic divides into two 1) Sympathetic: Activated during action (“fight or flight”) 1) Sympathetic: Activated during action (“fight or flight”) 2) Parasympathetic: restores the body’s reserves of energy after an action has occurred. (heart rate & blood pressure normalized, breathing is slowed, digestion returns to normal) 2) Parasympathetic: restores the body’s reserves of energy after an action has occurred. (heart rate & blood pressure normalized, breathing is slowed, digestion returns to normal)

34 Genetics A. Terms A. Terms 1. Chromosomes: normal humans have 46, 23 given from each parent 1. Chromosomes: normal humans have 46, 23 given from each parent 2. DNA: Chromosomes make up DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) 2. DNA: Chromosomes make up DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) 3. Genes: makes up your DNA, “instructions” 3. Genes: makes up your DNA, “instructions”

35 B. Evolutionary Psychology B. Evolutionary Psychology 1. Basic Ideas: we are inheritors of prehistoric genetics 1. Basic Ideas: we are inheritors of prehistoric genetics C. Individual Differences and Heredity C. Individual Differences and Heredity 1. Twin Studies: Nature vs. Nurture 1. Twin Studies: Nature vs. Nurture 2. Heredity: What you inherit from your biological family 2. Heredity: What you inherit from your biological family

36 Neuroanatomy A. Physiological Techniques A. Physiological Techniques 1. Clinical Observations: observing how injuries/disease affect the brain and its functions. 1. Clinical Observations: observing how injuries/disease affect the brain and its functions. 2. Manipulating the Brain: Electrically, chemically, or magnetically stimulate various parts of the brain and note the effects. 2. Manipulating the Brain: Electrically, chemically, or magnetically stimulate various parts of the brain and note the effects. a. Lesion: destroying specific parts of the brain to study its effects. a. Lesion: destroying specific parts of the brain to study its effects.

37 3. Recording the Brain’s Electrical Activity 3. Recording the Brain’s Electrical Activity a. electroencephalogram (EEG): shows a person’s brain waves during certain stimuli. a. electroencephalogram (EEG): shows a person’s brain waves during certain stimuli.

38 4. Brain Imaging Techniques 4. Brain Imaging Techniques a. Computed tomography (CT): takes X-ray photos to show brain damage. a. Computed tomography (CT): takes X-ray photos to show brain damage. b. Positron emission tomography (PET): shows which part of the brain is active by showing the consumption of sugar glucose. b. Positron emission tomography (PET): shows which part of the brain is active by showing the consumption of sugar glucose. c. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): gives a detailed picture of the brain’s soft tissue. c. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): gives a detailed picture of the brain’s soft tissue.

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