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Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved CHAPTER 6:

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Presentation on theme: "Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved CHAPTER 6:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved CHAPTER 6: BEHAVIORISM AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

2 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved He learned to feel excited. PowerPoint 6.1 An Introduction to Classical Conditioning What did Rod learn?

3 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.2 Classical Conditioning Examples and Explantations (slide 1 of 2) Tim failed his algebra quiz, and he was devastated and anxious. He was then anxious again during his next quiz. (Tim learned to be anxious in quizzes.) You’re out on a lake, you fall overboard, nearly drown, and are terrified. The next time you’re near a large body of water you feel a sense of fear similar to the one you experienced in your boating accident. (You learned to fear water.) Failure (UCS)  Anxiety (UCR)   Associated Similar  Quizzes (CS)  Anxiety (CR) Accident (UCS)  Terror (UCR)   Associated Similar  Water (CS)  Fear (CR)

4 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.2 Classical Conditioning Examples and Explanations (slide 2 of 2) Sharon Van Horn greets Damon (and each of her other first graders) in a friendly, courteous manner every day when he comes into her classroom, and her greeting makes him feel good. Later, Damon experiences a comfortable feeling when entering Mrs. Van Horn’s room, even when she isn’t there. (Damon learned to be comfortable in Mrs. Van Horn’s room.) Greeting (UCS)  Feeling (UCR)   Associated Similar  Room (CS)  Comfort (CR)

5 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.3 Learning to Like School: A Classical Conditioning Exercise (slide 1 of 2) What did Jennifer learn? Jennifer’s parents have moved, and since she is a little uneasy about starting school in a new place her dad takes her to school the first few days. She has a great relationship with her dad, and she feels very secure when she is with him. Valdez Elementary, her new school, has a problem for new students. Teachers greet all new students as they arrive, and Mrs. Abbott, Jennifer’s teacher, is at the door to greet Jennifer each morning for the first week when her dad brings her to school. She puts her arm around Jennifer and chats with her dad as the three of them stand near the door. Jennifer is now quite comfortable when her dad leaves her with Mrs. Abbott.

6 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.3 Learning to Like School: A Classical Conditioning Exercise (slide 2 of 2) Use as the basis for your answer the four concepts from classical conditioning—unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response—to illustrate how this learning occurred. Classical Conditioning concepts that explain how Jennifer learned her emotional response: UCS – Jennifer’s dadUCR – Security (with her dad) CS – Mrs. AbbottCR - Comfortable What did Jennifer learn? To be comfortable with Mrs. Abbott

7 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.4 Learning to Like Classrooms: A Classical Conditioning Exercise (slide1 of 2) What did Natasha learn? Natasha is moving into the 6 th grade in a middle school, and is a bit nervous about it, so Natasha’s mother drives her to school the first few days. Natasha’s mother drops her off and Natasha waves back to her mother as she walks toward the school. Mrs. Rodriguez, her homeroom teacher, greets her at the entrance to her classroom. She smiles, touches Natasha’s shoulder, and says, “Welcome to school,” reassuringly. Seeing the way Mrs. Rodriguez behaves, Natasha feels much better. Each day, Mrs. Rodriguez greets Natasha with the same smile and reassuring manner. Now Natasha is very relaxed when she enters the classroom.

8 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.4 Learning to Like Classrooms: A Classical Conditioning Exercise (slide 2 of 2) UCS –Mrs. Rodriguez greeting UCR – Feeling better CS –The classroomCR -Relaxed What did Natasha learn? To feel relaxed entering the classroom What are the Classical Conditioning concepts that explain how Natasha learned her emotional response?

9 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Classical ConditioningOperant Conditioning BehaviorInvoluntary (Learner cannot control the behavior.) Emotional Physiological Voluntary (Learner can control the behavior.) Overt actions OrderBehavior follows stimulusBehavior precedes stimulus (consequence) How learning occurs Neutral stimuli become associated With unconditioned stimuli. Consequences of behaviors influence the probability of future, similar behaviors. ExampleChildren associate their classrooms with the positive behaviors of their teachers, so the classrooms Cause positive emotions. Learners attempt to answer questions and are praised, so their attempts to answer increase. Key researcher PavlovSkinner PowerPoint 6.5 A Comparison of Classical and Operant Conditioning

10 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.6 Consequences of Behavior Consequences of Behavior Positive Reinforcement: The process of increasing behavior by presenting a reinforcer (a consequence that increases behavior, such as praise for a good answer) Negative Reinforcement: The process of increasing behavior by removing or avoiding an aversive consequence (such as taking Advil to remove a headache. We are negatively reinforced for taking the Advil.) Presentation Punishment: The process of decreasing behavior by presenting a punisher (such as fingers to the lips signaling “Shh.”) Removal Punishment: The process of decreasing behavior by removing a stimulus (such as detention—taking away students’ free time for misbehavior.)

11 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.7 Operant Conditioning in the Classroom: Examining Student Behavior Explain the students’ behavior (complaining) in the vignette using concepts from operant conditioning: After completing an assignment of 30 math problems, one of Ann Johnson’s students complains, “Man, Mrs. Johnson you sure do pile on the homework.” “Yeah,” another adds. “For sure”, a third puts in. Several other members of class chime in, adding to the comments of the first three. The next day Ann assigns only 20 problems, and as soon as she is finished giving the assignment, the students respond, “Sheesh, Mrs. Johnson, giving homework must be your favorite thing to do.” As Ann begins to give her homework reduced assignment of 15 on the third day, the students protest, “I hope this isn’t going to be another killer homework assignment!”

12 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.8 Operant Conditioning in the Classroom: Feedback Feedback: We can explain the students’ behavior by saying that they are being negatively reinforced for complaining. Their complaining is increasing—they complain sooner each time. The assignment is the aversive stimulus, some of which is removed in two separate cases.

13 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.9 Shaping Learner Behavior Feedback: In each instance the teacher is attempting to shape behaviors of the students using reinforcers.

14 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.10 Schedules of Reinforcement

15 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved ScheduleExample ContinuousAn algebra teacher guides students through steps for solving equations and praises students for every correct answer. A person sticks a key in a reliable lock, and the door opens every time. Fixed-ratioThe algebra teacher says, “As soon as you’ve correctly done two problems in a row, you may start on your homework, so you’ll be finished by the end of the period.” Variable-ratioA student raises her hand to answer questions, and sometimes she’s called on, and sometimes she isn’t. A person sticks a key in an unreliable lock, and sometimes the door opens quickly, and at other times it opens only after a number of attempts. Fixed interval Students are given a quiz every Friday, and they receive their score every Monday. Variable- interval Students are given unannounced quizzes, and sometimes the quizzes are returned the next day, and at other times they are returned a day or two ater. PowerPoint 6.11 Reinforcement Schedules and Examples

16 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.12 Reinforcement Schedules in the Classroom Exercises 1.Mrs. McLemore has one of her students in a reading group begin reading, and she then gets up and circulates among the students doing seatwork, making comments and offering suggestions. She then returns to the reading group. What schedule is she using with the students doing seatwork? 2.When Mrs. Hernandez’s students write a good response to essay items, she will often write comments such as, “Very well done,” on their papers near the response. 3.Mr. Lombardo assigns problems every night, and he collects them on Monday’s and Thursdays. Mrs. Chang also collects homework twice a week, sometimes on Mondays and Thursdays, but also other days as well. What is Mr. Lombardo’s schedule, Mrs. Chang’s schedule, and the schedule for the quiz? 4. Mr. Lombardo often gives his students time to do their homework in class. Any students who finish before the end of the period are allowed to go to the back of the room and talk quietly to each other until the end of the period.

17 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Feedback for Reinforcement Schedule Exercise 1.For the students doing seatwork, a variable-interval schedule is being used. It is based on time and is unpredictable. 2.This is a variable-ratio schedule. It is based on a student’s response (behavior) and is unpredictable. 3.Mr. Lombardo’s homework system is a fixed-interval schedule, whereas Mrs. Chang’s is a variable interval schedule. Their quizzes are both fixed interval. 4.Mr. Lombardo’s policy with finishing homework illustrates a fixed-ratio schedule. The students can predict when they will be rewarded with free time, and it is based on their behaviors—not on time. PowerPoint 6.13 Reinforcement Schedule in the Classrooms Exercises: Feedback

18 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Comparison of the concepts: Satiation and Extinction Concept Satiation Reinforcer is overused to the point it loses it’s potency Extinction Behaviors decreases because it isn’t being reinforced Example Teacher gives so many stickers that they no longer affect student behavior Student stops raising her hand because the teacher doesn’t call on her PowerPoint 6.14 Satiation and Extinction

19 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.15 Operant Conditioning in the Classroom: Examining Teacher Behavior Explain the teachers’ behavior (the number of problems she assigns). (We examined this vignette earlier using the students’ behavior.) After completing an assignment of 30 math problems, one of Ann Johnson’s students complains, “Man, Mrs. Johnson you sure do pile on the homework.” “Yeah,” another adds. “For sure,” a third puts in. Several other members of class chime in, adding to the comments of the first three. The next day Ann assigns only 20 problems, and as soon as she is finished giving the assignment, the students respond, “Sheesh, Mrs. Johnson, giving homework must be your favorite thing to do.” As Ann begins to give her homework reduced assignment of 15 problems on the third day, the students protest, “I hope this isn’t going to be another killer homework assignment!”

20 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint Operant Conditioning in the Classroom: Examining Teacher Behavior: Feedback Feedback: We can explain Ann’s behavior by saying that she is being punished, and the students’ complaints are the punishers. Ann’s behavior—the number of problems she assigns—is decreasing. She first assigns 30 problems, then 20, and finally 15. It is an example of presentation punishment. The students are presenting her with their complaints. (Remember the students’ action of complaining each day was an increase in behavior resulting from the teacher removing problems, so they were negatively reinforced.)

21 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Effective Punishers: Desists Timeout Detention Response Cost Ineffective Punishers: Physical Punishment Embarrassment and humiliation Classwork PowerPoint 6.17 Effective and Ineffective Punishers

22 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.18 Applied Behavior Analysis Applied Behavior Analysis 1.Identify target behaviors. 2.Establish a baseline for the target behaviors. 3.Choose reinforcers and punishers (if necessary). 4.Measure changes in the target behaviors. 5.Gradually reduce the frequency of reinforcers as behavior improves.

23 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.19 Learning on the Interstate You are driving 75 mph on the interstate one evening, and you are suddenly passed by a sports car traveling at least 85 mph. A couple of minutes later you see the sports car pulled over by the highway patrol, and you immediately slow down. Feedback: Behaviorism cannot explain slowing down because nothing directly happened to us. Our behavior changed as a result of seeing what happened to someone else. This leads to social cognitive theory, which focuses on changes in behavior that occur as a result of observing others. You slow down because you expect to be pulled over too. By observing a consequence for another driver-you are vicariously punished. How would behaviorism explain you slowing down?

24 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.20 Differences Between Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theory Behaviorism Learning is defined as a change in observable behavior Role of expectations: Reinforcers and punishers are direct causes of behavior One way relationship between the environment and behavior Social Cognitive Theory Learning is defined as a change in mental processes creating the capacity to demonstrate different behaviors Role of expectations: Reinforcers and punishers create expectations that then influence behaviors Reciprocal causation, an interdependent relationship, among behavior, the environment, and personal factors

25 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved TypeDescriptionExample Direct Modeling The tendency of someone to Imitate the behaviors of a live model. A math student attempts to imitate a solution presented by a teacher. A person at a concert begins to applaud because someone else in the audience began to applaud. Symbolic Modeling The tendency of someone to imitate behaviors displayed by characters in books, plays, movies, or television. Children become more conscientious because of the conscientious behavior of one of the pigs in The Three Little Pigs. Teenagers wear their hair in the same way as a popular television star. Synthesized Modeling The tendency of someone to Imitate different behaviors and combine them into a single act. A child uses a chair to get up on the cupboard to get a cookie when he sees his brother use a chair to get a book from a shelf, And sees his mother get a cookie. PowerPoint 6.21 Different Forms of Modeling

26 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Effects of Modeling: Example Learn new behaviors A student attempts to imitate a solution to a problem that the teacher demonstrates for the first time. A novice tennis player attempts to imitate the serve of an instructor. Facilitate existing behaviors A person stands as part of a standing ovation after seeing another person in the audience stand. A student becomes more thorough in his study habits after observing a friend study thoroughly. Change inhibitions A driver’s inhibition about exceeding the speed limit is strengthened when he sees another speeding car stopped by the highway patrol. A student’s inhibition about speaking without permission is weakened when she sees other students speak without permission and go unpunished. Arouse emotions A person at a social gathering feels embarrassed when he sees a couple across the room shout at each other in anger. A person watching a movie begins to cry when a sad scene is portrayed in the film. PowerPoint 6.22 Effects of Modeling

27 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.23 Effects of Modeling in the Classroom Exercise

28 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. Explain Greg’s and Natalie’s behavior. Greg and Natalie are being punished. Ms. Margossian “presented” them with her reprimand, and their behavior decreased. Because the reprimand was directly given to these two students by the teacher the behavior is best explained by behaviorism’s concept of operant conditioning. 2. Explain Christine’s Behavior using social cognitive theory. Christine was vicariously punished. (She altered her behavior by observing the consequences for Greg and Natalie.) 3. In terms of modeling effects on behavior, which effect is best illustrated by Christine’s behavior? Christine’s inhibition about talking was increased. (The function was “increasing inhibitions.”) 4. Suppose Ms. Margossian had said nothing to Greg and Natalie. What is the likely outcome for them, Christine, and the class as a whole? Explain. Being reprimanded for breaking rules is an expected consequence. Nonoccurrence of the reprimand-an intended punisher-could serve as a reinforcer and the misbehavior might increase. PowerPoint Effects of Modeling in the Classroom Exercise Feedback

29 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint Processes Involved in Learning From Models

30 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved FactorDescriptionExample Perceived similarity People are more likely to imitate behaviors in others they perceive as similar to themselves than they are to imitate behaviors in those they perceive as different. A girl is more likely to choose engineering as a career if she observes the work of a female Engineer than if she observes the work of a male engineer. Perceived competence People are more likely to imitate behaviors in others they perceive as competent than they are to imitate behaviors in those they perceive as less competent. An aspiring golfer is more likely to imitate the technique of an accomplished golfer than the technique of a novice golfer. Perceived status People are more likely to imitate behaviors displayed by high-status models than they are to imitate behaviors of others with lower status. Teenagers are more likely to wear sports shoes endorsed by Michael Jordan than sports shoes endorsed by a local shoe salesperson. * ( *Very high status models tend to have competence attributed to them outside their fields of expertise.) PowerPoint Effectiveness of Models

31 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 6.27 Under-muscled and Embarrassed Feedback: The trainers, though perceived as competent (and of potentially high status) by the overweight and out-of- shape people, do not have perceived similarity and according to theory lack of perceived similarity in this case will discourage imitation.

32 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Applying Social Cognitive Theory in Classrooms 1.Model desirable behaviors for students. 2.Capitalize on modeling effects and processes to promote learning. 3.Place student in modeling roles and use cognitive modeling to share their strategies. 4.Utilize guest role models. PowerPoint 6.28 Applying Social Cognitive Theory in Classrooms

33 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Feedback for Classroom Exercises 1.Punishers can produce negative emotional reactions. The writing assignment might become associated with the punisher--becoming a conditioned stimulus--which produces a negative emotional reaction-- as a conditioned response. We don’t want students to have negative emotional reactions to classroom assignments. 2.The song, picture, or odor are conditioned stimuli that have become associated with some unconditioned stimulus that produced the original mood or feeling. The mood or feeling is a conditioned response that is similar to the original mood or feeling produced by the unconditioned stimulus. PowerPoint 6.29 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 1 of 6)

34 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 3.The feeling will eventually disappear. The concept is extinction. If a conditioned stimulus occurs repeatedly in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response will eventually disappear (become extinct). 4.The teacher is attempting to use negative reinforcement by allowing the students to avoid doing homework. Her goal is to increase the students' “doing homework” behaviors. The students must be in a situation of normally doing homework, or there would be nothing for them to avoid. PowerPoint 6.29 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 2 of 6)

35 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5.The teacher is applying negative reinforcement. The teacher is focusing on a desired outcome (sitting quietly) versus an undesired outcome (stopping talking). Also, the students are in control of the outcome. If they're quiet, they get to go to lunch. Negative reinforcement is being illustrated because the students can avoid missing some of their lunch period. Under typical conditions, they would get to go to lunch. The teacher is threatening the students with punishment, but she isn't actually punishing them. 6.The idea is the Premack Principle, which says that a more desirable activity can serve as a positive reinforcer for a less desirable activity. PowerPoint 6.29 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 3 of 6)

36 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.The city is attempting to apply negative reinforcement by allowing people to avoid the tolls. 8. Slot machines illustrate variable-ratio schedules. The reinforcers depend on behaviors, not time, and they're unpredictable. 9. Social cognitive theorists view the high score as causing expectations. According to social cognitive theorists, students study because they “expect” to be reinforced for doing so. They believe the behaviorist account is inadequate because in many cases too much elapses between the behavior and receiving the reinforcer. PowerPoint 6.29 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 4 of 6)

37 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 10. In the first case, specific praise wasn't necessary because the student gave a clear, confident answer. If Tanya's answer were tentative, however, specific praise would emphasize important information and help eliminate uncertainty. An example in the second case could be: “Very good, Tanya. You recognized that the air would be warmed as it moved over the land. This was because the air above the water was cold, caused by the cold water itself flowing from the south. Good analysis.” PowerPoint 6.29 Feedback for Classroom Exercise (slide 5 of 6)

38 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 11. If students break a rule they expect to be punished. If the punisher isn't given, its nonoccurrence can serve as a reinforcer, and the undesirable behavior is likely to increase. Decreasing inhibitions is the modeling effect that is illustrated. 12. When learners are fearful about a situation, as Tim was, they are more likely to imitate a coping model, or one who struggles to achieve competence, than a mastery model, or one whose competence is an accomplished fact (Schunk, 1991). This is where competence and similarity interact. Tim perceived both Karen and Susan to be competent, but he perceived himself to be more similar to Susan, because she too had to struggle, so he imitated her. PowerPoint Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 6 of 6)


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