Learning Objectives Provide an overview of major challenges and the paradigm shift facing management. Outline an organizational behavior perspective. Summarize the Hawthorne studies, a starting point of modern organizational behavior. Explain methodology used to accumulate knowledge and facilitate understanding. Relate the various theoretical framework that serves as a foundation. Present the social cognitive model, serves as a conceptual framework.
Introduction Competitive advantage of an organization today is represented by: –Human resource of an organization and how they are managed. –Widely recognized as human capital, social capital and positive psychological capital.
Challenges Facing Management Problems facing managers of human organization have not changed over the ages. –Emphasis and surrounding environmental context has changed. –21 st -century environment requires new thinking and new ways of managing. –This environment represents disruptive and discontinuous change. –It represents a new paradigm, a new way of thinking about the workplace.
Undergoing a Paradigm Shift Paradigm, establishes rules, defines boundaries, and tells one how to behave within these boundaries to be successful. –Paradigm shifts have invalidated advantages of certain firms and created new opportunities for others. –Paradigm effect, not seeing the change occurring. There is considerable resistance to change. There is a discontinuous change in the shift to the new paradigm.
New Perspective for Management Management has three major dimensions: –Technical, conceptual, and human. New perspective is based on the assumption: –Employees are extremely complex. –There is a need for theoretical understanding backed by rigorous empirical research. Jeff Pfeffer has summarized the status of the organizational behavior approach as: –“One-eighth” situation –“The Knowing-Doing Gap”
Hawthorne Studies Provided historical roots for the notion of a social organization. –The illumination studies: A serendipitous discovery. –Subsequent phases of the Hawthorne studies. –Implications of the Hawthorne studies Hawthorne effect
Research Methodology Overall scientific perspective –Organizational behavior principles can be provided for the effective management of human behavior in organizations. Starting with theory –Theories allow the researcher to deduce logical propositions or hypotheses that can be tested by acceptable research designs.
Research Methodology Continued
Research Methodology Continued Use of research designs –Three designs most often used today are the experiment, the case, and the survey. Validity of studies –Study must have both internal validity and external validity in order to make a meaningful contribution to the body of knowledge.
Defining Organization Behavior The understanding, prediction, and management of human behavior in organizations. –Relationship to other fields All managers need to have an understanding and perspective of organizational behavior. –Organizational behavioral approach to management The human side of management
Defining Organizational Behavior Continued
Theoretical Frameworks Cognitive Framework –Precede behavior and constitute input into the person’s thinking, perception, problem solving, and information processing. Behavioristic Framework –Dealing with observable behaviors. Social Cognitive Framework –Behavior can best be explained in terms of a continuous reciprocal interaction among cognitive, behavioral, and environmental determinants.