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Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics Eighth Edition Dennis L. Wilcox, Glen T. Cameron, Philip H. Ault, and Warren K.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics Eighth Edition Dennis L. Wilcox, Glen T. Cameron, Philip H. Ault, and Warren K."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public Relations Strategies and Tactics Eighth Edition Dennis L. Wilcox, Glen T. Cameron, Philip H. Ault, and Warren K. Agee

2 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Chapter 1: What is Public Relations?

3 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Study Guide (Objectives) After studying Chapter 1, you should be able to: Define and differentiate among related concepts, including publicity, advertising, press agentry, public affairs, issues management. Define and differentiate among related concepts, including publicity, advertising, press agentry, public affairs, issues management. Outline how public relations helps improve organizations and society. Outline how public relations helps improve organizations and society. Write a definition of public relations that emphasizes building and maintaining relationships between organizations and their publics. Write a definition of public relations that emphasizes building and maintaining relationships between organizations and their publics. Distinguish between the public relations and marketing functions of organizations, identifying the exchange between provider and customer as the distinguishing characteristic of marketing relationships. Distinguish between the public relations and marketing functions of organizations, identifying the exchange between provider and customer as the distinguishing characteristic of marketing relationships.

4 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Overview Challenges Challenges Public relations as Process: RACE Public relations as Process: RACE Other terms for public relations Other terms for public relations The components of public relations The components of public relations Public relations and journalism Public relations and journalism Public relations and advertising Public relations supports marketing An integrated perspective Careers in public relations The value of public relations

5 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public relations is a growth industry in the 21 st century! In numbers: PR is a multibillion-dollar business practiced by 158,000 professionals in the U.S. alone. PR is a multibillion-dollar business practiced by 158,000 professionals in the U.S. alone. Employment growth is increasing faster than average through the year Employment growth is increasing faster than average through the year PR has grown rapidly across the globe, from Europe to China, Latin America to Africa. PR has grown rapidly across the globe, from Europe to China, Latin America to Africa.

6 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 So what is public relations? Let ’ s define the field ……

7 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 “ Public relations is a planned process to influence public opinion, through sound character and proper performance, based on mutually satisfactory two-way communication. ” One definition to consider:

8 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Another definition from PRSA: “Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other. Public relations is an organization’s efforts to win the cooperation of groups of people.”

9 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 “ Public relations: The methods and activities employed by an individual organization, corporation, or government to promote a favorable relationship with the public. ” (American Heritage Dictionary)

10 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public Relations … is the management function that builds and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends.

11 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Other Terms for Public Relations Public Relations is an umbrella term Public Relations is an umbrella term Some positive terms: Some positive terms: Corporate Communications Corporate Communications Public affairs Public affairs Corporate relations Corporate relations Some negative terms: Some negative terms: Flack Flack Spin doctor Spin doctor

12 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 No matter how PR is defined, two elements guide the process 1. Management To succeed, PR must report to top management, unimpeded by any other group. 2. Action True PR cannot take place without ethical, consistent action. No amount of persuasion will cover up for poor performance.

13 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 PUBLIC RELATIONS AS PROCESS: RACE Research Research Action Action Communication Communication Evaluation Evaluation

14 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Elements of Public Relations: Conducts a planned and sustained program as part of an organization ’ s management. Conducts a planned and sustained program as part of an organization ’ s management. Deals with the relationships between an organization and its stakeholder publics. Deals with the relationships between an organization and its stakeholder publics. Monitors awareness, opinions, attitudes and behavior inside and outside the organization. Monitors awareness, opinions, attitudes and behavior inside and outside the organization. Analyzes the impact of policies, procedures and actions on stakeholder publics. Analyzes the impact of policies, procedures and actions on stakeholder publics. Identifies policies, procedures, and actions that conflict with Identifies policies, procedures, and actions that conflict with the public interest and organizational survival. the public interest and organizational survival. Analyzes the impact of policies, procedures and actions on stakeholder publics. Analyzes the impact of policies, procedures and actions on stakeholder publics.

15 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Elements of Public Relations (continued): Identifies policies, procedures, and actions that conflict with the public interest and organizational survival. Identifies policies, procedures, and actions that conflict with the public interest and organizational survival. Counsels management on the establishment of new policies, procedures, and actions that are mutually beneficial to the organization and its publics. Counsels management on the establishment of new policies, procedures, and actions that are mutually beneficial to the organization and its publics. Establishes and maintains two-way communication between the organization and its publics. Establishes and maintains two-way communication between the organization and its publics. Produces measurable changes in awareness, opinion, attitude, and behavior inside and outside the organization. Produces measurable changes in awareness, opinion, attitude, and behavior inside and outside the organization. Results in new and/or maintained relationships between organization and its publics. Results in new and/or maintained relationships between organization and its publics.

16 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 The Components of Public Relations Counseling Counseling Research Research Media relations Media relations Publicity Publicity Employee/member relations Employee/member relations Community relations Community relations Public affairs Public affairs Government affairs Government affairs Issues management Issues management Financial relations Financial relations Industry relations Industry relations Development Development Multicultural relations Multicultural relations Special events Special events Marketing communications Marketing communications

17 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 No matter how PR is defined, two elements guide the process 1. Management To succeed, PR must report to top management, unimpeded by any other group. 2. Action True PR cannot take place without ethical, consistent action. No amount of persuasion will cover up for poor performance.

18 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Sharpe ’ s five principles: Honest communication for credibility Honest communication for credibility Openness and consistency for confidence Openness and consistency for confidence Fairness of actions for reciprocity, goodwill Fairness of actions for reciprocity, goodwill 2-way communication to build relationships 2-way communication to build relationships Research and evaluation to determine actions and adjust for social harmony Research and evaluation to determine actions and adjust for social harmony

19 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public relations professionals serve as interpreters for the organization. 10-Second Quiz! Who is that lady in the blue dress, and why is she with President Bush?

20 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 PR professionals serve as management interpreters To publics, they interpret management ’ s: Philosophies Philosophies Policies Policies Programs Programs Practices Practices

21 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 And as public interpreters To management, PR interprets the public ’ s: Opinions Opinions Needs Needs Desires Desires Management needs to know what the public thinks about the organization and its practices!

22 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Now it ’ s your turn …… Can you think of recent events in which organizations were not correctly interpreting public views?

23 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 The “ publics ” of public relations Practitioners must communicate with many different publics at once. Practitioners must communicate with many different publics at once. Each public has its own special needs, media habits, and communication requirements. Each public has its own special needs, media habits, and communication requirements.

24 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Ways to view our publics Internal or external Internal or external Primary or secondary Primary or secondary Traditional and future Traditional and future Proponents, opponents, and the uncommitted Proponents, opponents, and the uncommitted

25 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Ways to view our publics …… Actualizers Actualizers Fulfilleds Fulfilleds Believers Believers Achievers Achievers Segmenting by values and lifestyles Strivers Strivers Experiencer s Experiencer s Makers Makers Strugglers Strugglers

26 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Now it ’ s your turn …… Who makes up the publics at your college or university? How many do you belong to? Are they internal or external? How can they change?

27 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public relations, marketing, and advertising …… aren ’ t they all the same thing?

28 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public relations and Journalism: Differences Public relations and Journalism: Differences  Scope Public relations has many components; journalism has only two.  Objectives Journalists are objective observers; public relations personnel are advocates.  Audiences Journalists focus on a mass audience; public relations professionals focus on defined publics.  Channels Journalists use only one channel; public relations uses a variety of channels.

29 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public relations and Advertising: Differences  Tools Advertising works through mass media; public relations relies on a variety of tools.  Audience Advertising addresses external audiences; public relations targets specialized audiences.  Scope Advertising is a communications function; public relations is broader in scope.  Function Advertising is a tool; public relations fills a support role.

30 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Advertising … is information placed in the media by an identified sponsor that pays for the time and space. It is a controlled method of placing messages in the media.

31 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Publicity Publicity … is information from an outside source that is used by the media because the information has news value. It is an uncontrolled method of placing messages in the media because the source does not pay the media for placement.

32 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Press Agentry...is creating newsworthy stories and events to attract media attention and to gain public notice.

33 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public Affairs Public Affairs...is the specialized part of public relations that builds and maintains mutually beneficial governmental and local community relations.

34 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Lobbying Lobbying...is the specialized part of public relations that builds and maintains relations with government, primarily for the purpose of influencing legislation and regulation.

35 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Public relations and Marketing: Differences  Focus Public relations is concerned with relationships; marketing sells products or services.  Language Different words are used by each profession to express similar meanings.  Method Public relations relies on two-way dialogue; marketing relies on persuasion.

36 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Marketing … is the management function that identifies human needs and wants, offers products and services to satisfy those demands, and causes transactions that deliver products and services in exchange for something of value to the provider.

37 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 How Public Relations Supports Marketing Develops new prospects Develops new prospects 3rd party endorsements 3rd party endorsements Generates sales leads Generates sales leads Paves the way for sales calls Paves the way for sales calls Stretches dollars Stretches dollars Provides inexpensive literature Provides inexpensive literature Establishes credibility Establishes credibility Helps sell minor products Helps sell minor products 8 ways public relations supports marketing (p. 19)

38 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 An Integrated Perspective Concept of integration: To use a variety of strategies and tactics to convey a consistent message in a variety of forms.

39 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Careers in Public Relations Five essential abilities: 1. Writing skill 2. Research ability 3. Planning expertise 4. Problem-solving ability 5. Business/economics competence

40 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Careers in Public Relations Internships Internships Win-win situation Win-win situation Salaries Salaries Entry Level Entry Level Experienced professionals Experienced professionals Women Women

41 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 The Value of Public Relations A service to society A service to society Informative Informative Relevant Relevant

42 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Issues Management Issues Management...is the proactive process of anticipating, identifying, evaluating, and responding to public policy issues that affect organizations ’ relationships with their publics.

43 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Investor Relations Investor Relations...is a specialized part of corporate public relations that builds and maintains mutually beneficial relationships with shareholders and others in the financial community to maximize market value....is a specialized part of corporate public relations that builds and maintains mutually beneficial relationships with shareholders and others in the financial community to maximize market value.

44 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Development Development...is the specialized part of public relations in private organizations that builds and maintains relationships with donors and members for the purposes of securing financial and volunteer support.

45 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Integrated Marketing Communication … is the coordinated effort in marketing communication, sales promotion, product publicity, corporate advocacy advertising, issues management, and public relations activities designed to have an impact on sales.

46 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Functions of Public Relations Writing Writing Media relations Media relations Planning Planning Counseling Counseling Research Research Publicity Publicity Marketing Communications Marketing Communications Community relations Community relations Consumer relations Consumer relations Employee relations Employee relations Government affairs Government affairs Investor relations Investor relations Special publics relations Special publics relations Public affairs and issues management Public affairs and issues management Web site development and interface Web site development and interface They are numerous:

47 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 The curse of “ spin ” The curse of “ spin ” What does the term mean to YOU? What does the term mean to YOU? Spin equals distortion, obfuscation, or even lying Spin equals distortion, obfuscation, or even lying Spin cannot cover up for poor performance Spin cannot cover up for poor performance Spin does NOT equal good public relations! Spin does NOT equal good public relations!

48 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Becoming a PR practitioner Key knowledge areas: The field The field The communications process The communications process Technology Technology Current events Current events Business Business Management Management

49 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Becoming a PR practitioner Key personal characteristics: A tendency toward communication A tendency toward communication A desire to counsel senior managers A desire to counsel senior managers A strong base of personal ethics A strong base of personal ethics A willingness to take risks A willingness to take risks A positive outlook on life A positive outlook on life


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