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1 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman M ARIO F. T RIOLA E IGHTH E DITION E LEMENTARY S TATISTICS

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2 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman M ARIO F. T RIOLA E IGHTH E DITION E LEMENTARY S TATISTICS Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics

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3 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman 1-1 Overview 1-2 The Nature of Data 1-3 Uses and Abuses of Statistics 1-4Design of Experiments Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics

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4 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Statistics Two Meanings Specific numbers Method of analysis 1-1 Overview

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5 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Specific number numerical measurement determined by a set of data Example: Twenty-three percent of people polled believed that there are too many polls. Statistics

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6 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Method of analysis a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data Statistics

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7 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Definitions Population the complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied. The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied.

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8 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Definitions Census the collection of data from every element in a population Sample a subcollection of elements drawn from a population

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9 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman 1-2 The Nature of Data

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10 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Parameter a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population Definitions

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11 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Parameter a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population population parameter Definitions

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12 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Definitions Statistic a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample

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13 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Definitions Statistic a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample sample statistic

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14 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Definitions Quantitative data numbers representing counts or measurements

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15 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Definitions Quantitative data numbers representing counts or measurements Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristics

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16 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Definitions Quantitative data the incomes of college graduates

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17 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Definitions Quantitative data the incomes of college graduates Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data the genders (male/female) of college graduates

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18 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Discrete data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number of possible values 0, 1, 2, 3,... Definitions

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19 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Discrete data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number of possible values 0, 1, 2, 3,... Continuous (numerical) data result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps Definitions 2 3

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20 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Discrete The number of eggs that hens lay; for example, 3 eggs a day. Definitions

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21 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Discrete The number of eggs that hens lay; for example, 3 eggs a day. Continuous The amounts of milk that cows produce; for example, gallons a day. Definitions

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22 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman nominal level of measurement characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only. The data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme (such as low to high) Example: survey responses yes, no, undecided Definitions

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23 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman ordinal level of measurement involves data that may be arranged in some order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Example: Course grades A, B, C, D, or F Definitions

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24 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman interval level of measurement like the ordinal level, with the additional property that the difference between any two data values is meaningful. However, there is no natural zero starting point (where none of the quantity is present) Example: Years 1000, 2000, 1776, and 1492 Definitions

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25 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman ratio level of measurement the interval level modified to include the natural zero starting point (where zero indicates that none of the quantity is present). For values at this level, differences and ratios are meaningful. Example: Prices of college textbooks Definitions

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26 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Levels of Measurement Nominal - categories only Ordinal - categories with some order Interval - differences but no natural starting point Ratio - differences and a natural starting point

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27 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright Addison Wesley Longman Levels of Measurement Nominal - categories only Ordinal - categories with some order Interval - differences but no natural starting point Ratio - differences and a natural starting point

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