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1 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman M ARIO F. T RIOLA E IGHTH E DITION.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman M ARIO F. T RIOLA E IGHTH E DITION."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman M ARIO F. T RIOLA E IGHTH E DITION E LEMENTARY S TATISTICS

2 2 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman M ARIO F. T RIOLA E IGHTH E DITION E LEMENTARY S TATISTICS Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics

3 3 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman 1-1 Overview 1-2 The Nature of Data 1-3 Uses and Abuses of Statistics 1-4Design of Experiments Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics

4 4 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Statistics Two Meanings  Specific numbers  Method of analysis 1-1 Overview

5 5 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  Specific number numerical measurement determined by a set of data Example: Twenty-three percent of people polled believed that there are too many polls. Statistics

6 6 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  Method of analysis a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data Statistics

7 7 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Definitions  Population the complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied. The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied.

8 8 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Definitions  Census the collection of data from every element in a population  Sample a subcollection of elements drawn from a population

9 9 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman 1-2 The Nature of Data

10 10 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  Parameter a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population Definitions

11 11 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  Parameter a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population population parameter Definitions

12 12 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Definitions   Statistic a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample

13 13 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Definitions   Statistic a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample sample statistic

14 14 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Definitions   Quantitative data numbers representing counts or measurements

15 15 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Definitions   Quantitative data numbers representing counts or measurements   Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristics

16 16 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Definitions   Quantitative data the incomes of college graduates

17 17 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Definitions   Quantitative data the incomes of college graduates   Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data the genders (male/female) of college graduates

18 18 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  Discrete data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number of possible values 0, 1, 2, 3,... Definitions

19 19 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  Discrete data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number of possible values 0, 1, 2, 3,...  Continuous (numerical) data result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps Definitions 2 3

20 20 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  Discrete The number of eggs that hens lay; for example, 3 eggs a day. Definitions

21 21 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  Discrete The number of eggs that hens lay; for example, 3 eggs a day.  Continuous The amounts of milk that cows produce; for example, 2.343115 gallons a day. Definitions

22 22 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  nominal level of measurement characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only. The data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme (such as low to high) Example: survey responses yes, no, undecided Definitions

23 23 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  ordinal level of measurement involves data that may be arranged in some order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Example: Course grades A, B, C, D, or F Definitions

24 24 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  interval level of measurement like the ordinal level, with the additional property that the difference between any two data values is meaningful. However, there is no natural zero starting point (where none of the quantity is present) Example: Years 1000, 2000, 1776, and 1492 Definitions

25 25 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman  ratio level of measurement the interval level modified to include the natural zero starting point (where zero indicates that none of the quantity is present). For values at this level, differences and ratios are meaningful. Example: Prices of college textbooks Definitions

26 26 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Levels of Measurement  Nominal - categories only  Ordinal - categories with some order  Interval - differences but no natural starting point  Ratio - differences and a natural starting point

27 27 Chapter 1. Section 1-1 and 1-2. Triola, Elementary Statistics, Eighth Edition. Copyright 2001. Addison Wesley Longman Levels of Measurement  Nominal - categories only  Ordinal - categories with some order  Interval - differences but no natural starting point  Ratio - differences and a natural starting point


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