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Prepared by: Patricia Zima, CA Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology Chapter 1 The Canadian Financial Reporting Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared by: Patricia Zima, CA Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology Chapter 1 The Canadian Financial Reporting Environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepared by: Patricia Zima, CA Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology Chapter 1 The Canadian Financial Reporting Environment

2 2 Accounting identifies, measures, analyses and communicates financial information to various users (decision makers) Accounting has two broad classifications 1.Financial accounting 2.Managerial accounting Accounting theory and practice have evolved and will continue to evolve to meet changing demands and influences Characteristics of Accounting

3 3 Financial Reporting Financial accounting provides historical information Financial reporting is used by both internal and external users External users include such decision makers as investors, creditors, unions and government agencies Managerial accounting provides both historical and forecast information Managerial reporting information is used by management (internal users only)

4 4 Financial Statements and Other Means of Financial Reporting Major financial statements include: 1.Balance Sheet 2.Income Statement 3.Statement of Cash Flows 4.Statement of Shareholders’ (Owners’) Equity +Note Disclosures

5 5 Financial Reporting Other forms of financial reporting include: President’s letter Prospectuses Government reporting News releases Management forecasts

6 6 Flow of Information through the Financial Statements Income Statement Statement of Equity Balance Sheet Statement of Cash Flows Reports Net Income Ending balance reported Change in cash as reported displays the change in cash position

7 7 Accounting and Capital Allocation The accounting profession has the responsibility of measuring a company’s performance accurately, fairly and on a timely basis These measurements enable investors and creditors to compare the income and assets employed by companies Investors can then assess the relative risks and returns associated with companies

8 8 FinancialReportingaidsUsers (present and potential)CapitalAllocationdecisions Financial statements and other forms of financialreporting Users include: investors,creditors,unions,government agencies and other Involvesdetermining how funds are allocated among competinginterests Accounting and Capital Allocation

9 9 Sources of Capital

10 10 Accounting and Capital Allocation An effective process of capital allocation is critical to a healthy economy Unreliable information leads to poor capital allocation Credit rating agencies use accounting to rate companies’ financial stability This gives investors and creditors additional independent information

11 11 Stakeholders in Financial Reporting Broader definition of users is: anyone who prepares, relies on, reviews, audits or monitors financial information Includes both internal and external parties Key stakeholders include: –investors, creditors, auditors, regulators, analysts, management, standard setters, and others

12 12 Stakeholders in Financial Accounting Investors and creditors rely on the financial statements to make decisions Standard setters set Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) for direction on accounting GAAP is used to help reduce management bias and to ensure the information is useful to users

13 13 The CICA Handbook, Section 1000, par. 15 outlines the overall objective as: “The objective … is to communicate information that is useful to … users in making their resource allocation decisions and/or assessing management stewardship.… financial statements provide information about: entity’s economic resources, obligations and equity/net assets; 2.changes in an entity’s economic resources, obligations and equity/net assets; and 3.the economic performance of the entity.” Objectives of Financial Reporting

14 14 Objectives of Financial Reporting Was income earned to generate future cash? Yes Able to meet obligations and pay a return on investment Resource Allocation Decisions Assess Management Stewardship Did management’s decisions on resource acquisition and allocation increase shareholder wealth? Yes Investor and creditor confidence continues Capital continues to be available

15 15 Management Bias Preparation of the financial statements are the responsibility of internal management May lead to preparing statements that report the enterprise in its best light Motives include: –to reflect positive management stewardship (job, compensation) –meet financial analysts’ expectations, resulting in a positive reaction in the capital markets What safeguards are in place to protect financial users from management bias?

16 16 Understanding User Needs in the Financial Reporting Process ManagementUsers Financial Statements Prepare the reports Use the reports for investment/lending decisions Use the reports to acquire capital Aggressive financial reporting has a direct impact on the user’s decision-making process

17 17 The Need to Develop Standards Standards are set to aid preparers and users of financial statements They allow the preparers of the financial statements to present fairly the operations of the company A single set of financial statements is prepared to meet the majority of the users’ needs Standards are not rules, regulations, or laws Standards are intended to be generally accepted and universally practised

18 18 The Standard Setting Process in Canada– Parties Involved Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA) –Accounting Standards Board (AcSB) of the CICA Primarily responsible for setting GAAP in Canada Two underlying premises for development of standards 1.Be responsive to the needs and viewpoints of the entire economic community 2.Operate in full public view through due process –Ensures that companies listed on the exchange prepare their statements in accordance with GAAP –Key objective to ensure framework for measurement and reporting facilitates the global flow of capital and serves the public interest

19 19 The Standard Setting Process in Canada — Parties Involved Provincial Securities Commission (e.g. Ontario – –To oversee and monitor capital marketplace –Ensure strict adherence to securities law/legislation Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Securities and Exchange Commission –Major standard setting body in the U.S. International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) –Major international standard setting body

20 20 Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) The profession has developed GAAP, which aids in presenting fairly, clearly, and completely the financial operations of the enterprise GAAP consists of authoritative pronouncements issued by certain accounting bodies The CICA Handbook is the foremost source for GAAP

21 21 GAAP Hierarchy–Primary Sources Section 1100 of the Handbook (in order of authority) 1.Handbook Sections (1300-4460) 2.Accounting Guidelines 3.Background Information and Basis for Conclusions 4.EIC Abstracts 5.Illustrative Examples (of the above) 6.Implementation Guides

22 22 GAAP Hierarchy–Other Sources Other sources include: 1.Pronouncements in other jurisdictions 2.Research studies 3.Accounting textbooks, journals, studies, and articles 4.Other Must be consistent with primary sources and conceptual framework

23 23 Professional Judgement There cannot be a rule for every situation Rules vs. principles Standards in Canada are based primarily on principles rather than specific rules Therefore, must use professional judgement The United States uses a rules-based approach

24 24 Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) was enacted in 2002 Some of the legislation’s key provisions: –Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) –Independence rules –Bonus/profit forfeiture –CEO/CFO certification –Independent audit committees –Codes of ethics

25 25 Challenges Facing Accounting GlobalizationGlobalization TechnologyTechnology New economyNew economy AccountabilityAccountability Need for international harmonization of standards Ability to produce and access timely information A move from the traditional ‘resource-based’ to a ‘knowledge-based’ economy Driven by more sophisticated and varied investors

26 26 Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (The Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. COPYRIGHT

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