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Eighth Grade English Benchmark Period Two Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics PASS Standards and Objectives.

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1 Eighth Grade English Benchmark Period Two Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics PASS Standards and Objectives

2 Ollie speaking… Yes, Apple, I have my notes on principal parts of verbs… You’ve forgotten them, you say? Uh huh… Yeah, I’m on vacation again… Uh huh…here in Aruba. They are present, past, and past participle… Uh, Apple...uh…where did you get this number? PASS GUM 3.1.a. Identify the principal parts of verbs to form verb tenses. PRESENTPAST Ends in -ed PAST PARTICIPLE Uses helping verb has / have / had; Ends in -ed talktalkedhave talked askaskedhave asked writewrote (No –ed; it is irregular.) have written (No –ed; it is irregular.) teachtaught (No –ed; it is irregular.) have taught (No –ed; it is irregular.)

3 PASS GUM 3.1.a. Identify the principal parts of verbs to form verb tenses. Now, I need to figure out my summer school homework... Oh Ollie, you’re awesome! Hope you’re having an awesome time at the beach! Uh huh…Thanks for the awesome help! 1.Apple (had ran, had run) after Ollie for three years, but she could not make him like her. 2. Apple baked cookies for Ollie, but Ollie said that he had already (ate, eaten) his dinner. 3. Ollie said, “I’ve (went, gone) on vacation two times to get away from Apple. 4. Apple said, “I (sung, sang) in the choir with Ollie last year, and we had a lot of fun.” 5. Apple said to herself, “I’ve (fell, fallen) in love with Ollie, and that’s all there is to it. Write down what you think are the correct verb forms. Answers are on the next slide.

4 1.Apple (had ran, had run) after Ollie for three years, but she could not make him like her. 2. Apple baked cookies for Ollie, but Ollie said that he had already (ate, eaten) his dinner. 3. Ollie said, “I’ve (went, gone) on vacation two times to get away from Apple. 4. Apple said, “I (sung, sang) in the choir with Ollie last year, and we had a lot of fun.” 5. Apple said to herself, “I’ve (fell, fallen) in love with Ollie, and that’s all there is to it. PASS GUM 3.1.a. Identify the principal parts of verbs to form verb tenses. runranhave run eatatehave eaten gowenthave gone singsanghave sung fallfellhave fallen Today I… Yesterday I… Many times I… This is a good way to think of present, past, and past participle:

5 PASS GUM 3.1.a. Identify the principal parts of verbs to form verb tenses. Yuh, Skye, I could hear it in his voice; Ollie has fell for me! What? Yeah – Oh yes! I have already forgave him for ignoring me. What, Skye? Oh yeah…sure, he has flew down to the beach a couple of times, but I have went on vacation too, you know. It has not took me very long to get over how he likes to take vacations from me. Yuh, Skye, I know he has tore up a few of my love notes, but that’s over! I’ve wrote him a letter that he’ll get when he returns from Aruba. Skye, I just have not gave Ollie enough love in the past. OK…Bye, Skye. I seen Ollie walking this way! Can you help Apple with her verb problems? Did you find all of Apple’s mistakes? Check the next slide to be sure.

6 PASS GUM 3.1.a. Identify the principal parts of verbs to form verb tenses. 1. … Ollie has fell for me! 2. … I have already forgave him… 3. … he has flew down to the beach… 4. …I have went on vacation too, you know. 5. It has not took me very long… 6. …he has tore up a few of my love notes… 7. I’ve wrote him a letter… 8. I just have not gave Ollie enough love… 9. I seen Ollie walking this way! fallfellhas fallen forgiveforgavehave forgiven flyflewhas flown gowenthave gone taketookhas taken teartorehas torn writewrotehave written givegavehave given seesawhave seen Use the Principal Parts of Verbs Chart to check Apple’s verb tense choices. Principal Parts of Verbs Past Present Past Participle

7 PASS GUM 3.1.a. Identify the principal parts of verbs to form verb tenses. So, Ricci, I asked Ms. Pretty, our English teacher, why I have verb tense problems, and she said we use the verb tenses that we grow up hearing. If our friends, relatives, day-care staff, TV personalities, and others around us use verb tenses in a way that is different from standard English, that’s how we’ll use them. That’s what sounds right to us! Yeah, no kidding! We hear it; we say it! She said we just have to learn which ones we use incorrectly, make a list of them, and then memorize the right forms. I’ve already began…uh, I mean begun to make my list! Yeah, Ricci, what did you think? I don’t want to make grammar mistakes all my life!

8 PASS GUM 3.1.b. Make subjects and verbs agree. …but I don’t want a cat! Arrgggh!!! You have bad subject-verb agreement! Each is singular and were is plural! Each of my other boyfriends were happy to get presents! …but it’s so cute… Apple, stop giving me presents! OK, Ollie. Each of my other boyfriends was nowhere near as cute as you!

9 PASS GUM 3.1.b. Make subjects and verbs agree. A singular subject needs a singular verb; a plural subject needs a plural verb. Watch out; it can be tricky! subject prepositional phrase verb direct object Each of Apple’s cats (have, has) a little pink collar. verb verb verb subject prepositional ph. (There’s, There are, There is) two cats in the room. Hey, look! The verb can come before the subject sometimes. Don’t confuse the subject with a prepositional phrase that comes after it!

10 With Either…or… and Neither…nor…, we look at the subject closest to the verb to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb. Either the cat or the pillows (has, have) fallen from the couch. Neither Ollie’s friends nor Ollie (is, are) going to Aruba again. Both…and… is always plural because it is like adding two and two! Both Apple and Ollie (is, are) arguing about the cat.

11 PASS GUM 3.1.b. Make subjects and verbs agree. verb verb verb subject ---prepositional (There’s, There is, There are) water cups in Skye’s phrase and Apple’s hands. subject subject subject verb Neither Skye and Apple nor Ollie (know, knows) [noun clause used as direct object] how to make subjects and verbs agree properly. _ There are_ (plural) cups (plural) Ollie (singular) _knows_ (singular)

12 PASS GUM 3.1.b. Make subjects and verbs agree. Now you try: Both the girls and the boy (behave, behaves) well. Either the boy or the girls (have, has) decided to keep the kitten. Psst! Correlative Conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that join words or groups of words: both…and…, either…or…, neither…nor…, not only…but also…, whether…or…

13 Both the girls and the boy (behave, behaves) well. “Both…and…” = plural. It’s like math. “Both…and…” = “They.” Either the boy or the girls (have, has) decided to keep the kitten. PASS GUM 3.1.b. Make subjects and verbs agree. “Either…or…” = singular or plural, depending on what comes right before the verb. Great job, people!

14 PASS GUM 3.1.b. Make subjects and verbs agree. Just remember that the words either, neither, and both function several ways. Look at these examples: Either…or… is a correlative conjunction: it joins words. Either Skye or Ricci (want, wants) to go swimming. Either is an indefinite pronoun: it takes the place of a noun. Pronouns can be subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, objects of the preposition, predicate nominatives. Either of the girls (want, wants) to go swimming. Either is an adjective: it modifies a noun or pronoun. Either girl can win the swim meet; either one can beat the competition.

15 PASS GUM 3.1.c. Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly. Hey, Apple, it’s Ricci! Where are you? Me and Skye are here in Aruba waiting for you! Skye said that you and her could water ski when you get here. There’s the cutest place that Skye found for she and you to have a “spa day”! There’s also a great spot right near the town for you and I to go running. Hurry up and get here ‘cause Skye can’t wait to see you and me try parasailing! Bye! Check out Ricci’s pronoun usage. If you see any errors, make a list. You can check your list in about six or seven slides!

16 PASS GUM 3.1.c. Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly. subject verb direct object Apple likes Skye and (I, me, myself). subject verb indirect object direct obj. 2. Ricci told Skye and (I, me, myself) some gossip. subject verb dir. obj. (prepositional phrase ending w/obj. of prep.) 3. Skye gave a gift to Apple and (I, me, myself) subjects verb direct obj. 4. Apple and (I, me, myself) like Ricci. Eek! I’m going to miss my flight to Aruba!

17 PASS GUM 3.1.c. Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly. Definitions and Examples 1. Nominative pronouns – Used as subjects, predicate nominatives 2. Objective pronouns – Used as direct objects, indirect objects, objects of the preposition 3. Possessive pronouns – Used to show possession Iwe you he she itthey meus you him her itthem my mineour ours your yours his her hers itstheir theirs Spring break is so fun for Apple, Ricci, and (I, me).

18 subject verb direct object Apple likes Skye and (I, me, myself). PASS GUM 3.1.c. Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly. Apple is the subject. Skye and me are the direct OBJECTS. The direct object receives the action of the verb (like from Apple). Since me is an “object,” you can’t use the pronoun I. You use the pronoun I for “subjects.”

19 PASS GUM 3.1.c. Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly. subject verb indirect object direct obj. Ricci told Skye and (I, me, myself) some gossip. People, I don’t do it the hard way. I just eliminate the “Skye and…” and listen for what sounds right. Listen… Ricci told I some gossip. Ricci told me some gossip. Ricci told myself some gossip. The answer is me.

20 subject verb dir. obj. (prepositional phrase ending w/object of prep.) Skye gave a gift to Apple and (I, me, myself). subjects verb direct obj. Apple and (I, me, myself) like Ricci. It’s easy; just mentally mark out the “compound element”: Apple and… Then you can listen for the correct pronoun answer! Skye gave a gift to Apple and (I, me, myself). Apple and (I, me, myself) like Ricci.

21 PASS GUM 3.1.c. Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly. 1. (Me and Skye, Skye and Me, Skye and I) are here in Aruba waiting for you! (I am here…) 2. Skye said that (her and you, you and her, she and you) could waterski when you get here. (…she could waterski…) 3. There’s the cutest place that Skye found for (she and you, her and you) to have a “spa day”! (…for her to have a “spa day”!) 4. There’s also a great spot right near the town for (you and I, you and me, you and myself) to go running. (…for me to go running.) 5. Hurry up and get here ‘cause Skye can’t wait to see (you and me, you and I, you and myself) try parasailing! (…to see me try parasailing!)

22 PASS GUM 3.1.d. Make pronouns agree with their antecedents. Every computer in the lab has (their, its) own personality. Its is a pronoun. Its must “agree” (be matching singular or plural) with the noun that its refers to earlier in the sentence. That’s “pronoun-antecedent agreement.” Now look, people. Computer means one computer. You can’t talk about one computer and then go and say their. Their means more than one. Get it? Match them up, people! Computer is singular; its is singular. Its that simple!

23 PASS GUM 3.1.d. Make pronouns agree with their antecedents. Now you try a couple: All of the contestants thought that (his or her, their) science projects were judged fairly. Each of the students wants to do (his or her, their) best. Psst! Great job, people! You’re remembering that the subject of the sentence is never found in a prepositional phrase!

24 I hope you noticed that All is a plural pronoun. All is the subject. All matches their. They are both plural! Each is singular. Each means “each one.” Each if the subject. Each matches his or her. They are both singular! All of the contestants thought that (his or her, their) science projects were judged fairly. Each of the students wants to do (his or her, their) best. Psst! I just sort of mentally “cross out” the prepositional phrase. That way, I make sure I have the real subject in sight to match up with any pronouns or verbs.

25 Now try this one: Everybody on our block was late to (his or her, their) bus stop this morning. Hint: Is Everybody a singular or plural pronoun? PASS GUM 3.1.d. Make pronouns agree with their antecedents. Everybody…it looks obviously plural…but why would they ask us if it’s obvious…it must be a trick…

26 PASS GUM 3.1.d. Make pronouns agree with their antecedents. Everybody was late to (his or her, their) first hour this morning. Question: Is Everybody a singular or plural pronoun? Answer: Everybody is a singular indefinite pronoun. (We say Everybody is, not Everybody are, right?) So…Everybody and their DO NOT match! I told you it was a trick.

27 It drives me crazy to hear people say “his or her” over and over and over! Educated people try to think of a way to avoid saying his or her over and over. You could say Everybody was late to first hour… or Everybody was late to school… or The bus was running late. His or her, however, can get kind of awkward! PASS GUM 3.1.d. Make pronouns agree with their antecedents.

28 Sometimes when I lie quietly at the spa, I think, “Does anyone use proper grammar like that any longer?” And I hear a far away voice answer, “Yes, little Skye, it is we, the grownups in your future life, who employ standard English and who expect you to use it if you want to succeed after high school and/or make a good salary. Then I sigh and adjust my eye cucumbers and mentally practice irregular past participles. …bring, brang, have brungen…..buy, bought, have boughten….spit, spat, have sputen….

29 PASS GUM 3.1.h.1. Use infinitive phrases, gerund phrases, participial phrases, and prepositional phrases to vary sentence structure. INFINITIVE GERUND PREPOSITIONAL PARTICIPIAL

30 PASS GUM 3.1.h.1. Use infinitive phrases, gerund phrases, participial phrases, and prepositional phrases to vary sentence structure. INFINITIVE PHRASE infinitive phrase (subject) verb pred. adj. Subject: To count sheep can be fun. subject verb infinitive phrase (dir. obj.) Direct Object: Skye likes to count sheep.

31 PASS GUM 3.1.h.1. Use infinitive phrases, gerund phrases, participial phrases, and prepositional phrases to vary sentence structure. GERUND PHRASE gerund phrase (subject) verb pred. adj. Subject: Counting sheep can be fun. subject verb gerund phrase (dir. obj.) Direct Object: Skye likes counting sheep. subject verb ---prep. phrase Object of Preposition: Skye thinks of with gerund phrase for the object of the preposition-- counting sheep.

32 PASS GUM 3.1.h.1. Use infinitive phrases, gerund phrases, participial phrases, and prepositional phrases to vary sentence structure. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE ----introductory prepositional phrase----- subject verb In the middle of the night, Skye looked prepositional phrase for the sheep. subject verb pred. nom prepositional phrase Skye felt better after a good night’s rest prepositional phrase in her comfortable bed. We always need a comma after an introductory series of prepositional phrases.

33 PASS GUM 3.1.h.1. Use infinitive phrases, gerund phrases, participial phrases, and prepositional phrases to vary sentence structure. PARTICIPIAL PHRASE intro. participial phrase subject verb adverb 1. Counting sheep, Skye slept soundly introductory participial phrase subject verb dir. obj. 2. Entertained by the sheep, Skye counted them prepositional phrase in her sleep. subject nonessential participial phrase verb 3. Skye, dreaming about the sheep, slept adverb soundly. We always need commas with nonessential participial phrases. We always need commas with introductory participial phrases.

34 PASS GUM 3.2.b.14. Use a comma to set off parenthetical expressions. What are they, Tia? Jael, parenthetical expressions are like little side remarks. What does that mean? You know, they’re like little interrupters. Oh…like when people burp or hiccup? No, I mean like, in fact, and, of course… Oh, Tia, you are, of course, my only love. Uh, Jael, this cake you made is, in fact, delicious.

35 PASS GUM 3.2.b.14. Use a comma to set off parenthetical expressions. A writer should (after all) be able to hear the interruption when (for example) a parenthetical expression is used. We don’t, of course, really use parentheses around parenthetical expressions; we set them off with commas. Why are they called “parenthetical” expressions? They are like little explanatory expressions that sound as if they could be in parentheses. Get it? “parentheses…” “parenthetical…”

36 PASS GUM 3.2.b.14. Use a comma to set off parenthetical expressions. Commonly used parenthetical expressions: after all, at any rate, by the way, consequently, for example, for instance, however, I believe (hope, etc.), incidentally, in fact, in general, in the first place, meanwhile, moreover, naturally, nevertheless, of course, on the contrary, on the other hand, that is, therefore My problem, on the other hand, is eating too much food! My boyfriend, by the way, is a great chef.

37 PASS GUM 3.2.b.14. Use a comma to set off parenthetical expressions. Parenthetical expressions are “interrupters.” They plop down right in the middle of an independent clause, splitting it open. parenthetical subject expression verb dir. object --prep. Jael Cimarron, by the way, is the owner of phrase three restaurants. Yeah…parenthetical expressions can come between subjects and verbs or they can come after the verb. See how,by the way, splits the sentence in half right between the subject (Jael Cimarron) and the verb (is)!

38 PASS GUM 3.2.b.19. Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses. subject verb subject verb Ollie is strong; Zippy is energetic. A compound sentence with a semicolon separating its two independent clauses is very sophisticated!

39 PASS GUM 3.2.b.19. Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses. subject verb predicate adjective Ollie is strong; Why is Ollie is strong; an independent clause? Hint: Two reasons My independent clause has a subject and verb (Ollie is).

40 PASS GUM 3.2.b.19. Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses. subject verb predicate adjective ; Zippy is smart. Why is Zippy is smart. an independent clause? Yes! 1. It has a subject and verb and 2. It can stand on its own. My independent clause also has a subject and verb (Zippy is).

41 Write two sentences, each with two independent clauses separated by a semicolon. 1._____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2._____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

42 PASS GUM 3.2.b.20. Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional expressions followed by a comma. subject --verb- direct obj. conjunctive adv. sub. adverb verb Andre loves soccer; however, he also loves direct obj. (gerund ph.) flying kites. Check it out: Independent Clause #1: Andre loves soccer Independent Clause #2: he also loves flying kites Conjunctive Adverb: ;however,

43 Commonly Used Conjunctive Adverbs accordingly, additionally, also, anyway, besides, consequently, furthermore, however, indeed, instead, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, still, then, therefore Commonly Used Transitional Expressions as a result, at any rate, by the way, for example, for instance, in other words, in addition, in fact, of course, that is Independent clause: 1. Has a subject and verb 2. Can stand on its own PASS GUM 3.2.b.20. Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional expressions followed by a comma.

44 Andre, this is Apple. Your kite is awesome! Listen, I have a grammar question. I noticed you listed of course and in fact as transitional expressions to be used between two independent clauses. Well, Jael and Tia said of course and in fact are parenthetical expressions to be used as interrupters in the middle of one independent clause. What’s up with that? Um, also, Ollie said you like me…

45 PASS GUM 3.2.b.20. Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional expressions followed by a comma. subject verb Apple, of course, wants a boyfriend. subject verb sub. verb Apple likes Andre ; of course, she likes Ollie also. subject verb Andre,in fact, enjoys soccer. subject verb sub. verb Andre plays soccer ; in fact, he is the best player on his team. They can be both. Look:

46 PASS GUM 3.2.b.20. Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional expressions followed by a comma. Now you write two sentences, each with a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma. 1.__________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2.__________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

47 PASS GUM 3.3.a. Identify and revise run-on sentences and fragments. Run-on Sentence – Two or more sentences written as if they were a single sentence. Well, what is a run-on sentence? I’ve been hearing about it since 3rd grade. It’s when you write what are really two sentences, but you run them together without proper punctuation.

48 PASS GUM 3.3.a. Identify and revise run-on sentences and fragments. Ollie and Apple are more than friends, they are in love. What is the best change, if any, to make to friends, they in the above sentence? A. friends they B. friends; they C. friends They D. No change. Hmm… Two independent clauses… s-v/s-v… Ollie and Apple are / they are… hmm… can’t join 2 indep. clauses with a comma… The answer is B!

49 PASS GUM 3.3.a. Identify and revise run-on sentences and fragments. Sentence Fragment – Part of a sentence that is written as if it were a complete sentence. Do you know what a fragment is, Ollie-Ollie- Ossum- Hunkey- Pie? Yes, my little Apple Dumpling. It’s when you write a sentence that can’t stand on its own. It’s just part of a sentence.

50 PASS GUM 3.3.a. Identify and revise run-on sentences and fragments. Pardon my spa wear, people…did I just hear Apple and Ollie are together? Wow! OK -- Let’s review just what you need for a proper sentence. You need a subject (noun or pronoun). You need a verb (action, like run or talk or linking, like is or were or was being). That’s all! Then you can add some prepositional phrases, participial phrases, adjectives, direct objects, appositive phrases, etc. Oops…time for my sauna. See you.

51 subject verb The dog barked. sub. verb direct object The dog bit the pizza delivery girl. adjective adj. subj. -verb- -prepositional phrase- The energetic little dog barked at the delivery girl participial phrase subj. verb ---prep. phrase-- Hiding under the bed, the dog waited for its owner. --introductory adverb clause-- subj verb After Andre came home, Zippy was found. PASS GUM 3.3.a. Identify and revise run-on sentences and fragments. Yes, now these are good sentences -- subject and verb -- then whatever else you want to add…

52 PASS GUM 3.3.a. Identify and revise run-on sentences and fragments. Repair the sentence fragments. 1. A breed of dog developed in Great Britain, the terrier, small and wiry, very active and fearless. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. The terrier, requiring firm training, a loyal companion and great family pet. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

53 PASS GUM 3.3.a. Identify and revise run-on sentences and fragments. Repair the run-on sentences. 1. Initially, terriers were bred to kill rats and other vermin, the terriers of today still dig and pursue small prey. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. The word terrier comes from the French terrier, derived from the Latin terra, meaning earth, this describes the terrier’s digging habit. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

54 PASS GUM 3.3.d. Write simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. Observe comma and semicolon rules. Use a comma before and, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet when they join independent clauses. That is what is called a “compound sentence.” Compound sentence? Compound verbs? What’s the difference? Who cares? I am all wet, and I dropped my groceries! Do not use a comma to separate “compound verbs.”

55 PASS GUM 3.3.d. Write simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. Observe comma and semicolon rules. COMPOUND SENTENCE! Two independent clauses joined by a conjunction: and but or not for so yet sub. verb pred. adj. conj. sub. verb dir. obj. I am all wet, and I dropped my groceries. See? Independent clause (I am all wet) - then a comma and conjunction - (,but) - then independent clause (I dropped my groceries).

56 PASS GUM 3.3.d. Write simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. Observe comma and semicolon rules. COMPOUND VERB! Two verbs separated by a conjunction - With two verbs – no comma (Skye ran and fell.) With more than two verbs – use the “items in a series” rule (Skye ran, slipped, and fell.) Oh! I see! No comma! This is not a compound sentence! It’s just one independent clause with two verbs (a compound verb). sub. verb dir. object verb --prep. phrase-- I dropped my groceries and slipped in a puddle.

57 PASS GUM 3.3.d. Write simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. Observe comma and semicolon rules. Skye went to the little grocery store around the corner for her party snacks and returned home with her groceries later. What is the best change, if any, to make to snacks and in the above sentence? A. snacks, and B. snacks; and C. snacks. and D. No change Now it’s your turn. Does the sentence have a compound verb or is it a compound sentence? (The compound sentence will need a comma; the sentence with a compound verb will not.)

58 PASS GUM 3.3.d. Write simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. Observe comma and semicolon rules. subj. verb prepositional phrase prepositional phrase- ---prep- Skye went to the little grocery store around the corner for ositional phrase----- conj. verb adverb -prepositional phrase- adv. her party snacks and returned home with her groceries later. What is the best change, if any, to make to snacks and in the above sentence? A. snacks, and B. snacks; and C. snacks. and D. No change Perfect! Yes, Skye is the subject. The two compound verbs are went and returned. We do not need a comma because this is not a compound sentence. It is just one independent clause – one sentence that has one subject and two verbs.

59 PASS GUM 3.3.d. Identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing. GOOD: Eating popcorn is more fun than drinking Diet Coke. Parallel structure – The use of the same grammatical forms to balance related ideas in a sentence BAD: To eat popcorn is more fun than drinking Diet Coke. Look, people, it’s easy. Ollie taught it to me. If you have two or more “like parts” in a sentence, make them look alike. That’s all there is to it.

60 PASS GUM 3.3.d. Identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing. Andre likes playing soccer, flying kites, and to go on dates with Skye. Heg, Agglg, Gad dew keo wadz wog (chew, chew, chomp, chomp) widda siddunz? Sick, Ollie! Don’t talk with a mouth full of popcorn! And yes, I can tell what’s wrong with the sentence. Hey, are Andre and Skye going out?

61 PASS GUM 3.3.d. Identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing. Andre likes playing soccer, flying kites, and to go on dates with Skye going on dates with Skye. OK, people. You try this one. Apple enjoys being with Ollie when he uses good table manners, when he treats her with respect, when he drives carefully, and whether he brings her home on time – that’s important.

62 PASS GUM 3.3.d. Identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing. Apple enjoys being with Ollie when he uses good table manners, when he treats her with respect, when he drives carefully, and whether he brings her home on time – that’s important. Did you figure out what’s not parallel? Right! The sentence says, “Apple enjoys being with Ollie…” and then there are three “when” clauses. The last one starts with “whether.” That’s not parallel. …, and when he brings her home.

63 PASS GUM 3.3.d. Identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing. Revise these sentences that have parallel structure problems. 1. Ollie’s weightlifting has helped him to strengthen his muscles, to increase his endurance, and in sharpening his boxing skills. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 2. Skye’s attitude, fitness, ability, and whether or not she performs well determine her placement at swim meets. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

64 Hey. Want a cup of coffee? Sit down. Let’s talk. Here’s the deal – I just don’t know what I saw in Ollie. Ugh! The amount of popcorn stuck in his teeth! He won’t quit calling me, but I think I really need to concentrate on myself before I think any more about him and me. (Yes, doubters, it’s correct. Think …about him…about me…) Anyway, I’m going to work on my grammar and try to improve my pronouns and verbs before I worry about men anymore. What was I thinking? Did you see him sweating to lift those tiny weights? Please! Tia and Jael broke up. Now, I like a man who can cook, and Jael likes to run like I do. I’m not thinking about guys, though. I’m thinking about my own self. That’s who’s important here – my own little self. I saw Andre the other day at the park, and he was saying that he…


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