“Those born Deaf are incapable of learning” Aristotle -355 B.C.E “Deaf children are a sign of sin” St. Augustine “Higher education of the Deaf is useless. Congressman Elhiu Washburn- 1860 C.E. “The Deaf are often looked on as a sort of monstrosity” Alexander Graham Bell- 1890 C.E. “Deaf people are not ready to function in a hearing world” Jane Spielman- Gallaudet University’s Board of Trustee’s Chairperson
‘The problem is not that the students do not hear. The problem is that the hearing world does not listen” Rev Jesse Jackson “A Deaf person can do anything a hearing person can except hear.” I. King Jordan
1 st Federally-Chartered Deaf University Founded in 1864 Former President of the University Edward Miner Gallaudet 1864-1910 – Hearing Dr. Percival Hall 1910-1945 – Hearing Leonard M. Elstad Class of ‘23 1945-1969 – Hearing Edward C. Merrill, Jr. 1969-1983 – Hearing W. Lloyd Johns 1983 – Hearing Jerry C. Lee 1984-1987 – Hearing Elisabeth A. Zinser – 1988 – Hearing Gallaudet had been around 124 years Board of Trustees never allowed a Deaf person to be name president
Jerry C. Lee I. King Jordan Harvey Corson Elisabeth Zinser Presidents Council on Deafness (PCD) Jane Bassett Spilman *Know as the “The Gallaudet Four” Greg Hilbok* Tim Rarus* Jerry Covell* Bridgetta Bourne-Firl* Phillip Bravin
Served as President of Gallaudet from 1984-1987 Was not deaf and knew very little ASL Was president during Gallaudet College’s expansion into Gallaudet University Decided to leave Gallaudet to assume a position as vice-president of Bassett Industries His resignation from Gallaudet sparked a huge debate over who would replace him.
Became Deaf at the age of 21 due to a skull fracture from a motorcycle accident Class of ’70 Earned his Doctorate in Psychology Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Gallaudet 1 of 4 candidates being considered as the 7 th President of Gallaudet University 1 of 3 candidates that were Deaf
Vice Chancellor of the University of North Carolina 1 of 4 candidates being considered to be the 7th President of Gallaudet University Only candidate that was not deaf No knowledge of American Sign Language or Deaf Culture Had to have an interpreter with her at all times.
Established in the Mid-1980’s Main Priority was to promote and protect deaf interests, particularly in the area of employment. Purpose- advocacy and advisory group for deaf faculty and staff at Gallaudet Created a presidential search committee, advocating the recruitment of qualified deaf presidential candidates. The PCD also established a task force which interviewed each of the the candidates. PCD named I. King Jordan and Harvey Corson as the only acceptable candidates Felt none of the hearing candidates had any experience with deafness or deaf people Felt it was time finally time for a Deaf President
Gallaudet University's Board of Trustees chairperson Had been on the Board of Trustees for many years Not Deaf, chose not to learn ASL "Deaf people are not ready to function in a hearing world”
Class of ‘89 Class President for only 1 day before the DPN protest started Student Activist for DPN Known for his calmness and professionalism with the press Face of Deaf President Now
Class of ’88 Government Major Student Body President before Hilbok The most politically experienced of the “Gallaudet Four” Student Activist
Class of ’89 Unsuccessfully ran for Student Body President Lost to Greg Hilbok Student Activist Primarily focused on convincing students and faculty to join the protest Known as the “Spiritual Leader” of the protest due to his “fire-and- brimstone” speaking style
Class of ’89 Government Major Jerry Covell’s Running Mate Student Activist Soft-Spoken yet charismatic
Large rally was held by students supporting the selection of a deaf president A candle light vigil was held by students, faculty and staff on the evening of March 5 th to show their support of electing one of the two deaf candidates. March 5 th - the Gallaudet University Board of Trustee’s takes a vote for electing the 7 th President of the university
March 6th – Board issues a press release stating Elizabeth Zinser (the sole hearing candidate) as the 7th President Board met off campus at the Mayflower Hotel and made themselves unavailable for questions Hundreds of DPN supporters marched to the Mayflower Hotel in protest Board hadn't come to campus to make themselves available for questions, the campus decided to go to them
The Board finally allowed for representatives of the protestors to meet in private In the hopes of resolving conflict Jane Spilman addressed the protestor and explained the Board’s decision to elect a non-Deaf president Protestors became more enraged due to what they called Spilman’s “dismissive attitude and tone”
Students barricaded the Gallaudet University Campus Chained entrances to the campus and build Locked the gates kept people from coming onto campus grounds Formed a human chain blocking administrators onto campus Several cars were parked on each of the University's entrances Tires we deflated as a way Representatives for the students, faculty and staff met with board for over 3 hours. The Board was given 4 demands Board rejects all of the demands Harvey Goldstein tell a packed auditorium of the news just before Spilman was to make the announcement Students/supporters of DPN took their first march to the Capitol Building.
PRESIDENT'S COUNCIL ON DEAFNESS POSITION OF THE STUDENTS, FACULTY AND STAFF OF GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY *** The appointment of the new president of Gallaudet University has resulted in an OVERWHELMING vote of NO CONFIDENCE in the Board of Trustees! DEMANDS 1) We demand that the Board of Trustees appoint one of the two deaf finalists as President, Gallaudet University... NOW! 2) We demand that Jane Basset Spilman resign from the Board immediately and that a deaf Board Member be elected as chairperson. 3) We demand that the Board initate the process of changing its By-Laws to conform with the C.O.E.D.'s reccomendations to Congress of a 51% deaf member representation on the Board of Trustees. 4) We demand that no student, staff or faculty member of Gallaudet University be subject to any reprisals as a result of their standing on this matter. 11:30 am, March 7, 1988
Students and supporters gather to march on the capitol. Harvey Goldstein interrupts Spilmean before she can speak. Informs everyone that the demands were not met and there was no use in staying
The gates were reopened and people were allowed on campus Students boycotted classes Attended rallies and speeches Faculty met with each other and decided what their role in the protest would be. “Gallaudet Four” immerge as the leaders of the protest
Staff, faculty, alumni, media, interpreters and fundraising coordinators, as well as legal and legislative liaisons continued their work in a less visible but well coordinated manner The protests were not only covered by local media Featured on national television news programs and news papers
Congressmen David Bonior of Michigan and Steve Gunderson of Wisconsin meet with small group from Gallaudet Both Congressmen were on the Board of Trustees Zinser agrees to begin her presidency early She felt her presence would bring an end to the protests I. King Jordan meets Zinser and Spilman Publically announces support and endorsement of Zinser Faculty and staff meet again Publically announce their support for the students
Zinser and Spilman meet with Congressman Bonior and Gunderson Congressmen urge Zinser to resign Bonior publically announces his support for the students Zinser and Hilbok were interviewed by Ted Koppel of ABC’s Nightline Acadamy Award Winner and Deaf actress Marlee Matlin is also on to show her support
Zinser and Spilman speak of forcing their way onto campus Students hot wire buses and park them in front of Gallaudet’s gates and deflate tires in response Communities show their support Students bused in from other deaf schools Home owners in the area bring food and supplies American Postal Workers Union’s President hand delivered a check for $5000 I. King Jordan retracts his support for the Board's decision to appoint Zinser Told onlookers that he supported the students and the 4 Demands fully Zinser announces her resignation later that night
Although Zinser stepped down, students not satisfied Only ½ of a demand 3 ½ to go Spring Break starts Students vowed to stay on campus rather than go on spring break until the 4 demands were met At noon, students and supporters organized a march to capitol building Variety of speeches including Congressman Gunderson Greg Hilbok was named “Person of the Week” by ABC News
Day of Rest Many supporters attended on campus barbeques and an art festivals
Board of Trustee’s held an emergency meeting Lasted all day Jane Spilman and Phil Barvin hosted their last press conference Spilman had resigned Bravin was named the next chair of the Board of Trustees A taskforce would be set up to determine the best way to achieve a 51% deaf majority on the Board No reprisals... and Dr. I. King Jordan was named eighth president —and first deaf president— of Gallaudet University.
Took office as President of Gallaudet University March 6, 1988 Resigned as President of Gallaudet University March 8, 1988 Went on to be named first female president of the University of Idaho
Resigned from her role as chairperson of the Board of Trustees Resigned the Board entirely on March 13, 1988, Exactly 1 week after the protest began claiming her continued presence on the Board "an obstacle to healing."
Class of ‘66 IBM Executive 1 of only 4 Deaf members on the Gallaudet University Board of Trustees Became the intermediary between student leaders and the Board during the protest Would later be named first deaf chairperson of the Gallaudet University Board of Trustees
After a vote by the Board of Trustees, I. King Jordan was appointed as the 1 st Deaf President March 13 th, 1988- December 31 st 2006 In 1990, President Bush appointed Jordan Vice Chair of the President's Committee on Employment of People with disabilities.
Opened up the doors for a new generation of Deaf Deaf individuals could stand together Fight for their Rights Job Openings that were “off-limits” to deaf The Deaf community became activists They fought back against the oppression And Won Gave hope to many Deaf around the world Message was simple: We can fight back…and we can win!
Opened our eyes. Hearing world now see what the deaf can do rather than what they can’t More parents are using sign language with their hearing babies Stimulates early language and communication development More hearing people are taking ASL ASL is recognized in many high schools and colleges as a foreign language
Signed July 26 th by President George W. H. Bush Included Deaf under disabilities that cannot be excluded Mixed reviews among Deaf Community Part of Community didn’t feel being Deaf was disabling Other part of Community felt added protection from discrimination
Hearing Impaired- Deaf Culture does not want to be labeled for something they can’t do Deaf-Mute- Almost all individuals in the Deaf Community have fully functional vocal chords they can and do speak, even if their speech is not as clear as hearing people’s Cases of people who are truly both deaf and mute are extremely rare. Deaf and Dumb- was originally meant to describe a person who could not speak
“1. The notion that one is superior based on one’s ability to hear or behave in the manner of one who hears. 2. A system of advantage based on hearing ability. 3. A metaphysical orientation that links human identity with speech.” -Tom Humphries 1977
“Appears in the form of people who continually judge deaf people’s intelligence and success on the basis of their ability in the language of the hearing culture. It appears when the assumption is made that the deaf person’s happiness depends on acquiring fluency in the language of the hearing culture. It appears when deaf people actively participate in the oppression of other deaf people by demanding of them the same set of standards, behavior, and values that they demand of hearing people” -H-Dirksen L. Bauman Gallaudet University
Term “audism” started in Gallaudet University classes in 2000 Only 4 students out of 20 students had heard of it By the year 2002 14 out of 20 students had heard and could explain In the same class as racism, sexism, classism, anti- Semitism, heterosexism, and ableism
Jumping in to help a deaf person communicate w/o their consent. Insisting a Deaf person lip-read you or write Refusing to call an interpreter or using family members. Telling interpreter not to interpret something. Assuming that those with better speech/English skills are superior.
Asking a Deaf person to “tone down” facial expressions because they are making others uncomfortable. Refusing to explain to a Deaf person why everyone is laughing – “never mind, I’ll tell you later, it doesn’t matter.” Seeking or valuing hearing expert’s input over Deaf’s
Gretchen, if you read this, I need help describing the key points of audism.