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How Deaf Friendly Is Your Library? Presented By Marie Nicholl-Lynam and Christopher Carnell Illustrations by Oscar Sanchez Las Vegas Clark County Library.

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Presentation on theme: "How Deaf Friendly Is Your Library? Presented By Marie Nicholl-Lynam and Christopher Carnell Illustrations by Oscar Sanchez Las Vegas Clark County Library."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Deaf Friendly Is Your Library? Presented By Marie Nicholl-Lynam and Christopher Carnell Illustrations by Oscar Sanchez Las Vegas Clark County Library District

2 OUTLINE Terms Deaf Culture/Experience Communication Visual Environment Collection Development Interpreters

3 TERMS The physical condition of lacking in the sense of hearing deaf: Hard of hearing: The loss of hearing over time due to age or as the result of an injury in which a lessened capacity for hearing remains. Tend not to identify themselves as Deaf Being deaf does not make one culturally Deaf.

4 Deaf: (culturally) Membership to a group whose identity revolves around deafness, it’s customs, history, values, experiences and the use of sign language. Deafness not looked upon as a disability but as a different human experience

5 Oralism: Manualism: The education of the deaf through the use of speech, mimicking mouth movements, and the use of residual hearing and speech reading instead of sign language. The education of deaf persons through the use of sign language Total Communication: The concept of utilizing manual, aural and oral modes to ensure effective communication.

6 STAGES OF DEAFNESS Congenitally deaf: Born deaf Adventitiously deaf: Deaf after birth Pre lingual: During the first three years of life Post lingual: After the age of three Child hood deafness: Pre vocational: While a teenager Post vocational: While an adult

7 CAUSES OF DEAFNESS/HEARING LOSS Genetics: Several recessive and dominant forms Illness: Measles, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Pre-mature Birth Trauma: Head injuries, resulting in tinnitus or damage to the ear itself or aural processing centers of the brain. Noise: Accounts for half of all cases of hearing loss Age: Passage of time

8 ASL AND OTHER SIGN LANGUAGES American Sign Language (ASL) Laurent Clerc (1785-1869) 1 st deaf teacher of the deaf in the United States Co-founder of the American School for the Deaf At Hartford Connecticut. A hybrid of Old French Sign Language and Old Kent Sign Language

9 Vineyarders: Dialect used in the Chilmark and West Tisbury communities of Martha’s Vineyard, Maryland. Communities with an high incidence of hereditary deafness. Old Kentish Sign Language

10 Pidgin Sign Signed English A blend of ASL and Signed English used to facilitate communication between native ASL signers and Native English speakers English rendered into sign. Utilizes English word order and suffixes such as, –ing,-ment,and –ness.

11 International Sign / Gestuno Published in 1973 by a World Federation of the Deaf Committee. A collection of approximately 1500 signs. Used at times at World Federation for the Deaf congress and events such as the Deaflympics. ASL is not universal There are over 200 distinct, naturally- occurring sign languages

12 DEAF CULTURE Residential schools Values and beliefs Clubs Pride Seek out connections with other deaf Etiquette Lip reading (Speech Reading)

13 THINGS TO AVOID The term “Deaf-mute”: Not an accurate term as most deaf have the capacity to speak Simply choose not to speak because: 1. It is not their primary means of communication Deaf and dumb: Obvious reasons Do not refer to a Hard of Hearing person as deaf or a deaf person as Hearing Impaired.

14 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL Founder of the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. Leading advocate for the oralists. 1847- 1922 Both his mother and wife were deaf. Felt the deaf should learn to speak to so they could integrate into the society

15 “Bell believed that deafness was a terrible curse... A pathological aberration [that] perpetuated negative genetic traits… that deaf persons weakened the society in which they lived.” A Place of their Own: Creating the Deaf Community in America John Van Cleve and Barry Couch Memoir Upon the Formation of a Deaf Variety of the Human Race (1883)

16 The elimination of residential schools Forbidding the use of sign language in education of deaf students Prohibiting deaf adults from teaching deaf children Proposed legislation against the marriage of congenital deaf mutes 90% of deaf persons have hearing parents 90% of deaf persons have hearing children

17 By 1919 80% of residential day schools had become “oral.” Deaf teachers became unemployed, forced out of their profession. Signing and Oral students were segregated Oral students caught signing were punished Some children left without any language at all, denied access to sign while being forced to learn to speak

18 SIGN IN NEVADA There are approximately 550 deaf or hard of hearing students in CCSD that are receiving services. Self Contained class sizes are approximately 10-11 students each. There are no schools for the deaf in Nevada. Las Vegas Charter School for the Deaf closed in March of 2012 due to lack of funding. Offer both Total Communication and Aural/Oral programs for speech development.

19 NEVADA Nevada 2008: 77,377 out of 2,568,111 or 3.01% Nevada 2011: 81,972 out of 2,723,322 West Virginia 2008: 109,193 out of 1,787,710 or 6.05%


21 Face and lips must be visible Choose a location that is well-lit Avoid standing with your back to any light source Look directly at the person with whom you are talking Avoid distracting background noise Speak naturally - don't exaggerate, shout, or speak too slowly Use natural facial expressions Use gestures

22 DEAF EXPERIENCES IN THE LIBRARY Staff has no ASL knowledge/skills Lack of services for the deaf DVDs with captioning are not clearly marked Programs in many languages, but not ASL Treated differently/Overlooked


24 SEEING THE LIBRARY Is the building’s layout intuitive? Are signs direct & easy to understand? Are services/departments clearly marked? Is the building well lit? Is visual clutter a problem?

25 SIGNS AND VISUALS Clear Concise Thoughtfully placed Free of specialized language or jargon Pictures or images

26 COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT Thoughtful collection development entails more than buying some sign language books, dvds, & dictionaries…

27 CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE PURCHASE Currency of information Outdated or pejorative terms Legal, medical, technological Visual quality Author/producer credentials Who is the intended audience? Is it in ASL or Signed Exact English?

28 CONSIDERATIONS FOR A/V MATERIAL Is it captioned? Does the packaging indicate captioning? Know the difference between subtitles & captioning. SubtitlesCaptioning Word for word Denotes speaker(s) Includes relevant sound effects, noises, music Word for word Concept

29 WHAT YOU MAY NEED TO DO Under Title II of the ADA, all state and local governments are required to take steps to ensure that their communications with people with disabilities are as effective as communications with others. Department of Justice Nondiscrimination on the Basis of State and Local Government Services Regulations, 28 C.F.R. Part 35, § 35.160 (2005)

30 FURNISHING AUXILIARY AIDS TO ENSURE “EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION” Depending upon the situation, an auxiliary aid could be a qualified interpreter, an amplification device, TTY, notetakers,… the list is long.

31 NEVADA QUALIFICATIONS NRS CHAPTER 656A INTERPRETERS & REALTIME CAPTIONING PROVIDERS C.A.R.T Community Educational EIPA/Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment Levels of certification Advanced Skilled Apprentice

32 PROFESSIONAL INTERPRETERS Requires formal education & training. Is not merely someone who can sign. Has national or state certification. Adheres to a professional code of conduct. Subject to censure Continuing education.

33 HIRING INTERPRETERS Determine client’s needs Budget for interpreters Where to find an interpreter Professional Services NV Dept. of Health & Human Services Build relationships

34 WORKING WITH AN INTERPRETER Provide list of client needs Logistics Lighting Space Cues Interpreter is there to facilitate Everything will be interpreted Interpreting is physically taxing

35 GETTING STARTED Educate staff Conquer visual environment Research & Plan Collections Webpage Events Look long range Evaluate

36 REMEMBER Creating a positive library experience for deaf patrons starts with you.


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