Presentation on theme: "How Children Learn Language. Lec. 3"— Presentation transcript:
1How Children Learn Language. Lec. 3 The development of speech comprehension
2Fetuses & speech input Research experiments The mother’s speech sounds were found to be able to reach the ear of the fetus above the background sounds. But whether the ear of the fetus is developed enough to send such significant sounds to the brain is not proved yet.
3Speech comprehension without speech production: The case of mute-hearing children While the ability to utter speech in appropriate situations is a good indicator of language knowledge, the absence of the ability to produce speech may not indicate a lack of language knowledge.Christopher NolanAnne McDonaldRie
4Speech comprehension without speech production Persons who are mute but hearing can develop the ability to comprehend speech without their being able to produce speech, so long as their basic intelligence is intact.Mute people can develop a grammar, a mental grammar based on speech comprehension; that enabled them to understand the speech to which they were exposed.
5Speech comprehension with speech production In normal children speech comprehension develops in advance of speech production.If children did not first learn to understand the meaning of words and sentences, they wouldn’t be able to use words or sentences in a meaningful way.speech understanding always precedes production, which is the pattern that continues throughout the acquisition process.The two systems of comprehension and production do not develop separately in the normal child.
6Speech comprehension with speech production Pre-speech normal infants:Most of the research on comprehension indicated that it was 8 to 10 months of age when kids started to attach language labels to particular objects.Comprehension and production processes develop in a parallel mode with production always trying to keep up with comprehension.
7The relationship of speech production, speech comprehension, & thought I. speech comprehension necessarily precedes speech productionII. Thought as the basis of speech comprehension
8Speech production lags behind speech comprehension The Huttenlocher studyThe Sachs and Truswell studyA reading before speaking study
9The relationship of speech production, speech comprehension , & thought Speech comprehension necessarily precedes speech productionThought as the basis of speech comprehension
10Child-Directed Speech What is child-directed speech? It is the sort of language that children receive when they are young. It is also referred to as ‘Motherese’, ‘Parentese’, ‘Child-Directed-Speech’ (CDS), ‘Care Giver Speech’, and ‘Adult-to- Child Language’.
11Child-Directed Speech Characteristics of child-directed speech:Immediacy & concretenessGrammaticality of inputShort sentences & simple structuresVocabulary: simple & shortPauses at the end of utterancesSlower rateRepetitiousnessExaggerated intonation, pitch, & stressOlder children, too, adapt their speechWHY?
12Functions of child-directed speech Getting the addressee's attentionKeeping and holding the addressee's attention
13What role does CDS play in acquisition? CDS offers potential lessons in how to take turns and in what to say when.It also offers potential mapping lessons/ information on how to talk about different kinds of situations, which words to use, and for what.
14Baby TalkBaby Talk is a form of parentese or motherese but with its own characteristics [lexical & syntactic]Baby Talk involves the use of vocabulary and syntax that is overly simplified and reducedBaby Talk is something that adults learn from other adults and involves standardized vocabulary. It is standard in the sense that such vocabulary is culturally transmitted over generations
15Baby Talk English examples [C + V + (c)] × N bow-wow barking dog pee-pee urinechoo-choo trainJapanese examples:shee-shee urinewan-wan barking dogbu-bu car engine
16Baby TalkSyntax plays a less prominent role in Baby Talk than does vocabulary.Substituting proper names for personal pronouns feature of baby talk.Parents & use occasional use of standard syntax in Baby Talk [children’s telegraphic stage]E.g.Mommy give Tony bananaNOT, I will give you a banana
17The effect of Parentese & Baby Talk in language learning A positive but small effect and for very young children