Presentation on theme: "Epidemiology, Prevention and Control programs of Hepatitis C in Egypt Mostafa K. Mohamed and El-Said A. Aoun Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population."— Presentation transcript:
Epidemiology, Prevention and Control programs of Hepatitis C in Egypt Mostafa K. Mohamed and El-Said A. Aoun Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population WHO informal Consultation with VHPB Geneva, Swittzerland 13-14 May 2002
Prevalence of HCV infection Incidence of new Infections or Seroconversions Notification Systems Prevenetion Programs Laboratory /Clinical Networks Role of Authorities Cost and Burden of disease WHO informal Consultation with VHPB Geneva, Swittzerland 13-14 May 2002
Rural life 1996 62 Mil. Population 60 % in Rural Areas 2002 Population 70 Mil. Population Life expectancy 66 y
The Role of Parenteral Antischistosomal Therapy in the Spread of Hepatitis C Virus in Egypt Christina Frank 1, Mostafa K. Mohamed 1, G. Thomas Strickland 1, Daniel Lavanchy 2, Ray R. Arthur 2, Laurence S. Magder 1, Taha El Khoby 3, Yehia Abdel-Wahab 3, El-Said A. Ohn 3, Wagida Anwar 3, Ismail Sallam 3 1 = HCP Project 2 = World Health Organization 3 = Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population THE LANCET Vol 355 March 11, 2000
Comparison of Exposure Index and Prevalence Lower Egypt Middle Egypt Upper Egypt Alexandria
6 9 8 10 18 27 35 34 35 32 35 36 13 23 38 46 47 55 47 41 27 <051015202530354045505560>60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 National Survey > 10000Workers > 5000 Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Among Egyptian Workers 1996 and in the National Survey 1997-1998
HBsAgHBVHCV %* Age Adjusted Rates/100 4.522.514.5Total Egypt 5.224.918.9Rural 3.719.59.1Urban 5.023.916.4Males 4.02112.7Females Prevalence of HCV HBV and HBsAg in Egypt 1996 * Adjusted for +ve predictive value of ELISA 98% specificity and 98% sensitivity).
Etiology of Acute Viral Hepatitis in Egypt 1997-2000 All -ve 13 16% 24% 1% % 21% 25% HBV HAV HEV Mixed HCV Median Age 26 Median Age 12 Median Age 44 Median Age 46 Median Age 34 Analysis of 1860 Acute hepatitis cases
Hepatitis C Virus Infection in a Community in the Nile Delta Seroincidence and Risk Factors Center for Field and Applied Research Mostafa K. Mohamed, Fatma Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Abdel-Hamid, Nabiel N. Mikhail, Mostafa Habib, Wagida Anwar, G. Thomas Strickland, Laurence S. Magder, Alan D. Fix, Ismail Sallam
Over 2 years of follow-up, 2502/ 3394 seronegative (73.7%) followed-up 25 had valid anti-HCV seroconversion 11 had HCV RNA seroconversions RNA Seroconversion Rate 2.7/1000 P.Y. 95% C.L. 1.1-4.3 /1000 P.Y. Anti-HCV seroconversion Rate 6.2 /1000 P.Y. 95% C.L. 3.8 - 8.6 /1000 P.Y.
95% CI for OR VariableOR Lower CIUpper CI Significance Kids Seroconversion MOTHER HCV 6.81.432.8.0171 FATHER HCV.184.108.40.20603 INVASIVE Procedures 3.941.0215.1.0468 Frequent INJECTN S 1.44.1712.4.7431 RAZOR Sharing 1.8.2811.4.5424 AGE.96.871.1.4334 SEX.72.262.0.5225
Notification for Acute Jaundice : National Surveillance in 110 Fever hospitals and referral hospitals A National Cancer Registry with HCC notification in 8 MOHP cancer centers and University Centers Research on use of sentinel surveillance based on blood banks for monitoring changes in community prevalence by comparing ratios blood banks prevalence with the surrounding communities in 6 geographical locations over 2 years.
1- Blood Banks : Screening of blood/blood products Central management, Reporting Provision of Lab Equipment Training, supplies, Monitoring 2- Central and Peripheral Infection Control Comittees 3- Development of Guidelines for Infection Control
Training of Health Care personnel on : 1- Safe Injection Practices 2- Destruction of disposable needles 3- Proper Disposal of contaminated invasive materials 4- Proper sterilization of reusable material 5- Universal precautions and barrier techniques 6- Proper Counseling of Patients and their families Public Education :Use of Contaminated materials Reduce public use of injections Unsafe practices shaving/circumcision
NO Current Laboratory or Clinical Networks Blood Bank Serology reporting is The only network available Several Liver Disease Societies now collaborate for exchange of experiences but no common network Role of Authorities Cost and Burden of disease
There are many public calls on authorities including Peoples Assembly to Develop guidelines for patient management Act for control of transmission Provide Public support for provision of treatment of infected individuals Cost and Burden of disease
MOHP Authorities are Supporting Research projects lead by the Ministry of Health and Universities in collaboration with International Agencies NIH CDC and WHO Physicians Syndicate authorities Organize meetings with national insurance authorities for developing guidelines for patient management News and Media Authorities Raising Awareness for prevention of infection Role of Authorities cont.
Fatal in < 2 years In chronic HCV infection Patients Occurs annually in 4% of Cirrhotic patients Liver Cell damage Portal Fibrosis, Portal Hypertension Variceal bleeding occurs in ~ 20% of HCV- infected individuals After 20 of Infection Periportal Fibrosis, Portal Hypertension, variceal bleeding occurs in ~ 80% of individuals After 15-20 of Infection Changes of Liver Disease Spectrum in Egypt over 70 Years At Age 30-40’s At Age 60-70’sAt Age 50-60’sDeath 1930-1980 Schistosomiasis 30 % Hepato-Splenomegaly 1990-2000 HCV 14% HCC Liver Cirrhosis 1990 HCV 13%
Cost of STD. TTT = ALL ALT 1.5N X 30000 Cost of complication = Annually 10/100 ALT1.5N X 5000 Lost Productivity = Annually 20/100 ALT1.5N X 1500 Cost of YLL = Annually 3/100 ALT1.5N X 20000 Cost of Alternative TTT = Annually All ALT > N X 1000 TTT of All Cases with Viraemia will prevent infection of new cases