Social Situation of Development “... at the beginning of each age period, there develops a completely original, exclusive, single, and unique relation, specific to the given age, between the child and reality, mainly the social reality, that surrounds him. We call this relation the social situation of development at the given age. The social situation of development represents the initial moment for all dynamic changes that occur in development during the given period. It determines wholly and completely the forms and the path along which the child will acquire ever newer personality characteristics, drawing them from the social reality as from the basic source of development, the path along which the social becomes the individual”
“... at each given age level, we always find a central neoformation seemingly leading the whole process of development and characterizing the reconstruction of the whole personality of the child on a new base. Around the basic or central neoformation of the given age are grouped all the other partial neoformations pertaining to separate aspects of the child’s personality and the processes of development connected with the neoformations of preceding age levels. The processes of development that are more or less directly connected with the basic neoformation we shall call central lines of development at the given age and all other partial processes and changes occurring at the given age, we shall call peripheral lines of development. It is understood that processes that are central lines of development at one age become peripheral lines of development at the following age,...” Line of Development
“At each given age period, development occurs in such a way that separate aspects of the child’s personality change and as a result of this, there is a reconstruction of the personality as a whole - in development [i.e., during the critical periods] there is just exactly a reverse dependence: the child’s personality changes as a whole in its internal structure and the movement of each of its parts is determined by the laws of change of this whole.” Age Levels
Crisis periodSelf-Relation BirthThe child physically separates herself from the mother and creates the conditions for the ‘front brain’ to begin work, through which alone social interaction is possible. Crisis at 12 monthsStill unaware of herself as a person distinct from those around her (Ur-wir), the child manifests her own will and her own personality for the first time through interaction with adults. Crisis at age 3Having gradually developed a consciousness of themself as a distinct person, the child separates themself from the mother psychologically, and by differentiation of behaviour from affect, brings their behaviour under control of their own will. Crisis at age 7Having gradually expanded their radius of activity beyond the family, the child gains control over their relations with other people by the differentiation of internal and external life, manifested in an ability to act strategically Crisis at age 13Having acquired knowledge appropriate to their social position, the child distances herself from her birth right by taking a critical stance toward it.
Leading Activity and The Zone of Proximal Development
Social Situation of Development Central NeoformationCentral. Line of Development Crisis at Birth Physically separated from the mother, while still biologically dependent and unable to contribute to meeting its own needs at all. Diffuse consciousness connected with subcortical regions of brain. From beginning of mental life up to ability to respond to stimuli from other people. Infancy (1-12 months) The immobile infant is dependent on adults to meet their every need. Increased energy and motor- control to actively deal with the external world. From passive instinct via conditioned reflex to intelligent interest in world and use of tools. Crisis at age 1 Mute and immobile, despite the lack of skill, the child must make a start with speech and walking. The first manifestation of own personality, and development of own will. from mute to baby-talk, from crawling to stumbling, beginning to participate. (ur-wir)
Social Situation of Development Central NeoformationCentral. Line of Development Early childhood (1-3 yo) Needs are determined and met by adults, but he has not (yet) mastered language. speechfrom “ur-wir” of infancy to “Ich,” from unconscious to communicative speech Crisis at Age 3 The child is denied recognition as an independent person with their own will. Ability to act contrary to inclination (desire, direction, interest) from ability to control self to ability to determine self. Pre-School Age (Middle Childhood) Although lacking knowledge, the child must develop an intellectual orientation. intellect?Independent activity becoming able to do things without supervision Crisis at age 7 Strategic action impossible with childlike directness NarcissismDifferentiation of behaviour and consciousness