Contemporary collaboration The Arts Catalyst CAiiA-STAR, now known as The Planetary Collegium The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation The Laboratory, Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art, Oxford The National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA) The Wellcome Trust
The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. C.P. Snow. 1959 I felt I was moving among two groups – comparable in intelligence, identical in race, not grossly different in social origin, earning about the same incomes, who had almost ceased to communicate at all
Complexity. Paul Greenhalgh. 2002 The gap between the arts and sciences grew so wide during the 20 th century, the age of subject specialisation, that the scientists and artists understood each other principally through caricature
The evils of the 20 th century resided not in the whims of men like Hitler and Stalin but in “rational cognitive thinking”, “depersonalised objectivity” and “the cult of objectivity”…..Science is impersonal, inhuman (it) kills God Arthur I Miller, quoting Vaclave Havel. 1992-4
Christine Borland. The Dead Teach the Living. 1997 The Sculpture Project. Anatomy Institute. Munster University A critique of reason: the ordering of knowledge, nature & mankind
Science is meaningless, because it gives no answer to our question, the only important question for us, What shall we do and how shall we live? Leo Tolstoy.
Thomas Kuhn - The Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 1962 A paradigm shift ‘Discovery commences with awareness of anomaly, with the recognition that nature has somehow violated the paradigm induced expectations …exploration.. closes only when the paradigm…has been adjusted so that the anomalous has become the expected… until the scientist has learned to see nature in a different way
Michel Foucault - The Order of Things. An archaeology of the human sciences - 1966 Historians see the emergence …of an opposition between those who believe in the immobility of nature – above all Linnaeus – and those who…Bonnet.. Diderot… already have a presentiment of life’s creative powers, of its exhaustible power of transformation… 2004 edition, p.138
‘Historians want to write histories of biology in the 18 th century, but they do not realise that biology did not exist then… All that existed was living beings, which were viewed through a grid of knowledge constituted by natural history’ Foucault. 2004 edition. p139
Michel Foucault. 1966. (2004 edition. P140) 16 th C; History was the inextricable and completely unitary fabric of of all that was visible of things..to write the history of a plant or an animal was as much a matter of …its elements or organs….the virtues that it was thought to possess… the legends and stories…. its place in heraldry…. the medicaments that were concocted…..the foods it provided….what the ancients recorded of it…what travellers might have said 18 th C; the great unflawed table of species, genera and classes……nature is posited only through the grid of denominations and – though without such names it would remain mute and invisible – it glimmers far off beyond them
A natural order, an unnatural divide Studies of vessel of the thorax, heart and blood vessels. Compared with the seed of a plant. Leonard da Vinci. 1501 Muscle man seen from front with rhinoceros Charles Grignion. 1747
Wax anatomical figure. Ercole Lelli or Anna Morandi. 1740-80 Ecorche of Standing Man. Jean Antoine Houdon. 1792
Ecorche statuette of “Horse Trainer”. 16 th C. / Drawing of an Ecorche Statuette. 17 th C.
Henry Gray. Anatomy descriptive and surgical. 1858 “anatomical illustration had as much to do……with aesthetics and theological understanding as with the narrower intentions of medical illustration as now understood’ Martin Kemp Spectacular Bodies 2000
“an event in the order of knowledge” Foucault. 1966 Anthropology, psychology, the social sciences
John Lamprey Front and Profile views of a Malayan male. c1868-9
Carl and Frederick Dammann. The Races of Men. 1875 Civilised Europeans ………..Australians, Melanesians and Micronesians
Phrenology Physiognomy Philippe Pinel. Traite medico- philosophique. Paris. 1801
Hugh Welch Diamond. Photographs of the Insane. 1850s. Surrey County Asylum. “each picture speaks for itself with the most marked impression and indicates the exact point which had been reached in the scale of unhappiness”
Francis Galton. Composites. 1880s “to co-operate with the workings of nature by seeing that humanity shall be represented by the fittest races”
Cesare Lombroso. Psychologist and Physician. L’Uomo Delinquente. 1878 “Man is only a recent invention” Foucault. 1966
soft versus hard, intuitive versus analytical, inductive versus deductive, visual versus logical, random versus systematic, autonomous versus collaborative Foucault. 1966 18th C; the great unflawed table of species, genera and classes……nature is posited only through the grid of denominations and – though without such names it would remain mute and invisible – it glimmers far off beyond them
Art, nature and order “A mere naturalistic copy of a plant on to an industrial object will not in itself form ornament….In order to become ornament, natural forms must be arranged in some orderly pattern…” 1895 Eugene Grasset. 1897.
Phillippe Wolfers. Civilisation and Barbary. 1897 She is incessantly speaking to us but betrays not her secret….She is the only artist. Goethe. Aphorisms
Metamorphosis Alfonse Mucha. La Nature. 1900 R. Lalique. Dragonfly Woman. 1897 “not only with them, but of them” Louis Sullivan
the inextricable and completely unitary fabric of of all that was visible of things..to write the history of a plant or an animal was as much a matter of …its elements or organs….the virtues that it was thought to possess… the legends and stories…. Foucault. 1966
We must seek to use every means at our disposal to avoid seeing in events or things, a greater degree of order than that which actually exists E.J. Zeller. 1964
Gerhard Lang. The Typical Inhabitant of Schloss-Nauses. 1992
Jo Spence/Terry Dennet The Cancer Project. 1982 Property of Jo Spence? and Monster.
Christine Borland. 1999 HeLa Hot / Photograph of Henrietta Lacks
“In short…….science needs the humanities to teach us the quirky and richly subjective side of our own enterprise, to instruct us in optimal skills for communication, and to place proper boundaries upon our competencies” Stephen J Gould. The Hedgehog, the Fox and the Magister’s Pox. 2004