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Autism Spectrum Disorders

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Presentation on theme: "Autism Spectrum Disorders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Autism Spectrum Disorders
By Kirsten Moreland and Kelsey Burns

2 Introduction What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?
What are the diagnostic criteria? What are the eligibility requirements for Special Education in Minnesota?

3 Autism Spectrum Disorders (Also known as pervasive developmental disorders)
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (or atypical autism) Rett Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Asperger Syndrome Autism


5 Definition Autism Spectrum Disorders:
Disorders are characterized by varying degrees of impairment in: (1) Communication skills (2) Social interactions (3) Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior.

6 Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (or atypical autism)
Persons who display behaviors typical of autism but to a lesser degree and/or with an onset later than three years of age

7 Rett Syndrome Normal development for five months to four years, followed by regression and intellectual disabilities. This is the only ASD that is more common in females than males and it is very rare.

8 Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Normal development for at least 2 and up to 10 years, followed by significant loss of skills Much more prevalent in males.

9 Aspergers Similar to mild autism but without significant impairments in cognition and language.

10 Autism Definition from IDEA:
A developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that affects a child’s performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child’s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the childe has serious emotional disturbance. IDEA:

11 Diagnostic Criteria For information on diagnostic criteria follow this link for the DSM criteria:

12 Eligibility A clinical or medical diagnosis is not required; even with the clinical or medical diagnosis a student must meet the Minnesota eligibility criteria

13 Focus on Autism Characteristics Prevalence Causes Facts
Signs of Autism Simulations

14 Autism Characteristics
Impaired social interaction Picked up/cuddled Smile/laugh Objects vs. people Impaired communication 50% thought to be mute Robotic, parroting or reverse pronouns Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior Twirling, flapping of hands, rocking Restricted range of interest

15 Autism Characteristics Continued
Impaired cognition Remember location in space rather than concept comprehension ie. “shopping” Autistic savant: splinter skills ie. Rain Man Abnormal Sensory Perceptions Hyperresponsive or hyporresponsive Synaesthesia: the stimulation of one sensory or cognitive system results in the stimulation of another

16 Video

17 Prevalence Autism is the most prevalent of the ASD’s and the second most common is PDD-NOS which is a less severe form and/or later onset. Interactive Autism Network

18 Causes Neurological No single, known cause Genetic Problems
Depending on the gene, a child may be more susceptible to the disorder Can affect the way brain cells communicate Can affect the severity of the symptoms Environmental Problems Causes many other health problems Exploring whether or not trigger autism ie. air pollutants and viral infections

19 Vaccines and Autism No reliable study has shown a link between the MMR vaccine and autism Avoiding vaccines can place your child at risk for catching serious diseases

20 Facts Approximately 1 in 110 children are diagnosed with autism.
Over the last 30 to 40 years there has been great increase in the number of diagnosed cases. Autism is the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the U.S. Sometimes students can be identified as LD or DCD when if fact they have autism.

21 More Facts Autism is more prevalent in boys than girls
Approximately 3:1 or 4:1 Autism is more prevalent in siblings of those with ASD Autism is more prevalent in those with other developmental disorders such as Fragile X syndrome, Developmental Cognitive Delayed, or Tuberculosis.




25 Early Signs of Autism 6 months 9 months 12 months 16 months 24 months
No big smiles or warm, joyful expressions 9 months No back and forth sharing of sounds, smiles, etc 12 months No consistent response to his/her name No babbling No back and forth gestures, such as pointing showing, reaching, waving, or three-pronged gaze 16 months No words 24 months No two-word meaningful phrases (without imitation or repeating)

26 What does it feel like to have Autism?
Class activity Break into groups of three Reflect on social difficulties of those with autism Stations Need four groups Reflect on the sensory experience of those with autism

27 What can we do as teachers?
Research programs Accommodations in the Lesson Accommodations in the Classroom Assessment Practices Resources

28 MN Department of Education
Research does not tell us which types of intervention work best for different children Decisions made by the team based on needs of individual child A variety of resources and agencies must collaborate to develop comprehensive programs based on each child’s needs

29 Curriculum of Programs
The program should teach the child: Ability to attend Imitate others Comprehend and use language Play appropriately with toys Socially interact with others

30 NRC Recommendations for Education Intervention
Immediate enrollment into intervention programs immediately after diagnosis Active participation in intensive programming for a minimum of 25 hours per week Planned and repeated teaching opportunities in various settings At least 1 adult for every 2 young children Parent training Ongoing assessment and evaluation NRC= national research council This is only for children 8 and younger 30

31 Accommodations in the Lesson
Choose or make materials with clear, visual completion criteria. Tasks that have visually clear instructions. Provide students with visual aids for lectures. Prepare students for transitions. Use the student’s interests in lesson planning. Use clear, concise language. Modeling. Incorporate the strengths of students with autism in your lessons. If student has difficulty with handwriting, for some assignments, allow alternative ways to respond. Reinforce positive behavior.

32 Accommodations in the Classroom
Close proximity to teacher/teacher’s assistant. Procedures to keep noise levels acceptable. Private location w/o distractions for test taking. Eliminate clutter. Present instructions orally and written. Frequent clarifications/reminders . Refer to agendas. Work is organized into manageable ‘chunks’. Classroom expectations clear and understood, as well as consequences for misbehavior. Extra assistance is provided as needed.

33 Teaching Strategies Direct Instruction Behavior Management
Find ways to support positive behaviors rather than punish negative behaviors Instruction in Natural Settings– settings and interactions that non-disabled children enjoy Teaching one-on-one or in small groups

34 Assessment Practices Testing accommodations vary on case to case basis
Extended time and small-group of individual administration are common accommodations

35 Resources

36 Resources Exceptional Learners by Daniel P. Hallahan, James M. Kauffman, Paige C. Pullen MN Dept. of Education How to create an inclusive classroom

37 Resources Good resource to help identify autism Autism Speaks organization Promoting Social Interaction: 4 strategies

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