5Definition Autism Spectrum Disorders: Disorders are characterized by varying degrees of impairment in:(1) Communication skills(2) Social interactions(3) Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
6Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (or atypical autism) Persons who display behaviors typical of autism but to a lesser degree and/or with an onset later than three years of age
7Rett SyndromeNormal development for five months to four years, followed by regression and intellectual disabilities.This is the only ASD that is more common in females than males and it is very rare.
8Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Normal development for at least 2 and up to 10 years, followed by significant loss of skillsMuch more prevalent in males.
9AspergersSimilar to mild autism but without significant impairments in cognition and language.
10Autism Definition from IDEA: A developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that affects a child’s performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child’s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the childe has serious emotional disturbance.IDEA:
11Diagnostic CriteriaFor information on diagnostic criteria follow this link for the DSM criteria:
12EligibilityA clinical or medical diagnosis is not required; even with the clinical or medical diagnosis a student must meet the Minnesota eligibility criteria
13Focus on Autism Characteristics Prevalence Causes Facts Signs of AutismSimulations
14Autism Characteristics Impaired social interactionPicked up/cuddledSmile/laughObjects vs. peopleImpaired communication50% thought to be muteRobotic, parroting or reverse pronounsRepetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviorTwirling, flapping of hands, rockingRestricted range of interest
15Autism Characteristics Continued Impaired cognitionRemember location in space rather than concept comprehensionie. “shopping”Autistic savant: splinter skillsie. Rain ManAbnormal Sensory PerceptionsHyperresponsive or hyporresponsiveSynaesthesia: the stimulation of one sensory or cognitive system results in the stimulation of another
17PrevalenceAutism is the most prevalent of the ASD’s and the second most common is PDD-NOS which is a less severe form and/or later onset.Interactive Autism Network
18Causes Neurological No single, known cause Genetic Problems Depending on the gene, a child may be more susceptible to the disorderCan affect the way brain cells communicateCan affect the severity of the symptomsEnvironmental ProblemsCauses many other health problemsExploring whether or not trigger autismie. air pollutants and viral infections
19Vaccines and AutismNo reliable study has shown a link between the MMR vaccine and autismAvoiding vaccines can place your child at risk for catching serious diseases
20Facts Approximately 1 in 110 children are diagnosed with autism. Over the last 30 to 40 years there has been great increase in the number of diagnosed cases.Autism is the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the U.S.Sometimes students can be identified as LD or DCD when if fact they have autism.
21More Facts Autism is more prevalent in boys than girls Approximately 3:1 or 4:1Autism is more prevalent in siblings of those with ASDAutism is more prevalent in those with other developmental disorders such as Fragile X syndrome, Developmental Cognitive Delayed, or Tuberculosis.
25Early Signs of Autism 6 months 9 months 12 months 16 months 24 months No big smiles or warm, joyful expressions9 monthsNo back and forth sharing of sounds, smiles, etc12 monthsNo consistent response to his/her nameNo babblingNo back and forth gestures, such as pointing showing, reaching, waving, or three-pronged gaze16 monthsNo words24 monthsNo two-word meaningful phrases (without imitation or repeating)
26What does it feel like to have Autism? Class activityBreak into groups of threeReflect on social difficulties of those with autismStationsNeed four groupsReflect on the sensory experience of those with autism
27What can we do as teachers? Research programsAccommodations in the LessonAccommodations in the ClassroomAssessment PracticesResources
28MN Department of Education Research does not tell us which types of intervention work best for different childrenDecisions made by the team based on needs of individual childA variety of resources and agencies must collaborate to develop comprehensive programs based on each child’s needs
29Curriculum of Programs The program should teach the child:Ability to attendImitate othersComprehend and use languagePlay appropriately with toysSocially interact with others
30NRC Recommendations for Education Intervention Immediate enrollment into intervention programs immediately after diagnosisActive participation in intensive programming for a minimum of 25 hours per weekPlanned and repeated teaching opportunities in various settingsAt least 1 adult for every 2 young childrenParent trainingOngoing assessment and evaluationNRC= national research councilThis is only for children 8 and younger30
31Accommodations in the Lesson Choose or make materials with clear, visual completion criteria.Tasks that have visually clear instructions.Provide students with visual aids for lectures.Prepare students for transitions.Use the student’s interests in lesson planning.Use clear, concise language.Modeling.Incorporate the strengths of students with autism in your lessons.If student has difficulty with handwriting, for some assignments, allow alternative ways to respond.Reinforce positive behavior.
32Accommodations in the Classroom Close proximity to teacher/teacher’s assistant.Procedures to keep noise levels acceptable.Private location w/o distractions for test taking.Eliminate clutter.Present instructions orally and written.Frequent clarifications/reminders .Refer to agendas.Work is organized into manageable ‘chunks’.Classroom expectations clear and understood, as well as consequences for misbehavior.Extra assistance is provided as needed.
33Teaching Strategies Direct Instruction Behavior Management Find ways to support positive behaviors rather than punish negative behaviorsInstruction in Natural Settings– settings and interactions that non-disabled children enjoyTeaching one-on-one or in small groups
34Assessment Practices Testing accommodations vary on case to case basis Extended time and small-group of individual administration are common accommodations