Presentation on theme: "English Word Formation Deny A. Kwary Airlanga Universityhttp://www.kwary.net."— Presentation transcript:
English Word Formation Deny A. Kwary Airlanga Universityhttp://www.kwary.net
Types of Word Formation 1.Compounding 2.Prefixation 3.Suffixation 4.Conversion 5.Clipping 6.Blends 7.Backformation 8.Acronyms 9.Onomatopoeia 10.Eponyms 11.Toponyms
1. Compounding Definition: Two or more words joined together to form a new word. Examples: Home + work homework Pick + pocket pickpocket The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts. Types of compounds: Compound nouns Compound verbs Compound adjectives
2. Prefixation Class-changing prefixes: a- asleep V to Adj be- bewitch N to V en- enslave N to V Class-maintaining prefixes: in- indefinite Adj to Adj fore- foreman N to N Etc.
3. Suffixation Suffixes forming Nouns N from N: -dom kingdom N from V: -ee employee N from Adj: -ce dependence Suffixes forming Verbs V from N: -ify beautify V from Adj: -en shorten Suffixes forming adjectives Adj from N: -al educational Adj from V: -able understandable Adj from Adj: -ish greenish Suffixes forming Adverbs: -ly, -ward, and –wise.
4. Conversion Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new syntactic category. Types of Conversion Verb to Noun: to hit a hit Adj to N: a final game a final N to V: a sign to sign Adj to V: an empty box to empty
5. Clipping Definition: Shortening a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables Examples: Gasoline Gas Hamburger Burger delicatessen microphone deli mike
6. Blends Definition: Similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted. Examples: Motor + hotel Motel Breakfast + lunch Brunch Wireless + Fidelity Sheep + goat Wi-fi Shoat
7. Back-formations Definition: Creative reduction due to incorrect morphological analysis. Examples: editor (1649) edit (1791) television (1907) televise (1927) Paramedical (1921) paramedic (1967)
8. Acronyms Definition: Words derived from the initial letters of several words and use them as a new word Examples: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Treats SWOT Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus SCUBA
9. Onomatopoeia Definition: Words created to sound like the thing that they name. EnglishJapaneseTagalogIndonesian Cock-a-dooKokekokkoKuk-kakaukKukuruyuk MeowNyaNiyawMeong
10. Eponyms Definition: a person after whom a discovery, invention, place, etc., is named. Examples: Celcius (Anders Celcius) Cook Islands (James Cook)
11. Toponyms Definition: a place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature. Examples: Montana (‘mountains’ in Spanish) Mississippi (‘big river’ in Chippewa)
Deny A. Kwary Airlanga Universityhttp://www.kwary.net