2GenieA girl named Genie was found in the United States in Genie's father had kept her locked in a room from the age of 20 months until age 13. Genie was harnessed naked to an infant's potty seat and left alone for hours and days through the years. When she was remembered at night, she was put to bed in a homemade straitjacket. There were no radios or televisions in the house, people spoke in hushed tones, and the only language Genie heard was an occasional obscenity from her father. He hated noise, and if Genie made any sound her father would growl at her like a dog or beat her with a stick. As a result of her confinement, Genie could not walk and her eyes could not focus beyond the boundaries of her room. She was malnourished, incontinent, and salivated constantly [Curtiss, 1977].Despite all this, when the psychologist Susan Curtiss first met her, Genie was alert, curious, and intensely eager for human contact. When frightened or frustrated she would erupt into silent frenzies of rage--flailing about, scratching, spitting, throwing objects, but never uttering a sound. Aside from not speaking, her lack of socialization was apparent in her behavior: She would urinate in unacceptable places, go up to someone in a store and take whatever she liked of theirs, and peer intently into the faces of strangers at close range. Although Curtiss worked with her for several years, Genie never developed language abilities beyond those of a 4-year-old, and she ended up being placed in an institution.
3AnnaAnna was born in Pennsylvania to an unwed mother. The mother’s father was so enraged at Anna’s illegitimacy that the mother kept Anna in a storage room and fed her barely enough to stay alive. She never left the storage room or had anything but minimal contact with another human for five years. When authorities found her in 1938, she was physically wasted and unable to smile or speak. After intensive therapy, Anna did make some progress. She eventually learned to use some words and feed herself.
4IsabelleIsabelle was discovered in Ohio in the 1930s at the age of six. She had lived her entire life in a dark attic with her deaf-mute mother, after her grandfather decided he couldn’t bear the embarrassment of having a daughter with an illegitimate child. He had banished both of them to the attic, where they lived in darkness and isolation. When Isabelle was discovered, she couldn’t speak. After about two years of intensive work with language specialists, Isabelle acquired a vocabulary of about 2,000 words and went on to have a relatively normal life.
5The Importance of Socialization Socialization: the process of learning to participate in a groupHuman social behavior we consider normal is learnedEx. In the U.S. couples walk side by side, in India women will walk slightly behind the men.Socialization begins at birth and continues throughout lifeWithout prolonged socialization children do not learn basics like walking, talking, and loving.
6Harry HarlowDesigned an experiment to see the effects of social isolation on rhesus monkeysIn one experiment Harlow separated infants from their mothers and exposed them to two artificial mothers (made of wire but comparable in size)One of the substitutes had exposed wire on her body but was a source of foodThe other mother was warm and softThe infants consistently chose the warm mother over the wire mother even thought the wire was the source of food
7Harry HarlowHarlow showed that infant monkeys need intimacy, warmth, physical contact and comfortMonkeys raised in isolation became distressed, apathetic, withdrawn, hostile adult animalsNever exhibited normal sexual patternsAs mothers they either rejected or ignored their babiesExperts believe that human infants have similar needs to that of the monkeys (emotional needs for affection, intimacy, and warmth)Infants denied these needs have difficulty forming emotional ties with others
8Mom and Grandfather Charged with Torturing Girl Found Chained to a Bed Sept. 1999 RIVERSIDE, California CNN The mother and grandfather of a 6yearold girl who was found chained to a brass bed in a house littered with feces and trash pleaded not guilty to three felony charges of child endangerment.Cindi Topper, mother of victim Betty Topper, and Loren Bess, the grandfather, were arraigned Thursday in criminal court on charges of torture, the infliction of great bodily injury and false imprisonment of a child.They were represented by a court appointed public defender, bail for each of them was set at 250,000 and they remain in custody.Betty Topper was taken to Loma Linda University Children's Hospital after authorities found her Tuesday chained to a bed post by what appeared to be a dog leash.According to police, the girls mother said Betty was tied to the bed for five years.The girl remains in fair condition and doctors continue to assess her developmental level.
9Cont…Authorities were tipped by an anonymous caller who described the house but gave no address. The caller said the child had not been seen for years.Deputies from the Riverside County Sheriffs department searched door to door until, they said, the child's grandfather let them in.There was trash floor to ceiling. There was human and animal feces everywhere, said Sgt. Perri Feinstein Portales. They made their way to a back bedroom where they see a little girl, chained by a dog leash to a brass bed with a harness around her waist. She had nothing but a diaper on. She had waist length hair and was covered with feces and filth.She was extremely malnourished and pale, as if she had never seen the light of day. She cowered in a fetal position when officers tried to talk to her. Eventually she was smiling and stroking an officers hair when we transported her.In 1983, Topper was severely beaten by her former boyfriend, Ivan Von Staich, after he killed her husband, beating him with a hammer and shooting him three times. Cindi Topper was critically injured in the attack and underwent two cranial surgeries.
10What do you think?Do you think Betty Topper will ever be able to overcome her experiences?What do you feel the punishment should be for her mother and grandfather?
11Evaluating yourself…Write a paragraph describing what you believe others think of you. Be honest!
12Socialization and the Self Symbolic Interactionism and SocializationCharles Horton Cooley and George Herbert MeadHuman nature is a product of societyUse 5 concepts to explain:The self conceptThe looking glass selfSignificant othersRole takingThe generalized other
13Socialization and the Self Self Concept: image of yourself as having an identity separate from other peopleLooking Glass Self: self concept based on our idea of others’ judgments of usIt’s the product of a 3-stage process and can be distortedWe imagine how we appear to othersWe imagine the reactions of others to our imagined appearanceWe evaluate ourselves according to how we imagine others have judged us.Some people are more important than others to our looking glass self significant others
14Socialization and the Self Role Taking: assuming the viewpoint of another person and using that viewpoint to shape the self conceptSeeing ourselves through the eyes of othersDevelops the ability through a process:Imitation stage: 18 months of age to 2 years oldImitation of the physical and verbal behavior of a significant otherPlay stage: age 3-4Child acts and thinks as they think the significant adult wouldGame stage: children anticipate the actions of others based on social rulesDuring this you develop your self concept, attitudes, beliefs, and values
15Role Taking Cont…In the game stage a person stops acting the way the significant adult does but acts out of principleEx. Being a honest person not because Mom is honest but rather because it is wrong to be dishonestGeneralized other: result of the stagesIntegrated conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of one’s community or society
16Socialization and the Self: The Self Self= the “me” plus the “I”“me” is the part of the self created through socializationPredictability and conformity“I” is the part of the self that accounts for the unpredictable, unlearned actsThe “me” usually takes the “I” into consideration when making decisions
17Open response…If not for rules and expectations, would you dress differently than you do? Would you be different than you are?
18How is this an example of the looking glass self? “No one can make you feel inferior without your consent.”Eleanor Roosevelt
19Agents of Socialization The Family and SocializationWithin the family a child learns to:Think and speakInternalize norms, beliefs and valuesForm basic attitudesDevelop a capacity for intimate and personal relationshipsAcquire a self image
20Agents of Socialization Socialization in SchoolsSupervision by non-relatives1st impersonal relationshipRewards and punishments based on performance not affectionTaught to be independentHidden Curriculum: informal and unofficial aspects of culture that children are taught in schoolsDiscipline, order, cooperation, and conformity
21Agents of Socialization Peer Group SocializationPeer group: set of individuals of roughly the same age and interestsEstablish give and take relationshipsSelf-direction, decision making, thinking, feeling, and behaving on their ownSocial flexibility
22Agents of Socialization Mass Media and SocializationMass Media: TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, movies, books, the Internet, tapes, and discs1st introduction to culture for most childrenActs as a role model and offers ideas on valuesNegatives: violence (a 1998 study showed that by age 16 a child will have seen 20,000 homicides on TV)Studies also show that viewing aggressive behavior increasing aggressive behavior
23Questions:List all the avenues of media that have played a part in your socialization.Some psychologists believe that peer groups have more influence on later socialization than the family group. Give reasons why you agree or disagree.Self Reflection: Which group do you feel is the most influential in the present stage of you socialization?
25Processes of Socialization How does desocialization prepare people for new learning?Total institutions: Mental hospitals, cults, and prisonsSeparated from societyControlled and manipulated by those in chargePurpose is to change the residentDesocialization: people give up old norms, values, attitudes and behaviorDestruction of old self concepts of personal identity
26Processes of Socialization How does desocialization prepare people for new learning?Replace personal possessions to promote samenessSerial numbers to identify people
27Processes of Socialization How does resocialization begin?Once the self concept has been brokenResocialization: people adopt new norms, values, attitudes and behaviorsUse a system of rewards and punishment to establish new conceptsRewards like extra food, special responsibilities, periods of privacyPunishments: shaming, loss of special privileges, physical punishments, isolation
28Processes of Socialization Anticipatory SocializationPreparing for new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviorsDoesn’t usually occur in prisons or mental hospitals b/c it is a voluntary changeCan happen with changes in one stage of your life to anotherEx. Teenagers: may abandon norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors and become new reference groupThe group used to evaluate themselves and from which they acquire attitudes, values, beliefs and norms