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Presentation on theme: "Socialization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Socialization

2 Genie A girl named Genie was found in the United States in Genie's father had kept her locked in a room from the age of 20 months until age 13. Genie was harnessed naked to an infant's potty seat and left alone for hours and days through the years. When she was remembered at night, she was put to bed in a homemade straitjacket. There were no radios or televisions in the house, people spoke in hushed tones, and the only language Genie heard was an occasional obscenity from her father. He hated noise, and if Genie made any sound her father would growl at her like a dog or beat her with a stick. As a result of her confinement, Genie could not walk and her eyes could not focus beyond the boundaries of her room. She was malnourished, incontinent, and salivated constantly [Curtiss, 1977]. Despite all this, when the psychologist Susan Curtiss first met her, Genie was alert, curious, and intensely eager for human contact. When frightened or frustrated she would erupt into silent frenzies of rage--flailing about, scratching, spitting, throwing objects, but never uttering a sound. Aside from not speaking, her lack of socialization was apparent in her behavior: She would urinate in unacceptable places, go up to someone in a store and take whatever she liked of theirs, and peer intently into the faces of strangers at close range. Although Curtiss worked with her for several years, Genie never developed language abilities beyond those of a 4-year-old, and she ended up being placed in an institution.

3 Anna Anna was born in Pennsylvania to an unwed mother. The mother’s father was so enraged at Anna’s illegitimacy that the mother kept Anna in a storage room and fed her barely enough to stay alive. She never left the storage room or had anything but minimal contact with another human for five years. When authorities found her in 1938, she was physically wasted and unable to smile or speak. After intensive therapy, Anna did make some progress. She eventually learned to use some words and feed herself.

4 Isabelle Isabelle was discovered in Ohio in the 1930s at the age of six. She had lived her entire life in a dark attic with her deaf-mute mother, after her grandfather decided he couldn’t bear the embarrassment of having a daughter with an illegitimate child. He had banished both of them to the attic, where they lived in darkness and isolation. When Isabelle was discovered, she couldn’t speak. After about two years of intensive work with language specialists, Isabelle acquired a vocabulary of about 2,000 words and went on to have a relatively normal life.

5 The Importance of Socialization
Socialization: the process of learning to participate in a group Human social behavior we consider normal is learned Ex. In the U.S. couples walk side by side, in India women will walk slightly behind the men. Socialization begins at birth and continues throughout life Without prolonged socialization children do not learn basics like walking, talking, and loving.

6 Harry Harlow Designed an experiment to see the effects of social isolation on rhesus monkeys In one experiment Harlow separated infants from their mothers and exposed them to two artificial mothers (made of wire but comparable in size) One of the substitutes had exposed wire on her body but was a source of food The other mother was warm and soft The infants consistently chose the warm mother over the wire mother even thought the wire was the source of food

7 Harry Harlow Harlow showed that infant monkeys need intimacy, warmth, physical contact and comfort Monkeys raised in isolation became distressed, apathetic, withdrawn, hostile adult animals Never exhibited normal sexual patterns As mothers they either rejected or ignored their babies Experts believe that human infants have similar needs to that of the monkeys (emotional needs for affection, intimacy, and warmth) Infants denied these needs have difficulty forming emotional ties with others

8 Mom and Grandfather Charged with Torturing Girl Found Chained to a Bed Sept. 1999
RIVERSIDE, California CNN The mother and grandfather of a 6yearold girl who was found chained to a brass bed in a house littered with feces and trash pleaded not guilty to three felony charges of child endangerment. Cindi Topper, mother of victim Betty Topper, and Loren Bess, the grandfather, were arraigned Thursday in criminal court on charges of torture, the infliction of great bodily injury and false imprisonment of a child. They were represented by a court appointed public defender, bail for each of them was set at 250,000 and they remain in custody. Betty Topper was taken to Loma Linda University Children's Hospital after authorities found her Tuesday chained to a bed post by what appeared to be a dog leash. According to police, the girls mother said Betty was tied to the bed for five years. The girl remains in fair condition and doctors continue to assess her developmental level.

9 Cont… Authorities were tipped by an anonymous caller who described the house but gave no address. The caller said the child had not been seen for years. Deputies from the Riverside County Sheriffs department searched door to door until, they said, the child's grandfather let them in. There was trash floor to ceiling. There was human and animal feces everywhere, said Sgt. Perri Feinstein Portales. They made their way to a back bedroom where they see a little girl, chained by a dog leash to a brass bed with a harness around her waist. She had nothing but a diaper on. She had waist length hair and was covered with feces and filth. She was extremely malnourished and pale, as if she had never seen the light of day. She cowered in a fetal position when officers tried to talk to her. Eventually she was smiling and stroking an officers hair when we transported her. In 1983, Topper was severely beaten by her former boyfriend, Ivan Von Staich, after he killed her husband, beating him with a hammer and shooting him three times. Cindi Topper was critically injured in the attack and underwent two cranial surgeries.

10 What do you think? Do you think Betty Topper will ever be able to overcome her experiences? What do you feel the punishment should be for her mother and grandfather?

11 Evaluating yourself… Write a paragraph describing what you believe others think of you. Be honest!

12 Socialization and the Self
Symbolic Interactionism and Socialization Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead Human nature is a product of society Use 5 concepts to explain: The self concept The looking glass self Significant others Role taking The generalized other

13 Socialization and the Self
Self Concept: image of yourself as having an identity separate from other people Looking Glass Self: self concept based on our idea of others’ judgments of us It’s the product of a 3-stage process and can be distorted We imagine how we appear to others We imagine the reactions of others to our imagined appearance We evaluate ourselves according to how we imagine others have judged us. Some people are more important than others to our looking glass self significant others

14 Socialization and the Self
Role Taking: assuming the viewpoint of another person and using that viewpoint to shape the self concept Seeing ourselves through the eyes of others Develops the ability through a process: Imitation stage: 18 months of age to 2 years old Imitation of the physical and verbal behavior of a significant other Play stage: age 3-4 Child acts and thinks as they think the significant adult would Game stage: children anticipate the actions of others based on social rules During this you develop your self concept, attitudes, beliefs, and values

15 Role Taking Cont… In the game stage a person stops acting the way the significant adult does but acts out of principle Ex. Being a honest person not because Mom is honest but rather because it is wrong to be dishonest Generalized other: result of the stages Integrated conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of one’s community or society

16 Socialization and the Self: The Self
Self= the “me” plus the “I” “me” is the part of the self created through socialization Predictability and conformity “I” is the part of the self that accounts for the unpredictable, unlearned acts The “me” usually takes the “I” into consideration when making decisions

17 Open response… If not for rules and expectations, would you dress differently than you do? Would you be different than you are?

18 How is this an example of the looking glass self?
“No one can make you feel inferior without your consent.” Eleanor Roosevelt

19 Agents of Socialization
The Family and Socialization Within the family a child learns to: Think and speak Internalize norms, beliefs and values Form basic attitudes Develop a capacity for intimate and personal relationships Acquire a self image

20 Agents of Socialization
Socialization in Schools Supervision by non-relatives 1st impersonal relationship Rewards and punishments based on performance not affection Taught to be independent Hidden Curriculum: informal and unofficial aspects of culture that children are taught in schools Discipline, order, cooperation, and conformity

21 Agents of Socialization
Peer Group Socialization Peer group: set of individuals of roughly the same age and interests Establish give and take relationships Self-direction, decision making, thinking, feeling, and behaving on their own Social flexibility

22 Agents of Socialization
Mass Media and Socialization Mass Media: TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, movies, books, the Internet, tapes, and discs 1st introduction to culture for most children Acts as a role model and offers ideas on values Negatives: violence (a 1998 study showed that by age 16 a child will have seen 20,000 homicides on TV) Studies also show that viewing aggressive behavior increasing aggressive behavior

23 Questions: List all the avenues of media that have played a part in your socialization. Some psychologists believe that peer groups have more influence on later socialization than the family group. Give reasons why you agree or disagree. Self Reflection: Which group do you feel is the most influential in the present stage of you socialization?

24 Do Now… Do prisons rehabilitate or punish?

25 Processes of Socialization
How does desocialization prepare people for new learning? Total institutions: Mental hospitals, cults, and prisons Separated from society Controlled and manipulated by those in charge Purpose is to change the resident Desocialization: people give up old norms, values, attitudes and behavior Destruction of old self concepts of personal identity

26 Processes of Socialization
How does desocialization prepare people for new learning? Replace personal possessions to promote sameness Serial numbers to identify people

27 Processes of Socialization
How does resocialization begin? Once the self concept has been broken Resocialization: people adopt new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors Use a system of rewards and punishment to establish new concepts Rewards like extra food, special responsibilities, periods of privacy Punishments: shaming, loss of special privileges, physical punishments, isolation

28 Processes of Socialization
Anticipatory Socialization Preparing for new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors Doesn’t usually occur in prisons or mental hospitals b/c it is a voluntary change Can happen with changes in one stage of your life to another Ex. Teenagers: may abandon norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors and become new reference group The group used to evaluate themselves and from which they acquire attitudes, values, beliefs and norms

29 Pick a side… Do prisons rehabilitate or punish?

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