Ferdinand de Saussure-Bio 4 Born 26 November 1857 –(French origin, moved to Geneva) 4 From a family of many scholars 4 Studied Latin, Greek, chemistry, theology and law at University of Geneva ( ) 4 At age 21, wrote Mémoire sur le système primitif des voyelle dans les langues indo- européennes in which he proved scholars wrong.
Ferdinand de Saussure-Bio awarded doctorate at University Leipzig (Germany). 4 Taught at Paris returned to Geneva to teach there. 4 Taught ancient Sanskrit for 21 (!) years! 4 Was asked to teach a course in General Linguistics (taught it three times )
Ferdinand de Saussure-Bio 4 Influenced many different linguists, but also other disciplines: 4 Anthropology 4 Psychiatry 4 Literary criticism
Ferdinand de Saussure-Influence Some names include: 4 Claude Lévi-Strauss (Structural Anthropology) (http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?ti=06AA4000)http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?ti=06AA Roland Barthes Early works in Semiotics, put principles into application (http://we.got.net/~tuttle/)http://we.got.net/~tuttle/
Ferdinand de Saussure-Influence 4 Roman Jakobson Linguist in the “Frankfurt School” (http://www.heartfield.demon.co.uk/jakobson.htm)http://www.heartfield.demon.co.uk/jakobson.htm 4 Jacques Lacan Psychiatry (
Ferdinand de Saussure-Influence 4 Jacques Derrida Literary criticism (http://www.hydra.umn.edu/derrida/)
Ferdinand de Saussure - Linguistics / Key Terms 4 Linguistics –Analysis of language 4 Semiology: –The “Science of the life of signs within the heart of social life” (Saussure)
Ferdinand de Saussure - Linguistics / Key Terms 4 Sign: –combination of a concept and a sound-image 4 Signifier: –the sound-image 4 Signified: –concept
What does all this mess mean? An Example of Saussure’s words Signifier ISignified I (Image) (Concept) (Roses) (Passion) Sign I (passionified roses)
What does all this mess mean? An Example of Saussure’s words Signifier II Signified II (Image) (Concept) (Passionified Roses) (Valentine’s Day) (i.e. Sign becomes new Signifier) Sign II (Product consumption, expenditure of money as romantic obligation)...
Ferdinand de Saussure- Linguistics 4 Arbitrary Nature of the Sign –We have inherited language from our ancestors. – Language is connecting sound-images –“Fenster” and the concept of or
Ferdinand de Saussure- Linguistics 4 Arbitrary Nature of the Sign (2) –Boundaries become blurred when we look at different types of “language” (e.g. body language, pantomime, spoken language, written language, deaf-mute language, sign language, Braille, etc.)
Ferdinand de Saussure- Linguistics 4 The Linear Nature of the Signifier –Signifier = sound-image –it is measurable only in terms of time. –Sounds are “Schall und Rauch” (“sound and smoke”) –Problem: when writing down the “sound- image” the sound component gets lost.
Ferdinand de Saussure- Linguistics 4 Immutability of the Sign –The signifier (sound-image) “is fixed, not free” –“community itself cannot control so much as a single word; it is bound to the existing language.” –Problem: modern language has added many different words (e.g. computers, “teen” language)
Ferdinand de Saussure- Linguistics 4 Immutability of the Sign (2) –Language is a law, not a rule which we can opt to follow. –We inherit these laws from our ancestors. –Language is a social “institution” and must be seen in the setting. –“Speakers are largely unconscious of the laws of language.”
Ferdinand de Saussure- Linguistics 4 Immutability of the Sign (3) (1) Arbitrary Nature of the Sign (2) Multiplicity of Signs Needed for Language (3) System is “overly complex” (4) Community does not care to change things. Tradition follows no law arbitrary
Ferdinand de Saussure- Linguistics 4 Mutability –Time changes the relationship between signi- fier (sound-image), signified (concept) and therefore the sign. –E.g. “mouse” = = = “mouse”
Ferdinand de Saussure- Linguistics 4 Mutability (2) –Language = product of both social force and time. –It holds true even for artificial languages, such as Esperanto.
Ferdinand de Saussure-Summary 4 Langue = speech minus speaking 4 Language is a social construct which re- quires a community of speakers. 4 Linguistic sign is arbitrary and cannot be taken out of social or temporal context. This is exactly, where signifier and signified are able to shift their relationships (compare “mouse” and “mouse”).
Ferdinand de Saussure-Summary 4 Because of the addition of time to the social context, Saussure feels that there should be two branches of linguistics, which he calls: –Synchronic –Diachronic
Ferdinand de Saussure-Summary 4 Synchronic –confined to one point of view in order to show the whole language system 4 Diachronic –traces evolution of language, looking not at the whole system but at individual elements of it at different times.
Ferdinand de Saussure-Voilà! 4 Saussure died in His Course in General Linguistics was published by students posthumously in 1916 and has been translated into many different languages.