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Dubliners 1914, after 10 years delay James Joyce (1882 – 1941) Intended as a moral chapter Most stories were written when Joyce was 22; 15 stories “The.

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Presentation on theme: "Dubliners 1914, after 10 years delay James Joyce (1882 – 1941) Intended as a moral chapter Most stories were written when Joyce was 22; 15 stories “The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dubliners 1914, after 10 years delay James Joyce (1882 – 1941) Intended as a moral chapter Most stories were written when Joyce was 22; 15 stories “The Dead” as a crowning piece (at the age of 24-25) 5/1/20151

2 The Movie version 1987 Directed by John Huston (1906 –1987) Wrote most of 37 feature films he directed (emulating Shakespeare?) received 15 Oscar nominations, won twice directed both his father, Walter Huston, and daughter, Anjelica Huston to Oscar wins in different films. 5/1/20152

3 The Dead John Huston’s “Swan Song” The Dead is a 1987 film directed by John Huston, starring his daughter Anjelica Huston as Gretta. The Dead was the last film that Huston directed, and it was released posthumously 著作者 死后出版的. "Huston directed the movie, at eighty, from a wheelchair, jumping up to look through the camera, with oxygen tubes trailing from his nose to a portable generator” 5/1/20153

4 Swan Song The phrase "swan song" is a reference to an ancient belief that the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) is completely mute during its lifetime until the moment just before it dies, when it sings one beautiful song. final theatrical or dramatic appearance, or any final work or accomplishment. It generally carries the connotation that the performer is aware that this is the last performance of his or her lifetime, and is expending everything in one magnificent final effort. 5/1/2015

5 Famous authors on “Swan Song” Aesop's fable of "The Swan Mistaken for a Goose" alludes to it: "The swan, who had been caught by mistake instead of the goose, began to sing as a prelude to its own demise. His voice was recognized and the song saved his life." Ovid mentions it in "The Story of Picus and Canens": "There, she poured out her words of grief, tearfully, in faint tones, in harmony with sadness, just as the swan sings once, in dying, its own funeral song." 5/1/20155

6 Aunt Julia’s Swan Song rren.html Aunt Julia’s song, “Arrayed for the Bridal,” a colora’tura so’prano ‘aria, is ironic in that she is unmarried and, as Columbia’s Hurt suggests, “her only bridegroom is death” (Columbia “Arrayed” Lyrics). Gabriel’s response: Followed the sound without looking at her face, knowing instinctively that she may not be there for the next Christmas party; 5/1/20156

7 Aunt Julia Aunt Julia’s hair, drawn low over the tops of her ears, was grey; and grey also, with darker shadows, was her large flaccid face. Though she was stout in build and stood erect, her slow eyes and parted lips gave her the appearance of a woman who did not know where she was or where she was going. 5/1/20157

8 Background “The Dead” signals a change in Joyce’s attitude to his home country Joyce completed this story in Rome in 1907; it was the last to be written. Because of the content of some of the dialogue in the story, we can assume it took place in the first week of January in 1904, probably between January 2nd (Saturday) and January 6th (Wednesday). The characters speak of the party as taking place after New Year's Eve but still during Christmas time, which would last until January 6th, the Feast of the Epiphany (Twelfth Night). The date of 1904 is accepted because they talk about Pope Pius X's recent (November,1903) Motu ‘Proprio. --Wallace Gray 5/1/20158

9 Richard Ellmann’s Essay online Biographical approach contributes to interpretations, sheds light on meaning; Ellmann’s book is a landmark work in Joycean studies; Karen DiYanni’s example in her analysis of Kafka 5/1/20159

10 Richard Ellmann (1918--1987) taught at Harvard, Northwestern, and Yale before becoming Goldsmiths' Professor of English Literature at Oxford University. He edited Joyce's letters, and, his authoritative autobiography, James Joyce, won the 1959 National Book Award for nonfiction. A revised edition of the biography was published in 1982. He edited My Brother's Keeper; by Stanislaus Joyce, and was co-editor with Ellsworth Mason of The Critical Writings of James Joyce. His other books include important studies of Yeats and a biography of Oscar Wilde. 5/1/201510

11 5/1/201511 The Feast of Epiphany Epiphany (from Koine Greek (ἡ) ἐπιφάνεια, epiphaneia "appearance", "manifestation") is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God in human form in the person of Jesus Christ. It falls on 6 January or, in many countries, on the Sunday that falls between 2 January and 8 January.

12 Epiphany, a sudden, intuitive perception of or insight into the reality or essential meaning of something, usually initiated by some simple, homely, or commonplace occurrence or experience. The Greek tradition The climactic moment when a god appears and imposes order on the scene as in Greek dramas The Christian tradition a Christian festival, observed on January 6, commemorating the manifestation of Christ to the gentiles in the persons of the Magi; Twelfth-day. 5/1/201512

13 Twelfth Night (holiday) Twelfth Night is a festival in some branches of Christianity marking the coming of the Epiphany and concluding the Twelve Days of Christmas. It is defined by the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary as "the evening of the fifth of January, preceding Twelfth Day, the eve of the Epiphany, formerly the last day of the Christmas festivities and observed as a time of merrymaking". 5/1/201513

14 Twelfth Night, or What You Will a comedy by William Shakespeare 1601-02 A Scene from Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare: Act V, Scene i (William Hamilton, c. 1797). 5/1/201514

15 Decode the Title Allusion & Counterpoint One of the most popular and well known books of poetry at the time was Thomas Moore's Irish Melodies, written during the period 1807-34. It is generally conceded that the title of this story comes from a poem in that volume. Robert Scholes’ essay: “Counterparts and the Method of Dubliners” online (as warrant, something authoritative); Counterpoint as a method of music composition; Wei’s theory: the law of the shadow 5/1/201515

16 Counterpoint In music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm and are harmonically interdependent. It has been most commonly identified in classical music, developing strongly during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in Baroque music. The term originates from the Latin punctus contra punctum meaning "point against point". 5/1/201516

17 The dead and the Living Textual Evidence The last line: River Liffey for “life” The park, Dublin's Phoenix Park (opened in 1747) is the largest city park in the world, comprising more than 1700 acres Viand, Latin vivere (to live), 5/1/201517

18 5/1/201518 The Ending of The Dead: A Deadly Ending? -- The Law of the Shadow-- James Joyce’s famous long short story The Dead (1906- 1907) presents the painful metamorphosis Gabriel Conroy goes through on Twelfth Night (the end of the Christmas holiday season) once he found out that his wife Gretta had secretly treasured a dead lover for many years. To put it in a nutshell, the story weaves around Gabriel’s Three Unpleasant Encounters: Lily as family servant girl with her “back answers” to Gabriel’s two stereotyped questions; Molly as his intellectual equal who challenged him during the dance; His wife Gretta’s revelation—the most intimate relationship, therefore most damaging—in the climatic order

19 5/1/201519 British Invasion of Ireland the root cause: Internal or External? The English conquest of Ireland began when a local ruler asked King Henry II and his barons to help him regain his kingdom. Some of the barons arrived first, in 1169, and Henry followed in 1171. Henry encouraged his followers to seize parts of the island and hold them as fiefs of the crown. Henry's descendants intermarried with the local population and increasingly adapted Irish customs. However, the English did not control the island effectively, and they regarded the Irish and the English-Irish as their enemies. The authority of the English crown was eventually restored over the entire island during the 16th century by Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, who also attempted to suppress the Roman Catholic church.

20 引狼入室【 y ǐ nlángrùshì 】 invite a wolf into a house. The 'when' is easy enough to pinpoint - the fateful decade when an Anglo- Norman colony of barons established itself in northern and eastern Ireland; and the fateful year, 1171, when the kings of Ireland had knelt before Henry II, in a specially built palace made of wattle, and had submitted to him as their overlord and High King. 5/1/201520

21 A pattern in the world history In 1166, the King of Leinster, Diarmait MacMurchada was forced to flee from Dublin and from his kingdom by an alliance of Irish enemies, including the new High King, Ruaidri Ua Conchobair. 'Awful the deed done in Ireland today', wrote the chronicler of Leinster, 'the expulsion overseas by the men of Ireland of Diarmait...'. 5/1/201521

22 A price to pay And awful were its consequences. For Diarmait landed in Bristol and asked for help from King Henry II to get his throne back. Now what happens when you ask the Godfather for a favour? He expects something, some day, in return. And, as the Song of Dermot made clear, from the beginning that something was: 5/1/201522

23 le_ages/ireland_invasion_01.shtml To you I come to make my plaint, good sire In the presence of the barons of your empire. Your liege-man I shall become henceforth all the days of my life, On condition you be my helper so that I do not lose at all You I shall acknowledge as sire and lord... Then the King promised him, the powerful king of England That willingly would he help him as soon as he should be able. 5/1/201523

24 “History is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake.” 5/1/201524

25 A servant of two masters Stephen responds that he is “the servant of two masters... an English and an Italian,” meaning “the imperial British state” and “the holy Roman catholic and apo’stolic church.” He adds there is a third master, Ireland, “who wants [him] for odd jobs.” It is about 8:00 a.m. when Stephen heads off to the boys’ boarding school where he teaches. 5/1/201525

26 Colonialism & Colonization Loss of Independence Colonialism in Ireland Joyce’s works were written at the peak of Irish nationalism to search for an identity, national as well as personal; Irish nationalism as represented by Molly Ivors, an intellectual equal to Gabriel; Colonization in other forms (a much more generalized concept) By an idea (The Tipping Point); By a religion; By moral principles By cultural practice; By political party lines; By habits (calloused response to a situation) By drugs… 5/1/201526

27 Autonomy vs. heteronomy Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) Autonomy independence or freedom, as of the will or one's actions: the autonomy of the individual. will I do something out of my free will because it is the right thing to do… Heteronomy the condition of being under the domination of an outside authority, either human or divine. I do something because of benefits attached or derived from it. 5/1/201527

28 5/1/201528 Lily Easter Lily: resurrection, rebirth Associated with the Archangel Gabriel Lily of the Valley or Madonna lily in Renaissance art The Virgin’s chaste purity at the Annunciation

29 Lily In choosing this name Joyce wants the reader to make the associations that the flower has with: 1) death (it is frequently used at funerals); 2) the Archangel Gabriel (it is symbolic of this guardian of the gates of death); and 3) Easter, and thus with rebirth or Resurrection. The reader will want to decide whether or not there is a rebirth at the end of this story. Many readers fall flat on this note. 5/1/201529

30 literally run off her feet 40 A fine example of stylistic inflection, in which the personality of the character being written about begins to influence the author's choice of words and rhythms. The correct word would be "figuratively," but to say "literally" is common among many people, particularly those with Lily's minimal education. 5/1/201530

31 “The Uncle Charles Principle” stylistic inflection from Hugh Kenner’s book Joyce’s Voices “The narrative idiom need not be the narrator’s.” “Reality […] does not answer to the ‘point of view,’ the monocular vision, the single ascertainable tone. A tone, a voice, is somebody’s, a person’s, and people are confined to being themselves, are Evelines, are Croftons, are Stephens.” Lily’s diction (choice of word) in “The Dead” 5/1/201531

32 Point of View in narration Omniscient/Limited The first-person narration The second-person narration The third-person narration Distinction between the narrator and the characters 5/1/201532

33 Parallel structure 40 and rhyme Miss Kate and Miss Julia were there, gossiping and laughing and fussing, walking after each other to the head of the stairs, peering down over the banisters and calling down to Lily to ask her who had come. 5/1/201533

34 5/1/201534 Joyce at 50 Cartoon drawn by César Albin for Joyce's 50th birthday, and appearing in transition magazine. (Copyright César Albin. The Harley Croessman Collection of James Joyce, Special Collection, Morris Library, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.) “Signatures of all things, I am here to read.” James Joyce, Ulyless To read means to question, to interpret, to make inferences, to be critical, the first step to become intelletually independent

35 The Opening Scene Purpose of a scene 1. Advance story – The scene must move the story forward. This could mean introducing a problem or making a problem worse for the characters. 2. Show conflict – The conflict could be between two characters, a character and nature, a character and time, and so on. 3. Introduce character – The reader needs to meet each character at some point. A careful writer does not introduce too many characters in one scene. This could confuse the reader. 5/1/201535

36 Purpose of a scene 4. Develop character – Along with introducing a character, a writer can use a scene to show the character’s good and bad points. 5. Create suspense – Suspense keeps the reader’s interest going, perhaps more than any other element of fiction 5/1/201536

37 Purpose of a scene 6. Give information – The writer can weave information into a scene so the reader knows the needed background of the story. 7. Create atmosphere – Using conventions such as setting, weather, and time, the writer can create a certain mood in a scene. 8. Develop theme – A piece of fiction should have a theme. Each scene should bring out the theme to the reader. 5/1/201537

38 Showing vs. Telling Showing More descriptive; More vivid; More detailed; Suggestive, indirect Non-intrusive on the part of the author or narrator; Telling General: Lily is very busy. Narrative summary/ Summative expository Commentary 5/1/201538

39 Notes (40) Only the very best houses had indoor bathrooms. Although Leopold Bloom's house in Ulysses has an indoor and outdoor toilet (Bloom prefers the outdoor one), that house does not have a bath. Miss Kat and Miss Julia The Misses Morkans They are spinsters, never get married; Morkans-- morke is 'darkness' in Danish 5/1/201539

40 always a great affair Note that the voice telling the story is no longer Lily's, but rather the voice of the people of a certain Dublin class who knew about and attended parties where their fellow guests would be, as they are at this party, writers, educators, musicians, lovers of the "finer" things Dublin has to offer. 5/1/201540

41 Parallel structure 40 Everybody who knew them came to it, members of the family, old friends of the family, the members of Julia’s choir, any of Kate’s pupils that were grown up enough, and even some of Mary Jane’s pupils too. 5/1/201541

42 Jinx it Never once had it fallen flat. to bring bad luck to; place a jinx on: The strike has jinxed my plans to go to Milwaukee for the weekend. to destroy the point of: His sudden laugh jinxed the host's joke. 5/1/201542

43 Stoney Batter A quay on the River Liffey, river of life, the river that runs through Dublin, opposite the quay that is called Usher's Island. Joyce wrote this story while living in Rome and, as it is a tribute to Irish hospitality, he is engaging in some intricate allusions to his own family as well as to the family of the real musical sisters who lived in the house on Usher's Island, a house that is still standing. 5/1/201543

44 Notes (40) corn-factor: A factor is an agent who transacts business for others. thirty years ago if it was a day: Another example of the conversational style of Dubliners that takes part in Joyce's narration. 5/1/201544

45 For she had the organ in Haddington Road 40 The main prop: the main support Haddington Road: Mary Jane is the organist employed at St. Mary's Church in Haddington Road, which is in one of the affluent Dublin neighborhoods. 5/1/201545

46 She had been through the Academy 40 the Academy: The Royal Irish Academy of Music, formerly the Ancient Concert Rooms, which were founded as a place for concerts by the Ancient Concerts Society in 1843. Joyce sang at a recital there when he was twenty-two. 5/1/201546

47 Kingstown and Dalkey 40 Kingstown was the name (under British rule) of the major Dublin port located some six miles south of Dublin; it is now called Dun Laoghaire. Within walking distance south of Dun Laoghaire one finds the Martello Tower where Joyce lived for a few days in 1904 and which he used as the setting of the opening episode of Ulysses. Dalkey, where Stephen teaches at the boy's school is Ulysses, is a short distance south of the Tower. 5/1/201547

48 Adam and Eve's 41 The Franciscan Church of St. Francis of Assisi -- familiarly known as Adam and Eve's -- near Usher's Island, occurs in the opening words of Joyce's Finnegan's Wake, where it becomes Eve and Adam's. Saint Francis ( Francisco Javier; “the Apostle of the Indies” ), 1506–52, Spanish Jesuit missionary, esp. in India and Japan. 5/1/201548

49 5/1/201549 A square piano 41

50 They believed in eating well three-shilling tea: how much could Eveline makes a week? and good everyday tea sold for one- fourth of this price. Diamond-bone sirloins: The sirloin is of course an expensive cut, 5/1/201550

51 5/1/201551 What are you eating?

52 Back answers/retort Register 【语言】语域 in language Lily is actually full of “back answers,” not the girl she used to be. What happened? back answers: Another example of a character's voice becoming the author's voice. "Back answers" would be tart or short tempered responses. 5/1/201552

53 Suspense and expectation 41 Long after ten o’clock yet there was no sign of Gabriel and his wife. They wondered what could be keeping Gabriel: and that was what brought them every two minutes to the banisters to ask Lily… Hyperbole 【修辞学】夸张法 /exaggeration Understatement 轻描淡写 5/1/201553

54 Freddy Malins Screwed: drunk (41) 5/1/201554

55 Gabriel’s Dramatic Entrance Something dramatic implies conflict, implies irony that things fall flat, going in a direction unexpected or opposite to our expectation; Lily’s role in presenting Gabriel is crucial; 5/1/201555

56 5/1/201556 Gabriel & Lily Gabriel as a messenger Archangel is a term meaning an angel of high rank. Gabriel is named an archangel in the Holy Bible's New Testament book, Luke. Gabriel, traditionally named as an archangel, delivering the Annunciation. Painting by Paolo de Matteis, 1712.

57 Spent Three mortal hours for what reason? 41 My wife takes three mortal hours to dress herself; Suggestive of death, mortality; Reveal Gretta’s character; Death was first introduced when Joyce mentioned the death of Pat (40) 5/1/201557

58 Toddling/snow toddling down: A nice touch on Joyce's part to suggest the childlike, even infantile, character of the two women. And for those who know German, this is a nice Klang (echo) association with "Tod" (death). Symbolic meaning of snow 5/1/201558

59 Here I am as right as the mail 41 right as the mail: Astonishing to us nowadays but the turn-of-the-century Dublin equivalent of email: five pickups of mail and five deliveries each day! 5/1/201559

60 5/1/201560 Faux pas for False Step A faux pas (pronounced / ˌ fo ʊˈ p ɑː /, plural: faux pas / ˌ fo ʊˈ p ɑː (z)/) is a violation of accepted social norms (for example, standard customs or etiquette rules). Faux pas vary widely from culture to culture, and what is considered good manners in one culture can be considered a faux pas in another. The term comes originally from French, and literally means "false step."

61 5/1/201561 Faux pas for False Step This expression is usually used in social and diplomatic contexts. The term has been in use in English for some time and is no longer italicized when written. In French, it is employed literally to describe a physical loss of balance as well as figuratively, in which case the meaning is roughly the same as in English. Other familiar synonyms include gaffe and bourde (bourde, unlike faux pas, can designate any type of mistake).

62 5/1/201562 About Lily Done school Her language: incorrect pronunciation-- conoroy/poor grammar Seems to have some bad experience with man/men? One bad experience can’t stand for all;

63 Origin In his book Aspects of the novel (1927), E. M. Forster defined two basic types of characters, their qualities, functions, and importance for the development of the novel: flat characters and round characters. Flat characters are two-dimensional in that they are relatively uncomplicated and often are have very little details or background information. By contrast, round characters are complex and often very detailed with lots of background information. 5/1/201563

64 flat and round characters as described by the course of their development in a work of literature. Flat characters are two-dimensional in that they are relatively uncomplicated and do not change throughout the course of a work. By contrast, round characters are complex and undergo development, sometimes sufficiently to surprise the reader. 5/1/201564

65 Flat vs. round characters One or two-dimensional Salient features or characteristics for easy identification; a minor character in a work of fiction who does not undergo substantial change or growth in the course of a story. Also referred to as "two-dimensional characters" or "static characters," Round characters Rich personality 3-D A round character is a major character in a work of fiction who encounters conflict and is changed by it. Round characters tend to be more fully developed and described than flat, or static, characters. 5/1/201565

66 Implications of snow Snow is unusual in Dublin. Since snow is significant throughout the story and especially as a final image, its meaning must be interpreted. There are conflicting views of its symbolic meaning in this story, and we will deal with these in the annotations to the concluding paragraphs. 5/1/201566

67 goloshes Galoshes (from French: galoches), also known as boat shoes, dickersons, or overshoes, are a type of rubber boot that is slipped over shoes to keep them from getting muddy or wet. The word galoshes might be used interchangeably with boot, especially a rubberized boot. Properly speaking, however, galoshes are synonymous with rain boots often reaching heights just below the knee. 5/1/201567

68 “Goloshes” as a text Gretta’s perspective: she hates it; Gabriel’s attitude: popular on the continent (European continent); open to new ideas/trends; more European than Irish; more international than national; As a protective husband; Aunt Julia’s perplexity/ignorance 5/1/201568

69 5/1/201569 Michael Michael is viewed as the field commander of the Army of God. He is mentioned by name in the Book of Daniel the Book of Jude and the Book of Revelation. In the book of Daniel, Michael appears as "one of the chief princes" who in Daniel's vision comes to the Archangel Gabriel's aid in his contest with the angel of Persia (Dobiel).

70 5/1/201570 Puckers and Creases to gather or contract (a soft surface such as the skin of the face) into wrinkles or folds, or (of such a surface) to be so gathered or contracted 2. a wrinkle, crease, or irregular fold

71 Dr. Samuel Johnson’s definition Oats: A grain, which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland appears to support the people. 5/1/201571

72 5/1/201572 River Liffey The Liffey (An Life in Irish) is a river in Ireland

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