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A Primer in Poop-ology Lydia Ash Shirley Needham

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1 A Primer in Poop-ology Lydia Ash Shirley Needham

2 Mutes If you diligently observe the mute, you shall easily prognosticate and foresee her evil, and any such disease as your hawk is infected with. But if her mute be white, intermingled with red, yellow, grey, or such like colour, it is a sign that the hawk is very ill and diseased, and moreover that she stands needful of a scouring, as of mummy purified and beaten to powder, wrapping it in cotton, or some such like matter, to set the gorge and stomach of your hawk in tune again, and other inward parts, as hereafter I shall make further show of in a place meet for that speech and discourse. Assuredly, when you see your hawk’s mute so full of diverse colours, it is very necessary for you to respect her cure, and to endeavour yourself to remedy that mischief, or otherwise she must needs perish under your hand, for that those are very deadly signs, and proofs of the ill state of your hawk. -Edmund Bert The Perfect Booke for Keeping Sparrowhawkes and Goshawkes, 1575

3 Mutes

4 Empty For if the mute be white, and not over thick, nor over clear, and besides not having any black spot in it, or in the least but little, it is an evident proof that the hawk is excellently in tune, and not diseased.

5 Empty Although empty, this is a normal mute. All there is here is urate – there is no fecal. The lower gastrointestinal tract is empty and the bird is likely hungry, although not starving.

6 White But if it be white, and very thick in the middle, well it may import health, but it argues the hawk to be over gross, and too full of grease. And therefore it shall be needful to cure that mischief, by giving her liquid and moist meat, as the heart of a calf, lamb, or such like. And for one or two mornings, to allow her (being empty and having nothing to put over) a quantity of sugar candy by which will scour her, and make her slice, or else a gut of a chicken well ashed, of a convenient length and size, full of good oil olive, well clarified in water, in such sort as hereafter I shall instruct you. It is easily found, when a hawk is over greasy, and not enseamed, by her mute, when it is white with some black in it, which evil is easily removed by giving her hot sparrows, and young pigeons.

7 White Although the fecal is difficult to see, this is a perfectly normal mute. This mute is the result of a light, fatty meat and a high calcium intake (turkey meat and bones). The system can only absorb so much of the mineral and the rest is passed through in the mute.

8 Green A green mute is also a sign of an infected and corrupt liver, and happily of some apostume, unless she makes that kind of mute upon this occasion, that she has been gorged with some wild and rammage meat, or herself been a rammage hawk: for then this rule does not hold. You must look to this evil as soon and with as great speed as you possibly may, feeding her with meat all powdered with mummy. It be given her in a casting, or some scouring, continuing it in this manner, sometimes after one fashion, sometimes after another, until you find the mute to be changed from the bad colour to the better. But when this mischief proceeds, and continues a long space, then shall you be fain to bestow on her a scouring of agaric, to rid those evil and noisome humours which do offend your hawk, and after that another scouring of incense beaten into powder, to recomfort her.

9 Green Although green, this is a normal mute. The urates have picked up some color from the fecal mass. The key is the whiteness and evenness of the urate.

10 Green Green urates indicate the liver. Difficulty breathing Easily exerted Extreme thirst Weight loss Given these variables, start investigating Aspergillosis. The liver may have an asper infection.

11 Green Green urates indicate the liver. Diarrhea Flecks of red Foul smelling castings Given these variables, start investigating Coccidiosis. The liver may have an coccidia infection.

12 Green Green urates indicate the liver. Unresponsive to antibiotics If green mutes continue for the course of antibiotics without change, there may be a bone shard poking through the proventriculus and irritating the liver. Try offering materials that will cause castings. These may work the shard free.

13 Green Green urates indicate the liver. Gasping and coughing Neurological dysfunction (shivering, convulsions, seizures, etc) Loss of eyesight Vomiting Lethargy Given these variables, start investigating New Castle’s Disease. This green mute came from a bird who died from New Castle’s.

14 Green Neon green, frothy mutes indicate too much bile. This may be that the liver is creating too much bile. Or it may not be the liver, but rather something stuck in the proventriculus causing excess bile production.

15 Green Food flicking White plaques in the mouth Difficulty breathing Investigate frounce (Trichomoniasis).

16 Green Excess bile production can also be genetic requiring special attention to the diet.

17 Yellow The white mute, having a greater part of yellow in it, that of any other colour, does evidently make show, that the hawk is surcharged with choleric humours, caused and engendered by over great flights, when you fly with your hawk in the heat of the day, as also of over much bating. Which evil you may provide for and eschew, by giving your hawk’s meat ashed in cold waters, as buglosse, endive, borrage, and such like wholesome cold waters, very medicinable for that mischief, always remembering to strain the hawk’s meat, and wring it in a linen cloth, after you have washed it in the waters aforesaid.

18 Yellow Yellow can sometimes be a shade of green indicating the liver. Skin has taken on a yellow shade Given this variable, investigate an inflamed liver.

19 Yellow Yellow can sometimes be a shade of green indicating the liver. Swollen eyes (conjunctiva and/or cornea) Swollen nasal membranes Shortness of breath Given these signs, investigate chlamydiosis, possibly infecting the spleen or liver.

20 Yellow The yellow of this mute is from over- supplementing.

21 Black The mute of a hawk which is very black, declares her liver to be infected, and is the most deadly sign of all others. For if it continues three or four days, most assuredly the hawk will peck over the perch and die. But if it be so but once, and no more, it greatly kills not. For then may it proceed of one of these two causes: either for that the hawk in pluming and tiring on the fowl, has taken of the blood or guts of the prey, which is a matter of nothing: or else because she has been gorged with filthy meat. In this case it behoves you to respect her, and allow her good warm flesh, and a cotton casting, with mummy or the powder of cloves, to set her stomach in tune again.

22 Black Black can indicate bleeding of the upper digestive tract.

23 Black Black can indicate bleeding of the upper digestive tract. Diarrhea Lethargy Food flicking Smelly castings Lack of appetite Brown, slimy castings Investigate Coccidiosis, although this is an advanced stage.

24 Black The black here is from feeding beef heart – rich in blood and iron and deceiving in indicating that the bird may have upper-GI bleeding rather than properly indicating she has eaten a quantity of blood. Note that the dark color of this mute could mask some other symptom. If you suspect a symptom that could show itself in a mute, avoid feeding a meat like beef heart or supplementing with pigeon blood.

25 Red The mute that is not perfectly digested, tending to red, and that is full of small worms, like unto flesh, not perfectly digested and endewed, gives manifest proof, either that the hawk is not well in her gorge, or else that she has been fed with ill or corrupt meats, cold and stinking, and unwholesome for a hawk.

26 Red Red (or pink) is never normal. It indicates lower intestinal bleeding or kidney bleeding. Preceded by a day or so of larger than normal mutes Investigate a bound egg in the cloaca, uterus, or vagina. The Saker that caused this tested positive for Streptococcus.

27 Red Red (or pink) is never normal. It indicates lower intestinal bleeding or kidney bleeding. Flecks of red in the urate Diarrhea Lethargy Food flicking Smelly castings Lack of appetite Brown, slimy castings Investigate Coccidiosis.

28 Red Red is never normal. It indicates lower intestinal bleeding. This is very similar to a bloody mute from a bound egg. This mute was instead caused by a bone shard puncturing the lower intestine.

29 Pink Pink may be normal. A fresh pink mute is not and will indicate blood. Mutes will turn pink over time due to nitrogen eating bacteria flourishing on them. If you suddenly notice your mews is turning pink, it may be a change in the bird or may be that it simply needs to be cleaned.

30 Brown Bert didn’t mention brown…

31 Brown Shaking Weakness Nervous system oddities Investigate lead poisoning, either by ingesting or shooting. This mute is actually normal and caused by feeding rat.

32 Brown Brown mutes that smell very strong indicate sour crop sometimes coupled with a strongyl infection. This mute is actually normal and caused from feeding rat.

33 Over-Hydrated This is an over-hydrated mute, although nearly identical to diarrhea.

34 Over-Hydrated Some diarrhea also has the gas bubbles as seen here.

35 Worms Roundworms in a mute.

36 Worms Worm evidence in a mute.

37 Mutes By this which I have spoken, as touching the mutes of hawks, it may be gathered how greatly it does import, and how behovefully it is for a falconer, or austringer, for the better cure of his hawks, to peruse every morning with great care the mute of his hawks. For that it does greatly concern the good health and state of them, to find out at the first their indisposition and diseases, before they be too deeply rooted and confirmed in them, when truly it will prove a very hard and difficult matter to remove the evil. -Edmund Bert An Approved Treatise of Hawks and Hawking, 1616

38 Thank you! Steve Layman Seth Layman Salman Ali Dr. Carmen Lindheimer, D.V.M. Dr. David J. Kersting, D.V.M. Shirley Needham Lydia Ash A copy is available online here:

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