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Urbanization Immigration Europeans Flood into the United States Europeans Flood into the United States By late 1890s eastern and southern Europeans made.

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Presentation on theme: "Urbanization Immigration Europeans Flood into the United States Europeans Flood into the United States By late 1890s eastern and southern Europeans made."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Urbanization

3 Immigration Europeans Flood into the United States Europeans Flood into the United States By late 1890s eastern and southern Europeans made up more than half of all immigrants By late 1890s eastern and southern Europeans made up more than half of all immigrants America offered: America offered: Employment Employment Few immigration restrictions Few immigration restrictions Avoidance of military service Avoidance of military service Religious freedom Religious freedom Chance to move up the social ladder Chance to move up the social ladder

4 Ellis Island

5 Coming into the U.S. Ellis Island = a small island in New York Harbor Ellis Island = a small island in New York Harbor Processing center for most immigrants coming from Europe Processing center for most immigrants coming from Europe Some were separated from families and sent back to Europe due to health problems Some were separated from families and sent back to Europe due to health problems Once through Ellis Island – most settled in cities with their ethnic group Once through Ellis Island – most settled in cities with their ethnic group

6 Mulberry Street – “Little Italy”

7 Processing at Angel Island

8 Immigration from Asia Came due to severe unemployment, poverty and famine in China Came due to severe unemployment, poverty and famine in China Railroad work brought many Railroad work brought many Processed through Angel Island Processed through Angel Island In western cities worked as laborers, servants, skilled tradesmen and merchants esp. laundries In western cities worked as laborers, servants, skilled tradesmen and merchants esp. laundries

9 Pell St. - Chinatown, NYC

10 Nativism Extreme dislike for foreigners by native-born people and the desire to limit immigration Extreme dislike for foreigners by native-born people and the desire to limit immigration American Protective Association disliked Catholics and immigrants American Protective Association disliked Catholics and immigrants Workingman’s Party of California – organized by an Irish immigrant to stop Chinese immigration Workingman’s Party of California – organized by an Irish immigrant to stop Chinese immigration 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in America from becoming citizens barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in America from becoming citizens Renewed in 1892 and made permanent in 1902 Renewed in 1892 and made permanent in 1902 Repealed in 1943 Repealed in 1943

11 Review Reasons for European Immigration Reasons for Chinese Immigration

12 Americans Migrate to Cities Better paying jobs Better paying jobs Electricity Electricity Running water Running water Plumbing Plumbing entertainment entertainment

13 contributed to the design of skyscrapers Price of land increased Form follows function Louis Sullivan

14 Rise of Mass Transit Electric trolleys Electric trolleys Elevated railroads Elevated railroads Had to move large numbers of people around cities quickly

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16 5-Cent Lodgings

17 Immigrant Family Lodgings

18 Tenement Slum Living

19 “Dumbell “ Tenement, NYC

20 Dumbbell Tenement Plan Tenement House Act of 1879, NYC

21 The Street Was Their Playground

22 Separation by Class Wealthy families lived in the heart of the city in elaborate homes Wealthy families lived in the heart of the city in elaborate homes Middle-class lived away from the city Middle-class lived away from the city Majority of people lived in city tenements or dark and crowded multi-family apartments Majority of people lived in city tenements or dark and crowded multi-family apartments

23 Characteristics of Urbanization During the Gilded Age 1. Megalopolis. 2. Mass Transit. 3. Magnet for economic and social opportunities. 4. Pronounced class distinctions. - Inner & outer core 5. New frontier of opportunity for women. 6. Squalid living conditions for many. 7. Political machines. 8. Ethnic neighborhoods.

24 Urban Growth: 1870 - 1900

25 Urban Problems Increase in crime, fire, disease and pollution Increase in crime, fire, disease and pollution Native-born Americans blamed immigrants for the increase in crime Native-born Americans blamed immigrants for the increase in crime Contaminated drinking water from improper sewage disposal resulted in disease Contaminated drinking water from improper sewage disposal resulted in disease

26 Urban Politics Rise of the Political Machine Rise of the Political Machine Political group designed to gain and keep power Political group designed to gain and keep power Used bribery to get votes Used bribery to get votes Graft and fraud Graft and fraud Provided essentials to city dwellers in exchange for votes Provided essentials to city dwellers in exchange for votes Party Bosses Party Bosses Tammany Hall Tammany Hall William “Boss” Tweed = party boss William “Boss” Tweed = party boss Arrested for corruption and sent to prison in 1872 Arrested for corruption and sent to prison in 1872

27 Well-Defined Voting Blocs Well-Defined Voting Blocs Democratic Bloc Republican Bloc  White southerners (preservation of white supremacy)  Catholics  Recent immigrants (esp. Jews)  Urban working poor (pro-labor)  Most farmers  Northern whites (pro-business)  African Americans  Northern Protestants  Old WASPs (support for anti-immigrant laws)  Most of the middle class

28 Homework Write a news article about life in the city during this time period. Write a news article about life in the city during this time period. Include ALL of the following topics Include ALL of the following topics A description of immigration (those who immigrated, where they settled etc) A description of immigration (those who immigrated, where they settled etc) The response to immigrants The response to immigrants The move by Americans to cities and what that caused The move by Americans to cities and what that caused Problems caused by the rise of cities Problems caused by the rise of cities The New Politics The New Politics

29 Response to Industrialism

30 Social Darwinism Social Darwinism × British economist. × Advocate of laissez-faire. × Adapted Darwin’s ideas from the “Origin of Species” to humans. × Notion of “Survival of the Fittest.” × British economist. × Advocate of laissez-faire. × Adapted Darwin’s ideas from the “Origin of Species” to humans. × Notion of “Survival of the Fittest.” Herbert Spencer

31 Social Darwinism in America Social Darwinism in America William Graham Sumner Folkways (1906) $ Individuals must have absolute freedom to struggle, succeed or fail. $ Therefore, state intervention to reward society and the economy is futile! $ Individuals must have absolute freedom to struggle, succeed or fail. $ Therefore, state intervention to reward society and the economy is futile!

32 The Gospel of Wealth: Religion in the Era of Industrialization Russell H. Conwell $ Wealth no longer looked upon as bad. $ Viewed as a sign of God’s approval. $ Christian duty to accumulate wealth. $ Should not help the poor. $ Wealth no longer looked upon as bad. $ Viewed as a sign of God’s approval. $ Christian duty to accumulate wealth. $ Should not help the poor.

33 “ On Wealth” Andrew Carnegie $ The Anglo-Saxon race is superior. $ “Gospel of Wealth” (1901). $ Inequality is inevitable and good. $ Wealthy should act as “trustees” for their “poorer brethren.” $ The Anglo-Saxon race is superior. $ “Gospel of Wealth” (1901). $ Inequality is inevitable and good. $ Wealthy should act as “trustees” for their “poorer brethren.”

34 Naturalism The idea that people failed in life because they were simply caught up in circumstances they could not control The idea that people failed in life because they were simply caught up in circumstances they could not control Jack London Theodore Dreiser

35 Social Gospel Worked to better conditions in cities according to the biblical ideals of charity and justice Worked to better conditions in cities according to the biblical ideals of charity and justice

36 YMCA and the Salvation Army combined faith and an interest in reform YMCA organized Bible studies, citizenship training, and group activities YMCA organized Bible studies, citizenship training, and group activities Salvation Army offered practical aid and religious counseling Salvation Army offered practical aid and religious counseling

37 The Settlement House Movement A community center where reformers resided and offered everything from medical care, English classes, kindergartens, and A community center where reformers resided and offered everything from medical care, English classes, kindergartens, and recreational programs Jane Adams opened Jane Adams opened Hull House in Chicago in 1889


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