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Presentation on theme: "Urbanization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urbanization

2 Immigration Europeans Flood into the United States
By late 1890s eastern and southern Europeans made up more than half of all immigrants America offered: Employment Few immigration restrictions Avoidance of military service Religious freedom Chance to move up the social ladder

3 Ellis Island

4 Coming into the U.S. Ellis Island = a small island in New York Harbor
Processing center for most immigrants coming from Europe Some were separated from families and sent back to Europe due to health problems Once through Ellis Island – most settled in cities with their ethnic group

5 Mulberry Street – “Little Italy”

6 Processing at Angel Island

7 Immigration from Asia Came due to severe unemployment, poverty and famine in China Railroad work brought many Processed through Angel Island In western cities worked as laborers, servants, skilled tradesmen and merchants esp. laundries

8 Pell St. - Chinatown, NYC

9 Nativism Extreme dislike for foreigners by native-born people and the desire to limit immigration American Protective Association disliked Catholics and immigrants Workingman’s Party of California – organized by an Irish immigrant to stop Chinese immigration 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in America from becoming citizens Renewed in 1892 and made permanent in 1902 Repealed in 1943

10 Review Reasons for Chinese Immigration
Reasons for European Immigration

11 Americans Migrate to Cities
Better paying jobs Electricity Running water Plumbing entertainment

12 contributed to the design of skyscrapers
Price of land increased Form follows function Louis Sullivan

13 Rise of Mass Transit Electric trolleys Elevated railroads
Had to move large numbers of people around cities quickly

14 Jacob Riis' How the Other Half Lives (1890)

15 5-Cent Lodgings

16 Immigrant Family Lodgings

17 Tenement Slum Living

18 “Dumbell “ Tenement, NYC

19 Dumbbell Tenement Plan
Tenement House Act of 1879, NYC

20 The Street Was Their Playground

21 Separation by Class Wealthy families lived in the heart of the city in elaborate homes Middle-class lived away from the city Majority of people lived in city tenements or dark and crowded multi-family apartments

22 Characteristics of Urbanization During the Gilded Age
Megalopolis. Mass Transit. Magnet for economic and social opportunities. Pronounced class distinctions Inner & outer core New frontier of opportunity for women. Squalid living conditions for many. Political machines. Ethnic neighborhoods.

23 Urban Growth:

24 Urban Problems Increase in crime, fire, disease and pollution
Native-born Americans blamed immigrants for the increase in crime Contaminated drinking water from improper sewage disposal resulted in disease

25 Urban Politics Rise of the Political Machine Party Bosses Tammany Hall
Political group designed to gain and keep power Used bribery to get votes Graft and fraud Provided essentials to city dwellers in exchange for votes Party Bosses Tammany Hall William “Boss” Tweed = party boss Arrested for corruption and sent to prison in 1872

26 Well-Defined Voting Blocs
Democratic Bloc Republican Bloc White southerners (preservation of white supremacy) Catholics Recent immigrants (esp. Jews) Urban working poor (pro-labor) Most farmers Northern whites (pro-business) African Americans Northern Protestants Old WASPs (support for anti-immigrant laws) Most of the middle class

27 Homework Write a news article about life in the city during this time period. Include ALL of the following topics A description of immigration (those who immigrated, where they settled etc) The response to immigrants The move by Americans to cities and what that caused Problems caused by the rise of cities The New Politics

28 Responses to Industrialism
Response to Industrialism

29 Social Darwinism British economist. Advocate of laissez-faire.
Adapted Darwin’s ideas from the “Origin of Species” to humans. Notion of “Survival of the Fittest.” Herbert Spencer

30 Social Darwinism in America
Individuals must have absolute freedom to struggle, succeed or fail. Therefore, state intervention to reward society and the economy is futile! William Graham Sumner Folkways (1906)

31 The Gospel of Wealth: Religion in the Era of Industrialization
Wealth no longer looked upon as bad. Viewed as a sign of God’s approval. Christian duty to accumulate wealth. Should not help the poor. Russell H. Conwell

32 “On Wealth” The Anglo-Saxon race is superior.
“Gospel of Wealth” (1901). Inequality is inevitable and good. Wealthy should act as “trustees” for their “poorer brethren.” Andrew Carnegie

33 Naturalism The idea that people failed in life because they were simply caught up in circumstances they could not control Jack London Theodore Dreiser

34 Social Gospel Worked to better conditions in cities according to the biblical ideals of charity and justice

35 YMCA and the Salvation Army combined faith and an interest in reform
YMCA organized Bible studies, citizenship training, and group activities Salvation Army offered practical aid and religious counseling

36 The Settlement House Movement
A community center where reformers resided and offered everything from medical care, English classes, kindergartens, and recreational programs Jane Adams opened Hull House in Chicago in 1889

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