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Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct 2009 1 Website:

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1 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Website: Jaafar Jantan a.k.a. DR. JJ (Assoc. Prof., Dr.) Fac. of App. Sciences, UiTM, Shah Alam, Malaysia International Conference on Physics Education, Sofitel Centara Grand Bangkok; Oct 18 th - 23 rd, 2009 “Teachers are powerful people and keepers of the future. Help your students dream big!” Leslie Owen Wilson Me with the Director General of UNESCO Me with Howard Gardner

2 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Source: Malaysia and the Knowledge Economy: Building a World-Class Higher Education System Human Development Sector Reports. East Asia and the Pacific Region, World Bank, March 2007 “Malaysia “Malaysia, a developing country, ranks high in most of the industrial development indicators. It has maintained one of the highest shares of high-tech exports in the world for the last 10 years, largely surpassing the level of Korea, Thailand and OECD countries. However, Malaysia’s sustained competitive edge is not guaranteed science, technology, and engineering are integrated into the production process creativity, imagination, knowledge, and design capability are embodied in well-educated skilled workers who are the main source of national prosperity and wealth However, Malaysia’s sustained competitive edge is not guaranteed. Malaysia needs an economy where science, technology, and engineering are integrated into the production process and where creativity, imagination, knowledge, and design capability are embodied in well-educated skilled workers who are the main source of national prosperity and wealth. Making this transition will require improving the overall effectiveness of the university and national innovation systems”

3 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Source: Malaysia and the Knowledge Economy: Building a World-Class Higher Education System Human Development Sector Reports. East Asia and the Pacific Region, World Bank, March 2007 Steering the Future of Higher Education keeping a fine balance between expanding the system and improving quality concrete policy reforms in the areas curriculum, and pedagogy “The attainment of world class status by Malaysian universities hinges, in part, on keeping a fine balance between two competing objectives: expanding the system and improving quality. The achievement of both objectives calls for careful development of a strategic plan that supports concrete policy reforms in the areas of governance, financing, curriculum, and pedagogy needed to facilitate the transformation of the university system.”

4 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Sternberg, R. & Subotnik, R., eds. (2006). Optimizing Student Success with the Other Three Rs: Reasoning, Resilience, and Responsibility. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Sternberg suggests Curriculum must develop the other 3 R’s. ReasoningReasoning which include analytical, critical thinking, and problem solving skills ResilienceResilience which encompasses life skills such as flexibility, adaptability, and self-reliance ResponsibilityResponsibility wisdom, which he defines as “the application of intelligence, creativity, and knowledge for a common good.”

5 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Source: Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design; Chap 4. Can explain Can explain: provide thorough, supported, and justifiable accounts of phenomena, facts, and data. Can interpret Can interpret: tell meaningful stories; offer apt translations; provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas and events; make it personal or accessible through images, anecdotes, analogies, and models. Can apply Can apply: effectively use and adapt what we know in diverse contexts. Have perspective Have perspective: see and hear points of view through critical eyes and ears; see the big picture.

6 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design; Chap 4. Can empathize Can empathize: find value in what others might find odd, alien, or implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior direct experience. Have self-knowledge Have self-knowledge: perceive the personal style, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede our own understanding; we are aware of what we do not understand and why understanding is so hard

7 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct develop individuals who have advanced literacy skills in their discipline rigour and creativity to new insights and knowledge rhetorically versatile, confident communicators able to adapt and contribute to the demands of employment and life in a changing society and wider world One of the most important goals of a university is to develop individuals who have advanced literacy skills in their discipline : people who can participate effectively by critiquing information and ideas and by contributing with rigour and creativity to new insights and knowledge, who are self-aware as learners, and who are rhetorically versatile, confident communicators able to adapt and contribute to the demands of employment and life in a changing society and wider world.

8 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct “The MOHE will thus introduce a holistic programme that will cut across all disciplines and focus on communication and entrepreneurial skills. The programme, which is intended to build a balanced perspective in all students, will expose them to subjects beyond their area of specialisation. For example, students reading for degrees in the sciences such as medicine, engineering and chemistry will be exposed to courses covering literature and philosophy. Likewise, students in the humanities will be exposed to the rudiments of science and technology, and certainly, ICT.” Source: NATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION ACTION PLAN “We must produce confident students with a sense of balance and proportion. While an individual may specialise in a certain area, his or her perspective should be enriched by other experiences as well.”

9 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Knowledge Attributes : Mastery of core subjects and ability to apply that knowledge Mastery of Bahasa Malaysia and English, and at least one other global language. A continuing passion for knowledge through lifelong learning. Excellent general knowledge and interest in current events. Appreciation of the arts, culture and sports. Sound analytical and problem- solving skills. Awareness of business and management principles, and technology. Personal Attributes : Goal-oriented: proactive, self-starting, self- disciplined, confident, resilient, motivated, and fiercely competitive. Intellectually engaging: creative, innovative, and possessing critical thinking skills. Quick learner, adaptable, and flexible. Entrepreneurial. Ethically and morally upright. Spiritually grounded. Compassionate and caring (through volunteerism and social services). Interpersonal Attributes : Able communicator and effective presenter. Able to relate and be comfortable with people at all levels. Able to develop and leverage on personal and professional networks to achieve goals. Natural leader. Team player. MOHE’s Attributes of Human Capital with First-Class Mentality*.

10 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Producing Change: The 3 Domains of Educational Goals Psychomotor Doing, The Hand, Body The SKILLS Affective Feeling, The Heart The CARE Cognitive Knowing, the Head The KNOWLEDGE The Hand 3H

11 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Knowledge (K) 2.Practical Skills (P) 3.Thinking and scientific skills 4.Communication skills 5.Social skills, teamwork and responsibility 6.Values, ethics, moral and professionalism (A) 7.Information management and lifelong learning skills(P/A) 8.Managerial and entrepreneurial skills (K/P/A) 9.Leadership 9.Leadership skills

12 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Critical thinking and problem solving skills (P)-LO3 2.Communication skills (P)-LO4 3.Group working skills (A)-LO5 4.Ethics and professionalism (A)-LO6 5.Lifelong learning and information management (A)-LO7 6.Entrepreneurship skills (P)-LO8 7.Leadership skills (A)-LO9

13 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Aligning Outcome-Based Curriculum Instruction (SCL); Assessment (Authentic)

14 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct If you were to fall in a hole through the center of the earth, how long before you land in a bowl of authentic dim sum in Beijing?

15 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct

16 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct All the planned learning experiences of a school or educational institution A series of experiences that will result in them learning what you intend them to learn. aims, intended learning outcomes, syllabus, learning and teaching methods, and assessmentIt includes consideration of aims, intended learning outcomes, syllabus, learning and teaching methods, and assessment.

17 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Vision & Mission Program Educational Objectives Program Outcomes PO-LOKI Course Structure (select courses to address POs) Course Outcomes (COs) Course syllabus (selection of content) + delivery methods Assessment (Measuring the achievement of COs & POs) Evaluation (Continuous Quality Improvement-CQI) Must include views of stakeholders stakeholders -students, faculty, alumni, employers of program graduates, and funding sources Curriculum

18 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct competent physicists who synthesize and apply the knowledge, understanding and laboratory experiences to provide quality products and services to the government agencies and science-related industries. 2.physicists who lead and engage in teams in problem solving tasks across disciplines through effective communicative abilities 3.physicists who continue to advance their knowledge and abilities by utilizing ICT to explore business opportunities in the science-related industry 4.physicists who practice ethical and professional values in providing services to the recipients and provider of the science-related industry Three to five years upon completing the program, graduates will be:

19 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Able to analyze problems by applying fundamental knowledge and understanding of laws, theories and principles of physics, science and mathematics. 2.Able to safely prepare sample, operate and use laboratory equipments. 3.Able to identify problems, design an experiment, process, interpret and analyze experimental data. 4.Able to apply the scientific reasoning in solving authentic problems. 5.Able to verbally express and articulate scientific ideas effectively. 6.Able to express and articulate scientific ideas in written form. At the end of the programme graduates will be:

20 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Design 7.Able to effectively work in a multidisciplinary team. 8.Able to apply values, ethics, morality and professionalism in their scientific pursuit. 9.Able to manage information and engage in life-long learning. 10.Able to apply managerial and entrepreneurial skills. 11.Able to demonstrate leadership skills. At the end of the programme graduates will be able to: PEOPO PO-PEO PO-LOKICourse-LOCourse-SS Course-TAX Course-LO-GCourse-TAX-C Course-TAX-P Course-TAX-A LOKI GUIDE

21 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Course Outcomes: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to: COURSE: PHY407 COURSE: PHY407 1.Verify, assess & employ (LO1,CT3) 1.Verify, assess & employ the concepts, laws and theories in electrostatics, electricity, magnetism, light, introductory atomic physics and modern physics to solve qualitative & quantitative problems visually, algebraically and occasionally, numerically. (C3-Application) (LO1,CT3) 2.Observe, formulate, plan, predict and conduct (LO2, 3) 2.Observe, formulate, plan, predict and conduct scientific investigations in areas of electrostatics and electricity. (LO2, 3) Activity LOs

22 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Course Outcomes: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to: COURSE: PHY407 COURSE: PHY407 3.Report on the scientific investigation and verbally justify to peers facilitator (LO4,CS3) 3.Report on the scientific investigation and verbally justify to peers and the facilitator, their rationale for the choice of methods and measuring devices, the way the data is represented and transformed and the conclusion they make in areas of electrostatics and electricity. (LO4,CS3) 4.Collaborate (LO5,TS3) 4.Collaborate with team members in performing scientific investigations in areas of electrostatics and electricity. (LO5,TS3) Activity LOs

23 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct LOKI GUIDE

24 Copyright DR JJ, ASERG, UiTM, Shah Alam 24 Course outcomes Cognitive Affective Psychomotor / skills DOMAINS Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Exhibit,display, demonstrate organisation Valuing Responding Receiving Naturalisation Articulation Precision Manipulation Imitation Higher order lower order

25 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Higher order lower order INVOLVES KNOWLEDGE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLECTUAL SKILLS

26 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Higher order lower order PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN INCLUDES PHYSICAL MOVEMENT, COORDINATION & USE OF THE MOTOR SKILL AREAS

27 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct Higher order lower order AFFECTIVE DOMAIN – INCLUDES MANNER WE DEAL WITH THINGS EMOTIONALLY (e.g. FEELINGS, INTERESTS, ATTITUDES, APPRECIATION, ENTHUSIASMS, MOTIVATIONS) - THAT MIGHT RESULT FROM INSTRUCTION)

28 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct LOKI GUIDE

29 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct At the end of this activity students will be able to: 1.Draw the electric force exerted by one point charge onto another and describe the motion of charges in the presence of other point charges. 2.Describe the cause of motion between point charges. 3.Describe and produce a model of the force in terms of the strength and direction that are acting on and by a point charge and on and by many point charges.

30 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, Oct At the end of this activity students will be able to: 4.Describe and draw the electric field patterns created by point charges surrounding a point charge. 5.Describe and draw the electric field patterns surrounding two like point charges and two unlike point charges. 6.Measure the strength of an electric field produced by a point charge at various localities and produce a mathematical model of the strength.

31 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June At the end of this activity students will be able to: Draw the electric force exerted by one point charge onto another and describe the motion of charges in the presence of other point charges.

32 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Using the the Electric Field Hockey PHET simulation and choose the hockey putt to be the negatively charged particle feeling the force, move a negative charge near it to “see” the force exerted on the putt. Then draw a force diagram based on your observation. Using a ruler, measure the length of each force line. Now compare the force diagram you observed for each of the electrons to your predicted diagram. How different are they? Explain the similarity and differences you observed in terms of the direction and length of the force line

33 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, June Last words-Reflection “The goal of intellectual education is not how to repeat or retain ready-made truths…. It is in learning to master the truth by oneself at the risk of losing a lot of time and going thru all the roundabout ways that are inherent in real activity.” (Jean Piaget, Swiss cognitive psychologist, ) “The one real goal of education is to leave a person asking questions.” Max Beerbohm “….or is it getting confused?” – Prof. Eric Mazur, ICPE09

34 Copyright DR JJ, ASERG, UiTM, Shah Alam 34 Higher order lower order INVOLVES KNOWLEDGE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLECTUAL SKILLS

35 Copyright DR JJ, ASERG, UiTM, Shah Alam 35 Categories in the Cognitive Domain (Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Bloom, 1956) Level 1 – Knowledge The remembering of previously learned material. This may involve the recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. Defines, describes, identifies, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, reproduces, selects, states. Eg.  List the six levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom’s taxonomy.  Define…  State the main principles of Theory X. Level 2 – Comprehension The ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another, by interpreting material (explaining or summarising), and by estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects). These learning outcomes go one step beyond the simple remembering of material, and represent the lowest level of understanding. Converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalises, gives examples, infers, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarises. Eg.  Describe three main features of …  Explain the 3 main components of a learning outcome.  Summarise the main causes of the American war in Iraq. Bloom’s Taxonomy

36 Copyright DR JJ, ASERG, UiTM, Shah Alam 36 Level 3 – Application The ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under ‘Comprehension’. Changes, computes, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses. E.g.:  Construct measurable learning outcomes that include lower and higher order cognitive skills for a one-semester course. Level 4 – Analysis The ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organisational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organisational principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than ‘Comprehension’ and ‘Application’ because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material. Breaks down, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, points out, relates, selects, separates, subdivides e.g.:  Analyse authentic data from various sources and prepare… Bloom’s Taxonomy

37 Copyright DR JJ, ASERG, UiTM, Shah Alam 37 Level 5 – Synthesis The ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information). Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviours, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures. Categorises, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organises, plans, rearranges, revises, rewrites, summarises, tells, writes. e.g.:  Analyse authentic data from various sources and prepare a recommendation report for a specified audience. Level 6 – Evaluation The ability to judge the value of material. The judgements are to be based on definite criteria. These may be internal criteria (organisational) or external criteria (relevance to the purpose) and the student may determine the criteria or be given them. Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of all the other categories, plus conscious value judgements based on clearly defined criteria. Appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticises, describes, discriminates, explains, justifies, interprets, relates, summarises, supports. e.g  Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the cognitive domain of Bloom’s taxonomy in relation to the National Educational Philosophy. Bloom’s Taxonomy

38 Copyright DR JJ, ASERG, UiTM, Shah Alam 38 Higher order lower order PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN INCLUDES PHYSICAL MOVEMENT, COORDINATION & USE OF THE MOTOR SKILL AREAS

39 Copyright DR JJ, ASERG, UiTM, Shah Alam 39 Higher order lower order AFFECTIVE DOMAIN – INCLUDES MANNER WE DEAL WITH THINGS EMOTIONALLY (e.g. FEELINGS, INTERESTS, ATTITUDES, APPRECIATION, ENTHUSIASMS, MOTIVATIONS) - THAT MIGHT RESULT FROM INSTRUCTION)

40 Copyright DrJJ, ASERG, FSG UiTM, April Education, we see, is not merely gaining knowledge or skills helpful toward productive work, though certainly that is a part of it. Rather it is a replenishment and an expansion of the natural thirst of the mind and soul. Learning is a gradual process of growth, each step building upon the other. It is a process whereby the learner organizes and integrates not only facts but attitudes and values. The Lord has told us that we must open our minds and our hearts to learn. There is a Chinese proverb: Wisdom is as the moon rises, perceptible not in progress but in result. As our knowledge is converted to wisdom, the door to opportunity is unlocked. Barbara W. Winder The great aim of education is not knowledge, but action. Herbert Spencer


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