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Compromise of 1877 1877 An agreement between Republicans and southern Democrats that settled the election of 1876. The southern Democrats accepted the.

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Presentation on theme: "Compromise of 1877 1877 An agreement between Republicans and southern Democrats that settled the election of 1876. The southern Democrats accepted the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Compromise of 1877 1877 An agreement between Republicans and southern Democrats that settled the election of 1876. The southern Democrats accepted the presidency of Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and the Republicans agreed to remove soldiers from the south, support southern railroads, and accept a southerner into the cabinet. Pg 388-391 Index=0

2 Booker T. Washington 1890-1915 An African American who suggested that in order for African Americans to earn respect from whites that they must become civilized and educated. Pg 395 Index=0

3 Jim Crow 1876 State laws that restricted blacks’ rights in society including their voting rights. If blacks wanted to vote they had to pass a series of impossible tests given by the state. Pg 395-398

4 Sand Creek Massacre Pg. 418 November, 1868 In Colorado the Cheyenne tribe was coming into conflict with miners, who were moving to this area and taking over the Indians land. The Indians began attacking the American settlements and stagecoach lines, to try and regain their land. In response to this Colonel J. M. Chivington led a volunteer militia to the Cheyenne camp and killed 133 people, 105 of them being women and children. Most of the men who made up this militia force were unemployed miners who were said to be drunk during the massacre. Black Kettle himself got away and was not found until four years later when he and his people were captured and killed by Colonel George A. Custer near the border of Texas. The Sand Creek Massacre was a prime example of the American brutality towards the Indians at this time. Indians from the Cheyenne camp ture/images/getimage.jpg

5 Battle of Little Bighorn Pg. 419 1876 When whites began to move into the Dakota Territory, which was given to the Indians in 1867, the Sioux gathered and left their reservation. The whites ordered them to return, but they did not. Instead they united under the leadership of Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull. The US sent three army columns under the command of George A. Custer to round them up and bring them back to their reservation. Custer was overwhelmed by the 2,500 tribal warriors and they ended up surrounding him and his men and killing every one of them. The Battle of Little Bighorn showed that the Indians did have the ability to put up a good fight and even defeat the Americans if they were able to unite together under a leader. However, after the battle the Indians did not have the organization or necessary supplies to keep their men united. This was the reason why the Indians never really presented a major problem for the Unites States. Colonel J.M. Chivington _John_M_Chivington.jpg

6 Dawes Act Pg. 421 1887 The Dawes Act provided for the gradual elimination of most tribal ownership of land and the allotment of tracts of land to individual owners. The adult owners were given United States citizenship, but were not able to gain full title to their land for twenty-five years. The Bureau of Indian Affairs tried to promote the idea of assimilation in this. They often times took children away from their parents and sent them to American boarding school. They also tried to get rid of the Indian religious rituals and replace them with the practices of Christianity, and promoted the idea of building Christian churches on the reservations. The Dawes Act was so corrupt that the government abandoned their efforts to enforce it. This led to much of the reservation land never being distributed to individual owners. A common idea at this time was to “kill the Indian, save the man.” The purpose of the Dawes Act was to break up the reservations and take the best land for the whites, while also encouraging assimilation. gJIDol9mHnY/UOm6C_6KDiI/AAAAAAAAAGU/8aAfw- k8iwM/s1600/Dawes+Act.jpg

7 Gospel of Wealth Pgs. 438-439 1901 The Gospel of Wealth was an idea similar to Social Darwinism that took a milder approach. The supporters of this thought that people of great wealth had a duty to use their wealth to help advance social progress. Andrew Carnegie was one of the main supporters behind this and he explains it in his 1901 book, The Gospel of Wealth. In this he talks about the idea that rich people should consider all money in excess of their own needs “trust funds” that should be used for the good of the community. Carnegie believed that the government should not get involved in this sort of thing and the responsibility rested on the wealthy and elite members of society to help the country recover. Carnegie gave much of his fortune to this type of philanthropic work. The Gospel of Wealth is important because it shows the two very different opinions at this time. One belief was that the government should be involved in helping the country recover, and the other was that the government should stay out of it and let the wealthy members of society help the country by using their own personal wealth. Andrew Carnegie, author of The Gospel of Wealth 164071750/20carnegie.jpg

8 John D. Rockefeller Pgs. 435-436 1839-1937 John Rockefeller started a refining company in Cleveland and immediately began using horizontal integration to eliminate his competition. Horizontal integration is when one company combines several businesses in the same industry as it into one single corporation. He joined in with several other successful capitalists and created the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. Through his ruthless use of horizontal integration he was able to create the largest monopoly the world had seen. By 1877 he controlled 95% of the United States’ oil refineries. Rockefeller then began to expand vertically to maximize his profit. He built his own barrel factories, terminal warehouses, and pipelines. In addition to this, his company also owned its own freight cars. By doing all of these things he was able to cut out the middle man. Today Rockefeller would be worth $262 billion. Rockefeller showed everything good and bad about business at this time. He showed all of the business opportunities available and how successful a person could become. However, his success also showed how little power the government had when he owned 95% of oil production and had a complete monopoly over the industry. John D. Rockefeller 20_21_pic_%20rockefeller_john_d_1884.jpg

9 Andrew Carnegie Owned the Carnegie Steel Company, the largest corporation in he world at that time He tried to lower wages and caused the Homestead Strike of 1892 Great example of “rags to riches” He invested in oil companies and also supplied many materials to railroads Lived from 1835- 1919 p. 437 rew-carnegie-9238756

10 J.P. Morgan Formed the United States Steel Corporation by buying steel reserves and oil reserves from Andrew Carnegie Let Grover Cleveland buy some of his gold reserves so America would stay afloat Controlled two thirds of the nation’s Steel production Lived from 1837- 1913 p. 435 umanities/articles/morgan_pic_portrait_jf2010_1000px.jpg&imgrefu rl= he-museum-morgan&usg=__s5NL57xBbYXXq68Sxt- D2Su9CFE=&h=1397&w=1000&sz=98&hl=en&start=6&zoom=1&tbni d=bQTOIJoLX7VnmM:&tbnh=150&tbnw=107&ei=TPucUZPuHvfF4AO rmoHwDA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Djp%2Bmorgan%26um%3D1%26sa Address%26hl%3Den%26ie%3DUTF- 8%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&sa=X&ved=0CDYQrQMwBQ

11 Social Darwinism The misapplication to society of Charles Darwin’s laws of evolution Says that only the fittest individuals survive in the marketplace Herbert Spencer was the first proponent of this 1892- onward P. 437- 438 / theory/1/&usg=__ntk5nuZxmfhKTdrK2YrjPdYvV5A=&h=540&w=9 20&sz=101&hl=en&start=12&zoom=1&tbnid=UgILMluqnTaerM: &tbnh=86&tbnw=147&ei=o_ucUaj6MIfa4APM94HwDw&prev=/s earch%3Fq%3Dsocial%2Bdarwinism%26um%3D1%26safe%3Dacti Address%26hl%3Den%26ie%3DUTF- 8%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&sa=X&ved=0CEIQrQMwCw

12 “Boss” Tweed The nickname of William M. Tweed He was the boss of Tammany Hall Went to jail in 1872 for his corrupt uses of public funds Lived from 1823- 1878 He controlled the public and persuaded them to vote for him P. 465 2Boss%22_Tweed_(1870).jpg

13 Populists Populism, or the People’s Party, was mainly started by William Jennings Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech and was joined by farmers and people who wanted bimetallism Started in 1896 They were outraged when Bryan ran for the Democrats, because he was the face of Populism; they thought that the Democrats were just trying to win the election P. 495 on36.htm

14 William McKinley He was against the free coinage of silver He ran for the Republican Party against William Jennings Bryan He helped to start the birth of modern campaigning His victory in the Election of 1896 successfully ended the People’s Party He lived from 1843-1901 Pp. 495- 497 US-Presidents/William-McKinley.htm

15 William Jennings Bryan He wanted bimetallism, and delivered a speech, The “Cross of Gold Speech”, addressing it His inspiring speech began the People’s Party, but he ran on the Bill for the Democrats He lost the Election of 1896 to William McKinley He began the birth of modern Campaigning He lived between 1860-1925 P. 495-497 9229920

16 “Cross of Gold” This speech was said by William Jennings Bryan in 1896 and addressed bimetallism This speech was to the Democratic Convention, and the Democrats picked William Jennings Bryan to run for them This is one of the most famous political speeches in history P. 495 cross-of-gold-dennis-oneill/

17 U.S.S. Maine Pg.504-505 February 1898 Shortly after the controversy over the Dupuy de Lome Letter. The American Battleship the Maine blew up in Havana Harbor, Cuba causing the death of over 260 people. Americans assumed that The Spanish had sunken the ship. Early Reports described and external explosion While the explosion actually took place Inside an engine room. This confusion was Caused by yellow journalism in America The U.S believing it to be an attack by Spain began war Preparations, and on April 25 congress declared war. The Destruction of the Maine is important as It pushed the U.S into the Spanish-American war. urce=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=ZgrHdVbgAfr3ZM&tbni d=fR_D3Tyk6VBqNM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F m%2Fevents%2Fmaineskg.htm&ei=zgmcUe2eBfSx0AHI3Y DoCA&bvm=bv.46751780,d.dmQ&psig=AFQjCNGAEKfPC4 7eV6itse9Hnb2o2bLy5g&ust=1369267010322454

18 Rough Riders pg. 508 rs.jpeg/300px-RoughRiders.jpeg April 25- August 12, 1898 The Rough Riders were a famous Calvary Unit that fought in Cuba during the Spanish- American war. They helped to win several Major battles including the battle for San Juan Hill. They were led by colonel Theodore Roosevelt. In Roosevelt bold charge up Kettle hill, adjacent to San Juan, he was made a war hero. Although he lost many men Roosevelt came out famous. Roosevelt's performance in the war paved the way for his presidency as he was now seen as an American hero.

19 Spanish-American war Pg.505-509 April 25- August 12 1898 Labeled as “A Splendid Little War” by Secretary of State John Hay. The United States dominated the Spanish in a short period of time. This was partly due to the fact that the Cuban rebels had already weakened the Spanish army, But the war also brought up many problems within the U.S army. The war made the U.S realize their problems with supplying and mobilizing their army. Their weapons and uniforms were out of date, and their was a shortage in food and ammunition. Altogether the U.S gained Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and Cuba from the war. 6sRNHnWnqs/S8k4jqucu8I/AAAAAAAABHo/AH7ovAD0OfY/s1600/spani sh_american_war1.jpg&imgrefurl= a-colina-verde-spanish-american- war.html&usg=__KCX6jLt9EgPtv5e7zcK1UFqJexQ=&h=397&w=600&sz= 90&hl=en&start=7&zoom=1&tbnid=X2rq- MjW_TKBdM:&tbnh=89&tbnw=135&ei=1-ycUaaWApXH4APG- oFA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dspanish- american%2Bwar%26um%3D1%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26hl%3D en%26biw%3D627%26bih%3D435%26ie%3DUTF- 8%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&sa=X&ved=0CDgQrQMwBg

20 Occupation of the Philippines Pg. 509-510 1898-1946 On May 1 Commodore George Dewey rolled into Manila Bay, Philippines and destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed there. After the war was over there was a lot of controversy about annexing it to the America. Then the Treaty of Paris officially ceded the Philippines to the U.S. This debate brought up a strong Anti-Imperialist movement against the acquisition of the Philippines. The Anti-Imperialist league was established to oppose the Treaty of Paris. umb/c/c8/Philippine-American_War.png/220px-Philippine- American_War.png&imgrefurl= erican_War&usg=__O4uPnVocnDaPETnWoqqWAWBeXlg=&h=299&w=220&sz=129&hl=en&st art=13&zoom=1&tbnid=nSBoSod2ZO4X8M:&tbnh=116&tbnw=85&ei=YvmcUfHZEcPi4APx7IGo BA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dannexation%2Bof%2Bthe%2Bphilippines%26um%3D1%26safe%3D active%26sa%3DN%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D878%26ie%3DUTF- 8%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&sa=X&ved=0CEQQrQMwDA

21 Imperialism pg.510 Late 19 th century The U.S was very imperialist during the time of the Spanish-American. This was justified with the idea of manifest destiny. After defeating Spain America gained a lot of territory in the Caribbean. With this gain of new territory people began to oppose the U.S’s imperialistic policy. This split was very evident during the question of annexing the Philippines. This split was shown in the presidential election of 1900 which was a referendum on the Philippines. This is the reason Anti-imperialist democrat Bryan Lost to McKinley.

22 Platt Amendment pg. 511 1901 When Cuba formed their constitution and left the U.S out the Platt Amendment was passed. The Amendment barred Cuba from forming treaties with other nations. It also gave the U.S the right to intervene in Cuba in order to preserve independence, life, and property; and required Cuba to allow American naval stations on its territory. The Platt Amendment left the Cuba with little Political independence.

23 Social Gospel pg.521 Progressive era growing outrage of the social and economical injustices happening in America at the time, reformers pursued social justice for society. The Social Gospel was known as an effort to redeem the nation’s cities for their wrong doings. When paired with religion the Social Gospel brought a powerful moral commitment to the Progressive era.

24 W.E.B. Dubois pg. 533-534 Born February 23 1868-died August 27 1963 W.E.B. Dubois was a African American reformer who had a more aggressive approach for gaining equal rights. He attacked Booker T. Washington's Ideals on how to gain respect and rights. He believed African Americans should fight for their civil rights, Instead of waiting for them to be granted. DuBois Created the NAACP which led the drive for equal rights In the coming years and still today.

25 Theodore Roosevelt He was the 26 th president of the United states who served from 1901 until 1909. He was the leader of the rough riders in the war in Cuba., and helped to free Cuba from Spanish control. He was the youngest president ever to serve, and became the president when President McKinley was assassinated. He famously said “speak softly and carry a big stick”. This reflected his foreign policy as he chose to try to stay out of foreign conflicts, but when dragged into one he was willing to use the US’s strong military. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest presidents in US history. “He earned his popularity less because of the extent of the reforms he championed than because he brought to office a broad conception of its powers and invested the presidency with something of its modern status as the central of national political life.” (pg 539)

26 William Howard Taft He was the 27 th president of the US who served from 1909 to 1913. Taft was renown for “trust-busting” by trying to dismantle huge trusts, and get rid of unfair business practices. He helped pass the 16 th amendment and improved the interstate commerce commission. Taft also helped to strengthen the economies of countries in Latin America and Asia. He only served one term as president and is usually placed in the middle tier of US presidents in terms of popularity and effectiveness. “William Howard Taft, who assumed the presidency in 1909, had been Theodore Roosevelt’s most trusted lieutenant and his hand-picked successor.” (pg 543)

27 Roosevelt Corollary It was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904 that stated that President Roosevelt had the power to send troops to interfere with conflicts between European Nations and Latin America. This gave Roosevelt immense power in his dealings with foreign nations and showed European countries looking to expand their empires that Latin America was not the place to do it. “The United States, he claimed, had the right not only to oppose European intervention in the Western hemisphere but also to intervene in the domestic affairs of its neighbors if those neighbors proved unable to maintain order and national sovereignty on their own.” (pg 554)

28 Panama Canal It was a large canal built through the isthmus of panama that was started by the French but completed by the US in 1913 and opened in 1914. The canal greatly cut down on trade time and costs as ships could go through the canal instead of traveling below South America. “The panama canal, which linked the Atlantic ocean and the Pacific by creating a channel through Central America.” (pg 555)

29 Wilson’s neutrality When WWI broke out in Europe, President Woodrow Wilson took a stance of neutrality, and refused to side with either alliance in the conflict. This was hard for him to keep up as America began to trade with Great Britain much more than Germany, angering Germany causing them to attack American ships. Wilson eventually was unable to remain neutral and America was drawn into the war in 1917. 008.jpg/178083935/397x292/woodrow-wilson-008.jpg “Wilson called on his fellow citizens in 1914 to remain ‘impartial in thought as well as deed’ (pg 560)

30 Pacifists v Internationalists These were the two sides of the debate on how the US should go about foreign policy, in regards to WWI. The pacifists felt that America should stay out of the conflict in Europe at all costs, while the internationalists felt that America should join the fighting on the side of Britain and France. These two ideals clashed in the fall of 1915 when the US seemed poised to enter the war. “The question of whether America should make military and economic preparations for war sparked a heated debate between pacifists and internationalists.” (pg 561)

31 Zimmerman Telegram The Zimmerman Telegram was a telegram message sent from Germany to Mexico during WWI. The message was intercepted by the British and given to the USA in February 1917. The message told Mexico, who was an ally of Germany, that if the US declared war on Germany that Mexico should declare war on the US m.jpg “Widely publicized by British propagandists and the American press, the Zimmerman telegram inflamed public opinion and helped popular sentiment for war.” (pg 562)

32 Battle of Argonne Forest The battle of Argonne Forest was part of the last Allied offensive to conclude WWI. It was fought from September 26 th 1918 until the end of the war two months later. Over three hundred thousand men dies all together in the fighting. The battle really helped to secure Allied victory in the war. argonne-forest.gif ‘By the end of October, the AEF (American Expeditionary forces) had helped push the Germans back toward their own border and had cut the enemy’s major supply lines to the front.” (pg 563 to 564)

33 (Throughout WW1) Trench Warfare P. 564- 565 Trench warfare was the main battle strategy throughout all of World War 1 Trench warfare was a strategy in which the armies would dig deep trenches (pictured) in order to protect themselves from mortar strikes, bombings, and sniper fire Trench warfare showed how the weapons used in WW1 were so deadly that 90% of battles were spent in the ground. The trenches caused for battles to last for months at a time, and progress against the enemy was very slow. The trenches were important because they allowed for the troops to not be slaughtered as they would if they stayed above ground.

34 (1919)League of Nations P. 570- 573 Idea created by Wilson after WW1. International organization consisting of many nations that would oversee world affairs and try to prevent future conflicts (such as WW1) from occurring again. The significance of the League of nations is that it was rejected by congress which was a huge embarrassment for Wilson. Also it eventually became the United Nations which we still have today and would eventually become the peacekeeping organization of the World. Ended up failing to an extent because it had very little ability to enforce its rulings and judgments. http://socialstudies- league-of-nations.html

35 (1919- 1921) Red Scare P. 576 Beginning in 1919 after the end of WW1. Red Scare occurred in the U.S. population after the Bolshevik Revolution. It was the fear that was instilled in the hearts of Americans of Communism spreading throughout the World and to the U.S. It was also spurred by a series of bombings and bombing attempts by Communist radicals. Much like terrorism today, the true problem with the Red Scare was that you (American citizens) had no idea whether someone was a Communist or not. The significance of the Red Scare was that it caused the sedition acts of 1918, and overall it created a new enemy to the U.S. and created a brand new fear from the Germans to Communists. It also created an extreme sense of nationalism among U.S. citizens.,_ye_opprest.jpg/205px-Come_unto_me,_ye_opprest.jpg

36 (1916- 1919) Great Migration P. 574- 575 Period of time when many black workers moved from the South (agricultural jobs)up into the North (Industry Jobs) in order to obtain factory jobs that whites had previously held. Created large black communities up North were none had previously been. The significance of the Great Migration was that it caused the Chicago Race Riot (1919), also helped to spur the UNIA. Overall the Great Migration changed the culture and race that had previously been in the North and made the North much more diverse and inhabited by blacks.

37 (Oct. 29, 1929) Stock Market Crash P. 603- 604 Also know as Black Tuesday. The day when the stock market fell apart and 16 million shares were traded, and the industrial index dropped 43 points. The stock market crashed because (very abbreviated) people were investing money that they did not actually have. The significance of the stock market crash was that it was a key component in the Great Depression. It defined President Hoover’s presidential career. It also eventually through the Great Depression caused the banking crisis etc.

38 (1929-1939) Great Depression P. 604- 605) The Great Depression was the era in which the U.S. economy was in turmoil. The Great Depression was caused by the stock market crash, banking crisis, uneven distribution of wealth, the international debt structure, and poor economic diversification. It was finally ended at eh beginning of WW2. The significance of the Great Depression was that it caused for many new acts and associations including the NRA, TVA, FERA, etc. Overall the Great Depression forced a complete overhaul in the restructuring of the banks and how they loan money, and created many new acts that even some are still in effect today.

39 (1929- 1933) Herbert Hoover P. 621- 622 (throughout all of Ch. 23) Herbert Hoover was elected in the election of 1929 because of the recent stock market crash and the ensuing Great Depression. He was a banker and that is why the general public thought that he would make a good president. He believed that this was only a recession and that the economy had a to dip in order to stay healthy. His term was a “hands off approach” to the economy and citizens The significance of Herbert Hoover’s presidency was that his approach to the economy did not help to bring the U.S. out of the recession. Overall many Americans blame Hoover for the depression lasting as long as it did.

40 (1932) Bonus Army P. 621- 622 The Bonus Army was a group a protesters who were veterans of WW1. They were asking for their bonus for serving in the war right now instead of 1945. Over 20,000 protesters marched on D.C. and Hoover still rejected the proposal. After that some protesters left, but many remained. So in order to get them to leave Hoover sent the army in with tear gas and burned down their camp sites. The significance of the Bonus Army was that it was the “last straw” in the demise of Hoover’s presidential career. Not only did he deny the veterans their bonuses, but he sent the army to brutally force them out of their campsites. It was horrible P.R. for Hoover that was part of the reason for his loosing re-election.

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