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USE AND CONTROL OVER EXOTIC SPECIES IN RESTORATION Group 1 Sara L. McPherson Erin Swallow Nayeli Carvajal.

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Presentation on theme: "USE AND CONTROL OVER EXOTIC SPECIES IN RESTORATION Group 1 Sara L. McPherson Erin Swallow Nayeli Carvajal."— Presentation transcript:

1 USE AND CONTROL OVER EXOTIC SPECIES IN RESTORATION Group 1 Sara L. McPherson Erin Swallow Nayeli Carvajal

2 Terminology (Sara) Exotics in Mojave Desert: implication and prioritization (Sara) Approaches and Concerns in removing exotic (Erin) Removing exotic may threaten native species (Erin) Control Methods (Nayeli, Sara) Are there communities that are not invasible (Nayeli) Using exotic in restoration (Nayeli) Conclusion (Sara) Outline

3 Terminology Exotic: any species that has established beyond their historical range (*Richardson, et al., 2000) accidentally or intentionally. Invasive: characterized by geographic distribution, the degree of threat whether socially, economically or environmentally (competitiveness, invasiveness, and ability to engineer ecosystems …Bromus and fire regimes) and control treatments.

4  Research suggests invasions impose irreversible social, aesthetic, economic and environmental consequences.  Exotic pose a serious threat in at least 194 of the 368 national park units in the USA (NPS, 1997).  Management challenges arise because of the extreme variability of impacts  Consider species in the Mojave Parks  About 200 exotic species, prioritization is necessary because eradication of all exotics may not be a financially viable (billions annually)  Early detection vs. eradication Mojave Desert: Implications and Prioritization

5 Figure 1 Figure 3 Invasive Plant Species in Mojave Parks

6 Susceptibility & Resistance  Disturbance regime, including type, frequency, duration and magnitude (Elton, 1958, Fox, 196, rejmakek, 1989).  intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts the highest diversity may be strongest at intermediate (intensity, frequency, size, time)  fuels reduction programs (Milberg, 1995; DAntonio, 2000b; 2000),  post-wild-fire (planting for soil stabilization, silvi-culture and other forest management practices), spread/planting contaminated seeds  livestock grazing (Hoobs, 1992), burrow and horses (hay)  damaged soils/vegetation (*McDougall, et al., 2005),  roadsides and railways (Wilson, 1992; Trombulak, 2000; Johnston, 2001; clear-cuts (Appleby, 1998)  Mining (Lead, zinc, gold, silver, copper, gypsum, gravel, limestone)

7 The diversity-invasibility paradigm  There are two popular diversity-invisibility paradigms  competitive exclusion (negative; small scale) and coexistence (positive; large scale; diverse communities are more prone to invasion);  both assume resources are limiting, competition is a dominant structuring force in communities, and predict the similar natural patterns.  Eltonian theory: low diversity habitats are more vulnerable to invasion than areas (ecosystems) of high diversity in other words increasing native diversity (richness) armors a community against invasion (repels invasion, decrease invasibility)..

8 Control Methods  Mechanical: pulling, cutting or damaging the plant.  Advantages: species specific and cost effective  Disadvantage: labor and time intensive (Tue et. al.)  Chemical: Use of herbicides which can be defined as any chemical substance that is used to specifically kill plants.  Advantages: They are effective, work fast.  Disadvantages: they may pose threats to the environment (non- biodegradable and slightly toxic). Some weeds may become resistant. Fig. 1: http://www.shawnature.org/images/Nhttp://www.shawnature.org/images/N ativeLand/Chapter3/front%20covert.jpg

9  Biological control is the use of animals, fungi, or other microbes to feed upon, parasitize or otherwise interfere with a targeted pest species.  Advantages: leaves no chemical residues.  Disadvantages: some biological control programs have resulted in significant, irreversible harm to untargeted organisms and to ecological processes  Prescribed burns: repeated burns are sometimes necessary to effectively control weedy plants.  Fire is sometimes necessary to prompt the germination of some plants, including a number of rare and endangered species.  Some natural areas such as DNWR does not use burns as a management tool due to their de facto wilderness management paradigm. Fig. 2: http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/t opics/sh ared_content/strawberryguava/images/galls.jpg Fig. 3: http://threatsummary.forestthreats.org/images/t hreats/Prescribed_Fire_124.jpghttp://threatsummary.forestthreats.org/images/t

10  Prescribed grazing: Prescribed grazing is the application of domestic livestock grazing at a specified season and intensity to accomplish specific vegetation management goals. Typically employ domestic sheep, goats, and cattle; may also use horses, pigs, geese, or domesticated native ungulates (USFWS official website). Prescribed grazing systems incorporate aspects of both natural and domesticated grazing systems. Fig. 4: http://www.fws.gov/invasives/staffTrainin gMo dule/methods/grazing/introduction.htmlhttp://www.fws.gov/invasives/staffTrainin

11 A REVIEW OF CONTROL TREATMENTS FOR AMARANTHUS ALBUS (PIGWEED) Sara McPherson

12 Scientific nameAmaranthus albus (meaning everlasting white) ProblematicVolume of seeds (30,000-100,000 per plant)(Acorn, 2001), virus AMV, crop land Common names prostrate pigweed, tumbleweed, tumbleweed amaranth, white amaranth Cultural Use edible FlowerJuly-August ToxicityToxic to livestock BiologicalIn 1987, a fungus identified as Aposphaeria amaranthi usefulness as a control mechanism HerbicidesWeedScience.org (2002) reports herbicide resistance Hand laborbe hand weeded or hoed prior to the plants reaching seed production (Muenscher 1980) Mowing and Mechanical suggests that cultivation by surface tillage occur early to induce germination of seeds, followed by hand weeding or hoeing to prevent seed production by Amaranthus palmeri plants. Muenscher (1980) Figure 5 Figure 1 Distribution Map (USGS, 2006), Figure 2 Amaranthus albus (USGS, 2006). USDA, NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resource Conservation. Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team, Fort Worth, TX, Figure 3 Amaranthus albus (USGS, 2006). Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA, SCS, 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln. Courtesy of USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute.

13 StudyTreatmentResults Effectiveness of treatment (Ullia, et al., 2010)Propane flaming About 90% dry matter reduction achieved with propane dose ranging from 40 to 80 kg ha21 (Amisi, et al., 2010) Raw dairy vs. composted manure soils with raw dairy manure may decrease the competitiveness whereas composted manure increase competitiveness (Trader, et al., 2009) halosulfuron applications reduce shoot dry weight 50% compared with only 8 g/ha for S; differing degrees of resistance to halosulfuron. (Kahramanoglu, et al., 2010)metribuzinprovide satisfactory control (>90%) of redroot pigweed (Evans, et al., 2009) Clove oil and vinegar 200-grain vinegar applied at 636 L/ha provided 100% control (6 d after treatment [DAT]) and mortality (9 DAT) of two-leaf redroot pigweed; as growth stage advanced, control and biomass reduction decreased and survival increased (Dahlquist, et al., 2007)Temperature Temperatures of 50 C and above were lethal for seeds of all species. tumble pigweed unaffected at 42 C and below (Cristanudo, et al., 2007)Temperature At 10 and 15_C constant temperatures, no significant seed germination occurred there was no germination at 10_C, but at 15_C more than 60% germination occurred. (Treasdale, et al., 2005) Hairy vetch residue, ammonium hydroxide Hairy vetch residue is capable of suppressing weeds, but low levels of residue can intermittently stimulate the emergence of weeds, particularly smooth pigweed. A similar response to ammonium hydroxide solutions was observed (Moran, et al., 2005) Water deficit and shade stress All treatments decreased plant height and weight (Grichar, et al., 2005) atrazine, pendimethalin, trifluralin Tumble pigweed was controlled at least 99% with atrazine plus pendimethalin or trifluralin application (Santos, et al., 2004)Phosphorus Weed-free lettuce fresh yield was 20% higher with banded P than broadcast applications. (Hanson, et al., 2003) fungicide propiconazole reduced the biomass accumulation 15 to 63% (Hendricks, et al., 1975)thiourea, sodium nitrite, hydroxylamine salts catechol, pyrogallol Germination of some dormant seeds is promoted by solutions

14 References Aguyoh Joseph N. and Masiunas John B. Inference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) with snap beans [Journal] // Weed Science. - [s.l.] : Weed Science Society of America, 2003. - 2 : Vol. 51. - pp. 202-207. - DOI: 10.1614/0043- 1745(2003)051[0202:IORPAR]2.0.CO;2, URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1614/0043-1745%282003%29051%5B0202%3AIORPAR%5D2.0.CO%3B2. Amisi Karen J. and Doohan Doug Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Seedling Emergence and Growth in Soils Amended with Composted Dairy Cattle Manure and Fresh Dairy Cattle Manure under Greenhouse Conditions [Journal] // Weed Technology. - [s.l.] : Weed Science Society of America, 2010. - 1 : Vol. 24. - pp. 71-75. - DOI: 10.1614/WT-08-141.1, URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1614/WT-08-141.1. Arianoutsou Margarita [et al.] The alien flora of Greece: taxonomy, life traits, and habitat preference [Journal] // Biol Invasions. - 2010. - Vol. 12. - pp. 3525-3549. - DOI 10.1007/s10530-010-9749-0. Cheplick Gregory P. Size and architectural traits as ontogenetic determinants of fitness in a phenotypically plastic annual weed (Amaranthus albus) [Journal] // Plant Species Biology. - 2002. - Vol. 17. - pp. 71-84. Cristanudo A. [et al.] Effects of after-harvest period and environmental factors on seed dormacy of Amaranthus species [Journal] // Journal Compliation. - [s.l.] : European Weed Research Society Research, 2007. - Vol. 47. - pp. 327-334. Dahlquist Ruth M., Prather Timothy S. and Stapleton James J. Time and Temperature Requirements for Weed Seed Thermal Death [Journal] // Weed Science. - [s.l.] : Weed Science Society of America, 2007. - 6 : Vol. 55. - pp. 619-625. - DOI: 10.1614/WS-04-178.1, URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1614/WS-04-178.1. Evans Glenn J., Bellinder Robin R. and Goffinet Martin C. Herbicidal Effects of Vinegar and clove oil product on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retrjoflexus) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) [Journal] // Weed Technology. - 2009. - Vol. 23. - pp. 292- 299. - DOI: 10.1614/WT-08-158.1. Grichar James W., Besler Brent A. and Brewer Kevin D. Weed Control and Grain Sorghum (sorghum biocolor) response to postermergence application of atrazine, pendimethalin, and trifluralin [Journal] // Weed Technology. - [s.l.] : Weed Science Society of America, 2005. - 4 : Vol. 19. - pp. 999-1003. - DOI: 10.1614/WT-04-180R2.1, URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1614/WT-04-180R2.1. Habib S.A. and Rahman Addul A.A. Evaluation of some weed extracts against field doddger on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) [Journal] // Journal of Chemical Ecology. - 1988. - 2 : Vol. 14. Hanson Bradley D. [et al.] Growth Regulator Effects of Propiconazole on Redroot Pigweed (amaranthus retroflexus) [Journal]. - 2003. - Vol. 17. - pp. 777-781. Hendricks S.B. and Taylorson R.B. Breaking of Seed Dormacy by Catalase Inhibition [Journal] // Proc Nat Aca Sci. - January 1975. - 2 : Vol. 72. - pp. 306-309. Jones Gretchen D., Greenberg Shoil M. and Eischen Frank A. Almond, Melon, and Pigweed Pollen Retention in the boll weevil (Coleoptera; Curculionidae) [Journal] // Palynology. - [s.l.] : AASP Foundation, 2007. - pp. 81-93. Kahramanoglu Ibrahim and Uygur Nezihi F. The effects of reduced does and application timing of metribuzin on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflex L.) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) [Journal] // Turk J Argic For. - 2010. - Vol. 34. - pp. 467- 474. - doi:10.3906/tar-0905-17. Lovelli Stella [et al.] Photosynthetic Response to Water Stress of Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) in a Southern-Mediterranean Area [Journal]. - [s.l.] : Weed Science Society of America, 2010. - 5 : Vol. 58. - DOI: 10.1614/WS-09-039.1, URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1614/WS-09-039.1. Mirshekari Banram, Javanshir Aziz and Arbat Hamdollah Kazemi Inference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) in green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) [Journal] // Weed Biology and Management. - 2010. - Vol. 10. - pp. 120-125. Moran Patrick J. and Showler Allan T. Plant Responses to water deficit and shade stresses in pigweed and their influence on feeding and oviposition by the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) [Journal] // Environ. Entomol. - 2005. - 4 : Vol. 34. - pp. 929-937. Pribylova Radka [et al.] Detection of the antimicrobial peptide gene in different Amarathus species [Journal] // Biologia. - 2008. - 2 : Vol. 63. - pp. 217-220. - DOI: 10.2478/s11756-008-0037-8. Santos Bielinski [et al.] Influence of method of phosphorus application on smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) interference in lettuce [Journal] // Weed Science. - 2004. - Vol. 52. - pp. 797-801. Sheibany Kabeh, Meubodi Mohammad Ali Baghestani and Atri Aliereza Competitive effects of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) on the growth indices and yield of corn [Journal] // Weed Biology Management. - 2009. - Vol. 9. - pp. 152-159. - doi:10.1111/j.1445-6664.2009.00333.x. Steinmaus Scott J., Prather Timothy and Holt Jodie S. [Journal] // Journal of Experimental Botany. - Febuary 2000. - 343 : Vol. 51. - pp. 275-286. Trader Brian W. [et al.] Halosulfuron Resistance in Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) Populations [Journal] // Weed Techology. - [s.l.] : Weed Science Society of America, 2009. - 3 : Vol. 23. - pp. 460-464. - DOI: 10.1614/WT-08-115.1, URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1614/WT-08-115.1. Trader Brian W., Wilson Henry P. and Hines Thomas E. Control of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) in Summer Squash with Halosulfuron [Journal]. - 2008. - Vol. 22. - pp. 660-665. - DOI: 10.1614/WT-08-016.1. Treasdale John R. and Pillai Parthan Contribution of ammonium to stimulation of smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) germination by extracts of hairy vetch (Vicia villisa Roth) residue [Journal] // Weed Biology and Management. - 2005. - Vol. 5. - pp. 19-25. Trucco Federico [et al.] Characterization of Waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) × Smooth Pigweed (A. hybridus) F1 Hybrids [Journal] // Weed Technology. - [s.l.] : Weed Science Society of America, 2006. - 1 : Vol. 20. - pp. 14-22. - DOI: 10.1614/WT- 05-018R.1, URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1614/WT-05-018R.1. Ullia Santiago M., Datta Avishek and Knezevic Stevan Z. Growth Stage-Influenced Differential Response to Foxtail and Pigweed Species to Broadcast flaming [Journal] // Weed Technology. - 2010. - Vol. 24. - pp. 319-325. USGS [Online]. - http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/plants/floramw/species/amaralbu.htm. Wassom J.J. and Tranel P.J. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism-Based Genetic Relationships Among Weedy Amaranthus Species [Journal] // Journal of Heredity. - 2005. - 4 : Vol. 96. - pp. 410-416. - doi:10.1093/jhered/esi065. Wicks Gail A. [et al.] Survey of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Stubble Fields Sprayed with Herbicides in 1998: Cultural Practices [Journal] // Weed Technology. - 2003. - Vol. 17. - pp. 467-747.

15 USING EXOTICS IN RESTORATION Nayeli Carvajal

16 In which instances have exotic plants been used for restoration?  Prevent soil erosion: where soil erosion or the potential for it is severe practitioners use fast-growing but sterile exotic grasses to quickly establish cover (D’Antonio and Meyerson, 2002).  Enrich sterile soils: In other cases where land uses such as mining and overgrazing have reduced soil fertility, fast-growing exotic species (N-fixing) have been used to ameliorate harsh conditions may eventually accelerate the recover of natives (D’Antonio and Meyerson, 2002) (Nevada Test Site). Figure 6:http://www.forestandrange.org/rangeland%20weeds%20 module/img/sub3-4_SpottedKnapweedPresc.jpg Figure 7: http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/slides/img/CD101.jpg

17  Secure the site: Alien species that form dense colonies can help reduce invasions by other aliens (Ewel and Putz, 2004).  Nurse Plants: By shielding against intense radiation and heat loading, the light shade east by some plants can facilitate colonization by others (Ewel and Putz, 2004).  Guide composition: Selective consumption of an alien plant by an alien herbivore can direct succession towards vegetation of a desired life form (Ewel and Putz, 2004).  Provision of surrogate resources: True restoration of the original ecosystem is sometimes impossible due to extinctions, but can be approximated by using non-native species (Ewel and Putz, 2004).

18  Biological control: Use of exotic species that predate on or compete with the invasive species (D’Antonio and Meyerson, 2002).  Release of insect as a control method for controlling exotic plants (Pearson et al., 2000) Fig 8. Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) http://www.forestandrange.org/rangeland%20weeds%20module/su b3/p4.shtml Fig 9. Gall fly (Urophora quadrifasciata) http://www.fcwp.org/BioControl/Images/UrophoraQuadrifasciata.jp g

19 Why we shouldn’t use exotic plants for restoration?  In some cases exotic grasses may reduce the growth of native seedling in the critical first years after disturbance (D’Antonio and Meyerson, 2002).  Unplanned biological control may result in introduced species becoming invasive themselves.

20 Recommendations  The exotic species used for restoration should themselves not be invasive or have the potential to become problematic (D’Antonio and Meyerson, 2002).  Consider the options carefully. The effects of the introduction of these biological controls have not been studied in depth (D’Antonio and Meyerson, 2002).  Depends on the goal of the restoration project. If the goal of the project is full recovery of native assemblage then exotic plants should not be used for restoration(D’Antonio and Meyerson, 2002).  Consider  Cost  Benefit  Risk

21 References D’Antonio, Carla and Meyerson, Laura. 2002. Exotic Plant Species as Problems and Solutions in Ecological Restoration: A Synthesis. Restoration Ecology. Vol. 10: 703-713. Ewel, John and Putz, Francis. A place for alien species in ecosystem restoration. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Vol.2: 354-360 Dean E. Pearson, Kevin S. McKelvey, Leonard F. 2000. Non-Target Effects of an Introduced Biological Control Agent on Deer Mouse Ecology. Oecologia, Vol. 122, No. 1 (2000), pp. 121-128 Ruggierohttp://www.forestandrange.org/rangeland%20weed.s%20m odule/img/sub3-4_SpottedKnapweedPresc.jpg http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/slides/img/CD101.jpg http://www.forestandrange.org/rangeland%20weeds%20module/sub 3/p4.shtml http://www.fcwp.org/BioControl/Images/UrophoraQuadrifasciata.jpg

22 THINGS TO CONSIDER IN INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL Erin Swallow

23 Overview  Introduction  Practical: Bromus rubens  Political: Wild horses  Why do we need to remove it anyway?  Tamarix  Phragmites spp.  Impacts of Removal: Tanta natans  Unexpected Consequences: Santa Cruz Islands

24 Introduction  It is not as simple as deciding to remove a species not native to an area  A variety of issues must be considered  Feasibility  Cost  Consequences – to the environment, other species and the community

25 Practical  Successful control requires adequate  Money - $32 - $42 million spent annually on plant and animal management under ESA – 90% related to exotics  Time – Hand removal is time and labor intensive  Ongoing support – Common reed removal takes years of follow-up  In some cases, the species is to well established to be completely removed

26 Bromus rubens  Red brome  Invasive Mediterranean grass  Increases fire hazard  Thoroughly naturalized  Best option to limit spread, not eradicate Figure 10: http://www.laspilitas.com/easy/easyweeds.htm

27 Political  Control of exotics can be controversial  Culling species – Animal rights  Uninformed public – tree clearing, burns  Cost Figure 11 http://thesituationist.wordpress.com/2008/01/30/the-situation-of-political-animals/

28 Wild Horses and Burros  Protected by the Wild and Free-roaming Horses and Burros Act (1971)  BLM mandated to control populations  Not given adequate resources Figure 12 http://www.treknature.com/gallery/photo98156.htm

29 Wild Horses and Burros  Overpopulating the range  Realistic management unacceptable to the public  Issues of competition and disturbance persist Figure 13 http://www.wildhorsepreservation.org/news/?p=2800

30 Impacts of Removal  The act of removal can negatively impact the overall environment  Disturbance from removal  Lingering impacts from chemicals

31 Trapa natans  European water chestnut  Invasive water plant that forms thick mats in waterways  Interferes with light penetration, fish communities, dissolved oxygen, recreation Figure 14 http://www.classicnatureprints.com/pr.Thome%20Flora/t.trapa.natans.html

32 Trapa natans  Small infestations can be removed by hand  Large infestations require repeated dredging  Mount Holyoke Dredged Drained Removed sediment Figure 15 Figure 16 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hatlas/cam pus_environment/ecology/waterchestnut.htm

33 Why do we need to remove it anyway?  Not all exotic species are causing significant harm…some may even help certain species!

34 Phragmites spp.  What is it?  Common reed  Aggressively colonizes wetlands  Concerns:  Reduced biodiversity  Lost ecosystem services Figure 17 http://greensleeves.typepad.com/berkshires/invasive_species/page/2

35 Phragmites spp.  Early colonizer – stabilizes soil, provides habitat  Cover for wildlife  Nesting  Foraging  Protection from predators  Protection from elements  Expensive and difficult to remove  Recolonizes quickly Figure 18 http://www.flickr.com/photos/windy_valley/2474492153/

36 Unexpected Consequences  Ecological systems are interconnected, any change can have unforeseen consequences  Need to consider carefully before action is taken

37 Tamarix  What is it?  Saltcedar, Tamarisk  Colonizes along water ways  Concerns:  Water supply  Wildlife habitat  Changes soil properties  Species diversity Figure 19 http://www.bioquest.org/bedrock/problem_spaces/tamarix/background.php

38 Tamarix  Erosion control  Birds Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Yellow-billed cuckoo  Leveling Tamarix without adequate follow-up destroys bird habitat Figure 20 http://www.symbolicmessengers.com/Flycatchers.htm

39 Santa Cruz Island  Overgrazed by feral pigs and sheep  Threatened the endangered Santa Cruz Island fox and other species  DDT wiped out bald eagles  Golden eagles arrived – preyed on pigs and foxes  Restoration efforts removed pigs and sheep

40 Santa Cruz Island  Pig removal lead to increased predation pressure on foxes  Endangered golden eagles removed and bald eagles reintroduced Figure 21 http://www.channelislandsrestoration.com/esci/

41 References Benoit, L. K., and R. A. Askins. 1999. Impact of the spread of Phragmites on the distribution of birds in Connecticut tidal marshes. Wetlands 19:194-208. California: Santa Cruz Island. 2011. Nature Conservancy. http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/ca lifornia/preserves/art6335.htmlhttp://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/ca Chambers, R. M., L. A. Meyerson, and K. Saltonstall. 1999. Expansion of Phragmites australis into tidal wetlands of North America. Aquatic Botany 64:261-273. D’Antonio, C., and L.A. Meyerson. 2002. Exotic plant species as problems and solutions in ecological restoration: a synthesis. Restoration Ecology 10:703-713 De Corte, A. 2010. Relationshisp of exotic plant invasions with biological soil crust, desert pavement and soil carbon in the eastern Mojave desert. Master’s thesis, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Farnsworth, E., and L. Meyerson. 1999. Species composition and inter-annual dynamics of a freshwater tidal plant community following removal of the invasive grass, Phragmites australis. Biological Invasions 1:115-127. Faulds, A., and K. Wakefield. 2003. Phragmites: a tale of two strains. Pennsylvania Sea Grant. http://www.gridle ybryant.com/marsh/phragDocs/PhragmitesATaleOfTwoStrains.doc.http://www.gridle ybryant.com/marsh/phragDocs/PhragmitesATaleOfTwoStrains.doc Meyer, S. W. 2003. Comparative use of Phragmites australis and other habitats by birds, amphibians, and mammals, at Long Point, Ontario. Master’s thesis, University of Western Ontario. Meyerson, L. A., K. Saltonstall, L. Windham, E. Kiviat, and S. Findlay. 2000. A comparison of Phragmites australis in freshwater and brackish marsh environments in North America. Wetland Ecology and Management 8:89-103. North, S. 2003. Damage control: MHC and the attempt to control the waterfront environment. Mount Holyoke Historical Atlas. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart /hat las/water relationship/modern/dredging.html O’Neill, C. R. 2006. Water chestnut (Trapa natans) in the northeast. NYSG Invasive Species Fact Sheet Series: 06-1. New York Sea Grant 1-4. Pitt, K. P. 1985. Wild free-roaming horses and burros act: a western melodrama. Environmental Law 15: 503-532 Sogge, M. K., S. J. Sferra and E. J. Paxton. Tamarix as habitat for birds: implications for restoration in the southwestern United States. Restoration Ecology 16: 146-154

42 Conclusion  Where do we go from here?  Prevention (early detection; critical) vs. eradication  Foundation for prevention, eradication and control (Abella, Spencer, Hoines, & Nazarchyk, 2009; Hobbs & Humphries, August 1995; Hulme, 2006)  9factors hunger management:  scientific research has a current symposium encompasses 120 competing hypotheses  the quantity of highly invasive candidate (tens of thousands; Sax & Brown, 2000),  ability to discern significant changes,  inadequate tracking indicators,  predictability of regional composition and introduction models,  lag times in population explosion,  timing of control measure  systems for assessing harmful species not presently documented in the region and corresponding adaptive monitoring for potential invaders (Hulme, 2006).

43 Discussion of the Literature

44 Literature Abella SR [et al.] Relationship of native desert plants with red brome (Bromus rubens): twoard indentifying invasion-reducing species [Journal]. - 2011. Bakker JD and Wilson SD Using ecological restoration to constrain biological invasion [Journal] // Journal of Applied Ecology. - 2004. - Vol. 41. - pp. 1058-1064. Brown CS [et al.] Restoration ecology and invasive plants in the semiarid West [Journal] // Invasive Plant Science and Management. - 2008. - Vol. 1. - pp. 399-413. D'Antonio C. and Meyerson L.A. Exotic plant species as problems and solutions in ecological restoration: a synthesis [Journal] // Ecology Letters. - 2002. - Vol. 10. - pp. 703-713. Lodge DM [et al.] Biological invasions: recommendations for US policy and management [Journal] // Ecological Applications. - 2006. - Vol. 16. - pp. 2035-2054. Prober SM [et al.] Restoring ecological function in temperate grass woodland: manipulating soul nutrients, exotic annuals and native perennial grasses through carbon supplements and spring burns [Journal] // Journal of Applied Ecology. - 2005. - Vol. 42. - pp. 1073-1085. Sandel B. and Corbin JD Scale, disturbance and productivity control the native and exotic richness relationship [Journal] // Oikos. - 2010. - Vol. 119. - pp. 1281-1290. - SEARCH. - doi: 10.1111/j.1600- 0706.2010.18230.x. Zouhar K. [et al.] Wildliand fire in ecosystems: fire and nonnative invasive plants [Journal]. - [s.l.] : General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-42-vol 6 US Department of Agriculture Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2008. - p. 355 pp.


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