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Katie Sylvester New York University.  Dr. Elise Cappella for your dedication to my project and access to this data set.  Research Grants: Spencer Foundation,

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Presentation on theme: "Katie Sylvester New York University.  Dr. Elise Cappella for your dedication to my project and access to this data set.  Research Grants: Spencer Foundation,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Katie Sylvester New York University

2  Dr. Elise Cappella for your dedication to my project and access to this data set.  Research Grants: Spencer Foundation, Woodrow Wilson Foundation, Johnson & Johnson Corp.  All research assistants who collected the data.  Research participants: Schools, teachers, and students.

3  As girls transition to adolescence, they experience an increase in depressive symptoms.  During adolescence twice as many girls as boys suffer from depressive disorders.  Peer relationships become increasingly important and complex.  Early interventions targeting girls might reduce symptoms and diagnoses of depression in adolescence.

4  Broad range of aggressive behaviors and peer conflicts (e.g., malicious rumor spreading, threats).  Girls become increasingly engaged in subtle and indirect peer conflicts that involve intentional harm through the manipulation of social relationships.  Creates instability and conflict within one’s immediate peer context.

5  Depressive symptoms are closely linked to experiences of aggression victimization.  Depressed children exhibit behaviors that signal to others that they will not be successful at defending themselves if attacked.  Girls who are victimized are likely to internalize their problems and experience emotional distress.  As a result, there seems to be a bidirectional relation between victimization and depression. Depressive Symptoms Aggression Victimization

6  Achievement differences favoring girls emerge by the end of elementary school.  Academic achievement is intertwined with internalizing problems and social relationships.  Children who experience psychosocial difficulties often experience concurrent academic difficulties.  Poor social experiences are linked to poor academic achievement.  Strained relationships with teachers and peers lowers motivation and generates poor achievement.  The presence of cognitive or academic skills might protect children from poor mental or social experiences.

7  Positive academic experiences might protect children from negative consequences of depression and victimization.  Ecological Perspective  Within micro-level context  Developmental Cascades Model  Developmentally salient  Spillover effects Academic Achievement Social Relationships Depressive Symptoms

8 Depressive Symptoms Aggression Victimization  What is the relation between depressive symptoms and aggression victimization?  What is the relation between academic achievement and aggression victimization?  Does academic achievement moderate the relation between depressive symptoms and aggression victimization? Aggression Victimization Academic Achievement

9  Girls between the ages of 9-12  13 fifth grade classrooms  6 low-middle income schools

10 Academic Group (RC)Social Group (SAPP )  Increase students' reading abilities  Oral reading of a chapter book and literacy activities  Students kept journals, read aloud from book, and participated in writing assignments and discussions  Reduce peer conflict and increase prosocial behaviors  Students participated in discussion, role playing, modeling, and games

11 MeasureDescriptionSample Item α (T1- T2) Social Experience Questionnaire (SEQ)  4-item subscale of overall victimization  Peer report How often does _________ get hit, pushed, or beat up by other kids? Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI)  10-item subscale of depressive symptoms  Self report I am sad. Likert scale of 1-3 (1 as once in a while, 3 as all the time) Academic Achievement  3-item scale of academic achievement  Teacher report Math, reading, and science Likert scale of 1-5 (1 as far below average to 5 far above average)

12 Variable T1 Depression-- 2. T2 Depression.60**-- 3. T1 Achievement T2 Achievement *-- 5. T1 Victimization.27**.22*-.29** T2 Victimization.34**-.34**-.35*-.20*.85**--

13 T1 depression  T2 victimization (β =.02, p <.05)  Further analyses were run splitting the groups:  Depression and victimization were positively correlated within and across time points.  Follow-up regressions showed that, controlling for intervention group assignment: T1 victimization did not predict T2 depression. For both groups: T1 depression  T2 victimization (RC, β =.04, p <.01; SAPP, β =.07, p <.01) SAPP group only: T1 victimization  T2 depression (β =1.67, p <.01 )

14 T1 achievement  T2 victimization (β =.22, p <.01)  Results of a Hierarchical Multiple Regression, controlling for T2 depression,T2 achievement, and group assignment showed:  Achievement was negatively correlated with victimization.  Follow-up regressions showed that, controlling for intervention group assignment: T1 victimization did not predict T2 achievement. T1 achievement  T2 victimization (β = -.17, p <.001) For RC only: T1 achievement  T2 victimization(β = -.17, p <.01) T1 depression  T2 victimization (β =.04, p <.05)

15  There was no moderation effect of achievement on the relation between depression and victimization.

16  Depression positively predicted victimization across groups.  Victimization positively predicted depression for girls in the SAPP group only.  Results partially support past findings of a bidirectional relation between victimization and depression.  Involvement in short-term social intervention might make girls’ peer difficulties salient.  Achievement negatively predicted victimization across groups.  Once achievement was introduced, depression was no longer predictive of victimization for girls in the social intervention group.  For girls in the academic intervention group, achievement and depression both uniquely predicted victimization.

17  Teacher reports of achievement  Academic performance reflects a combination of achievement, school behavior, and teacher-student relationships.  May be most predictive of success in school (e.g., proxy for grades).  Future research: use of other achievement indices (e.g., standardized test scores).  CDI: Limited variability  Two time points: Difficult to capture a dynamic and bidirectional relationship  Future research: Longitudinal, multi-time point study.

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