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Internationalisation of HE: recent conceptualisations and implications for practice Sue Robson Alina Schartner.

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1 Internationalisation of HE: recent conceptualisations and implications for practice Sue Robson Alina Schartner

2 Internationalisation pervasive but contested concept in contemporary HE, often economically driven (Turner and Robson, 2008; Tian and Lowe, 2009; Brandenburg and De Wit, 2011) 'The presence of international students is often seen as a key to internationalisation (as well as having obvious commercial benefits), but the actions taken to accommodate and integrate those students are often inadequate or inappropriate.’ (Reid and Spencer Oatey, 2013) a marketization discourse steers thinking away from a radical reassessment of HE purposes, priorities and processes that student diversity and multicultural interaction require (Caruana and Spurling, 2007)

3 Clifford and Montgomery (2014). contemporary universities are places where cultures (and so perspectives) meet New conceptualisations: the ‘international’ university

4 Comprehensive internationalization is a commitment, confirmed through action, to infuse international and comparative perspectives throughout the teaching, research, and service missions of higher education. It shapes institutional ethos and values and touches the entire higher education enterprise. Hudzig, 2011 New conceptualisations: the ‘international’ university

5 '...the business of the University is to enable us to grow beyond ourselves, not to constrain us within established self-views or world views’. Killick, 2013 New conceptualisations: the internationalised self

6 The ‘internationalised’ self (Turner and Robson, 2008) Strategic and Reflective Thinking Engagement with and management of thinking and learning, supported by value- grounded thinking (including critically reflective thinking and interpersonal and intercultural understanding/competence) ↕ Cognitive skills Information gathering Experiencing, recognising, and recalling Comprehending messages and recorded information Building language and understanding Development of meaning (e.g. by elaborating, representing, or sharing ideas) Understanding disciplinary discourses) Working with patterns or rules Concept formation Organising ideas Intercultural activities, participation in knowledge cultures, or communities of learning Productive thinking Reasoning Understanding causal relationships Systematic enquiry Problem solving Creative thinking Intercultural awareness

7 Viv Caruana in Clifford and Montgomery (Eds.) (2014). IoC for global citizenship Key principles: participation, responsibility, activism New conceptualisations: the ‘international’ curriculum

8 The challenge Internationalisation at home: curriculum content (contexts, values and understandings) processes of teaching, learning and assessment, with regard for the skills and competences students (and staff) require for life and work in a diverse world Hudzig, 2011

9 The challenge internationalising the experience of the international student in the host institution internationalising the experience of local students addressing the challenges of classroom diversity innovative teaching with intercultural groups the development of inclusive practices for cohort interaction and styles of participation innovative use of technology to enhance learning

10 Internationalisation in HE – lessons from the ‘lived’ experience of international students 24 th November 2014 Learning and Teaching Seminar

11 Background A longitudinal PhD project investigating the academic, psychological and sociocultural adjustment and adaptation of international postgraduate students at Newcastle University Questionnaire (N = 223); completed in Oct and June ▫Subscales and single items measuring contributory factors and outcomes Semi-structured interviews (N = 20); Oct, Feb, June ▫Open questions – How have things been going for you?, What’s been happening to you?

12 Predictive Component Contributory factors Adaptation English language ability Intercultural competence Knowledge about the UK Autonomy in the decision to study abroad Social contact Social support Academic achievement GPA taught GPA research GPA overall Psychological adaptation Wellbeing Satisfaction with life Sociocultural adaptation

13 Monitoring Component Adjustment OCT FEBJUN

14 International Student Adjustment Similar challenges to ‘home’ students From home to away – practicalities of fending for self… Psychosocial - loneliness, anxiety, social acceptance… Transition to UG or PG study BUT a question of degree of challenge Challenges more specific to international students, in life and study Intercultural adjustment Language Educational adjustment – to new ‘national’ systems, norms, expectations for teaching and learning (Andrade, 2006)

15 Student Voices I don't have British friends (…) where can I find them? (Turkish, female, 22) I can meet Italians in Italy, why should I meet new Italians here? (Italian, female, 23) It was absolutely worth it. (Finnish, female, 27) Maybe go to somewhere sunny otherwise you will be depressed. (Turkish, male, 23) I think the old men they are very gentlemen. (Chinese, female, 24) The young ones are very crazy and party people. (Romanian, female, 22)

16 Implications for orientation and support

17 Intercultural training Intercultural competence malleable/trainable Pre-arrival ▫Part of language preparation (Byram and Feng, 2004) In situ ▫Experiential learning (Deardorff, 2006) ▫Accredited community-based learning ▫‘Internationalising’ the local community, ‘localising’ the international community (Green and Finn, 2010)

18 English language support Language requirements Applied language training ▫Language in-use ▫Exposure to local varieties ‘Specialised nature of academic discourse’ (Schmitt, 2005) ▫Course-specific terminology ▫Language support at course-level

19 Knowledge about the host environment Pre-arrival orientation ▫Explicit communication (Carroll, 2005) ▫Expectation management ▫Course-specificity ‘Knowledge in action’ (Etherington and Spurling, 2007) ▫‘Safe’ environments

20 The motivational variable The decision to study abroad ▫Degree of autonomy/self-determination (Chirkov et al., 2007) Proactive students ▫Socially ▫Academically Tailored support services

21 Social connectedness Persistent lack of host contact ▫Instrumental/formulaic ▫How to help hosts ‘buy in’? Centrality of ‘international ties’ ▫High quality support ▫Actively foster in and beyond the classroom Complexity of co-national contact ▫Comforting BUT ‘Not why I came here’ ▫Recognise importance of co-national ties (e- support!) (Schartner, 2014)

22 References Andrade, M.S. (2006). International students in English-speaking universities: Adjustment factors. Journal of Research in International Education, 5(2), 131-54. Byram, M., & Feng, A. (2004). Culture and language learning: Teaching, research and scholarship. Language Teaching, 37, 149-68. Carroll, J. (2005). Strategies for becoming more explicit. In Carroll, J. & Ryan, J. (Eds.), Teaching international students: Improving learning for all (pp. 26-35). London: Routledge. Chirkov, V.I., Vansteenkiste, M., Tao, R., & Lynch, M. (2007). The role of motivation to study abroad in the adaptation of international students: A self-determination theory approach. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(2), 199-222. Deardorff, D. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalisation. In Byram, M. & Feng, A. (Eds.), Living and studying abroad: Research and practice (pp. 232-56). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Etherington, S., & Spurling, N. (2007). Knowledge in Action: International students and their interaction with cultural knowledge. Retrieved from Green, P., & Finn, D. (2010). Defining the global village: Community-based learning and its implications for international students and the HE sector. Retrieved from Finn_HW_Confce_Dec2010_pptV2.pdf Finn_HW_Confce_Dec2010_pptV2.pdf Schartner, A. (2014). 'You cannot talk with all of the strangers in a pub.' A longitudinal case study of international postgraduate students' social ties at a British University. Higher Education, DOI: 10.1007/s10734-014-9771-8 Schmitt, D. (2005). Writing in the international classroom. In J. Carroll & J. Ryan (Eds.), Teaching international students: Improving learning for all (pp. 63-75) Routledge: London.

23 Internationalising the Curriculum Research and Practice Network Language & Intercultural Communication Curriculum design & development Pedagogy Staff development and training for IoC Student Engagement in IoC Global Citizenship & the Curriculum Global Citizenship Sub-Group (art design and communication disciplines) Mobility & the Curriculum

24 Professional enquiry through action research PLAN DO REVIEW PLAN DO REVIEW Exploratory/ Inductive Cycle Negotiated/ Deductive Cycle Share findings

25 How do we ‘normalise’ the study abroad experience? Can we make it compulsory and in which subjects? How do we leverage the experience of “returners” to internationalise at home Improve employability? What are the incentives and rewards? How can organisational “slack” be introduced to facilitate? Is staff mobility a strategic plan or tactical initiative? How do we work with them to internationalise at home? If and how to address the ISB results? How to reverse the ‘deficit model’? How do we work with them to internationalise at home? How do we extend student mobility to staff more extensively? What are the needs of short-term incomers to maximise the benefits For institutions? For incomer? Students Outgoing Staff Outgoing Staff Incoming Students Incoming

26 HEA Internationalisation Framework, 2014 Aims to provide a high quality and global learning experience for all students; foster approaches to learning and teaching that transcend national and international boundaries; address individual and institutional roles and responsibilities.

27 Knowledge Values Activity Dimensions of Internationalisation Cultural context people place Culture programmes

28 Enabling a global learning experience integrated global perspectives and opportunities for cultural immersion and language acquisition, through inward and outward mobility. A module in a hospitality course video conferences with students in xxx. Students benefit from direct contact, cross-cultural understanding and develop confidence to visit in person, developing language skills. Links with an international hotel chain provide international students with work experience abroad. thanks to Viv Thom, SHU

29 Internationalising through informal learning online resources social networks social spaces – library, culture cafe thanks to Plymouth university

30 Embedding global social responsibility A cultural development programme ( culture.php) grown out of research led by Dr Nanette de Jong of Newcastle University’s International Centre for Music Studies is contributing to the fight against poverty, HIV/AIDS and gender inequality in Southern Africa by strengthening the region’s cultural sector. The programme broadens the range of cultural activities available to these groups by providing training and leadership workshops to prepare women and young people for employment in the cultural sector culture.php

31 Facilitating a global academic community – The FASMED project in the Research Centre for Learning and Teaching ( January2014.pdf) involves working with partners from eight countries to look at how technology can help raise attainment levels among low achieving students in Europe and South Africa. January2014.pdf

32 Fostering intercultural engagement Newcastle University offers a suite of Masters level Cross Cultural Communication (CCC) programmes to enable students to meet the growing need for expertise in CCC in careers in tourism, humanitarian aid, sport, education, trade etc.

33 New conceptualisations: the responsible ‘international’ university Universities taking a responsible approach to internationalization are more likely to achieve the transformational institutional change that will help to maintain their reputation and foothold in international markets Robson, 2011

34 references Brandenburg, U. and de Wit, H. (2011) The end of internationalisation. International Higher Education 2011 Issue 62, 15-17. Centre for International Higher Education.,4:P0_CONTENT_ID:113987 ),4:P0_CONTENT_ID:113987 Caruana, V. & Spurling, N. (2007). The Internationalisation of UK Higher Education: a review of selected material. Project Report. Higher Education Academy.The Internationalisation of UK Higher Education: a review of selected material. Project Report Clifford, V. and Montgomery, C. (2014). Challenging conceptions of Western Higher Education and developing graduates as global citizens. Higher Education Quarterly. 68, (1), 28–45, 68, (1), Deardoff, D.K. (2006) Theory Reflections: Intercultural Competence Framework/Model HEA (2013) Scudamore, R. Engaging home and international students. A guide for new lecturers Hudzik JK (2011)Comprehensive Internationalization: From Concept to Action. NAFSA McKernan J 1996 Curriculum Action Research. Kogan Page Nainby, K. Warren, J.T. and Bollinger. C. (2003): "Articulating Contact in the Classroom: Towards a Constitutive Focus in Critical Pedagogy." Language and Intercultural Communication 3.3 ; 198-212. Paige, R. M., & Mestenhauser, J. A. (1999). Internationalizing educational administration. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(4), 500–517. QAA for HE, January 2012 QAA (2012) International students studying in the UK - Guidance for UK higher education providers Reid S and Spencer Oatey H: (2013) Towards a Global Citizen: utilising a competency framework to promote intercultural knowledge and skills in higher education students Ch9, p 125-141 in Ryan J. Ed. (2013) Cross Cultural Teaching and Learning for Home and International Students, Routledge. Robson S (2011) Internationalization: a transformative agenda for higher education? Teachers and Teaching, 17:6, 619-630 Tian M. and Lowe, J. (2009) Existentialist internationalisation and the Chinese student experience in English universities, pp. 659-676, Compare, 39(5): 659-676 Turner Y, Robson S. (2008) Internationalizing the University. London: Continuum.Internationalizing the University

35 Website Teaching International Students Resources International Student Lifecycle Resource Bank Other internationalisation resources nalisation-resources nalisation-resources 2011/12 Special Interest Group meetings for Internationalisation ces ces Going mobile Report bile bile 35 Additional Resources

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