Presentation on theme: "Fin-de-siècle Europe An Era of Nervousness and Angst Powerpoint derived from Purdue HIS 104 course Powerpoint has been altered by Mr. Robinson All sources."— Presentation transcript:
Fin-de-siècle Europe An Era of Nervousness and Angst Powerpoint derived from Purdue HIS 104 course Powerpoint has been altered by Mr. Robinson All sources (web pages) have been cited for additional reference. The New Science and the New Consciousness
The New Science Marie Curie Max Planck Albert Einstein Sigmund Freud Herbert Spencer The New Consciousness
Marie Curie ( ) Discovered polonium and radium 1st woman to win 2 noble prizes for 2 different subjects 1st woman scientist to acknowledged all over the world Discovered that radium relieves pain and suffering
Max Planck ( ) discovered the quantum nature of energy (founder of Quantum Theory) Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918
Albert Einstein ( ) Theory of Relativity: E=MC2 Explained that light energy came in chuncks or quanta, now called 'photons'. Discussed the Brownian motion that helped in proving the existence of molecules. Gave forth explanation regarding the dynamics of individual moving bodies. Explained the nature of space and time
Sigmund Freud ( ) F ather of psychoanalysis Conscious & Subconscious Mind Oedipus Complex Id, Ego, Superego Dream Analysis
The Irrationalists Herbert Spencer Social Darwinism Frederick Nietzsche Henri Bergson Georges Sorel
Herbert Spencer ( ) Coined the infamous expression “survival of the fittest” Purportedly combined mere survivability (a natural property) with goodness itself (a non-natural property) Social Darwinism
Spencer’s theory of evolution was basically Lamarckism, i.e. that organs develop or diminish by use or disuse, and that such changes are inherited by future generations. Since many people realized this is nonsense (e.g. the children of amputees don’t have body parts missing), his first essay did not cause the ‘stir’ that Darwin’s Origin did. Nevertheless it was Spencer, not Darwin, who first popularized the term ‘evolution’; it was Spencer who coined the term ‘survival of the fittest’.
Friedrich Nietzsche ( ) There are no facts, only interpretations Truth and knowledge are only relative to how useful they are to our "will to power” Human behavior is caused by the “will to power” (urge to order the course of one's experiences) Morality is a device invented by the weak to assert their will to power over the strong Christian values are a "slave morality", a morality of the weak ones The new morality is the morality of the "uebermensch" ("superman/ overman"), who is above the masses and is interested in solving the problems of this world, not of the otherworld
Nietzsche is not a critic of all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of “higher men” Nietzsche was a German philosopher, essayist, and cultural critic. His writings on truth, morality, language, aesthetics, cultural theory, history, nihilism, power, consciousness, and the meaning of existence have exerted an enormous influence on Western philosophy and intellectual history. “History yields meaning according to the needs of the reader of history, and historical facts as such are dead and irrelevant.” “That which does not kill us makes us stronger” “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself.”
Henri Bergson ( ) Accept rational scientific thought as a practical instrument for useful knowledge HOWEVER it si incapable of arriving at Truth or Ultimate Reality Reality is diffused in all things and cannot be divided for analysis Reality can only be grasped intuitively & with direct experience
Georges Sorel ( ) Combined Nietzsche & Bergson to create Revolutionary Socialism Violent action is the only sure way to achieve Socialism Destroying Capitalism requires a General Strike The new society created would be ruled by a small group of elite because the masses cannot rule themselves
Impressionism, French Impressionnisme, a major movement, first in painting and later in music, that developed chiefly in France during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Impressionist painting comprises the work produced between about 1867 and 1886 by a group of artists who shared a set of related approaches and techniques. The most conspicuous characteristic of Impressionism was an attempt to accurately and objectively record visual reality in terms of transient effects of light and colour. Characterized by concentration on the immediate visual impression produced by a scene and by the use of unmixed primary colors and small strokes to simulate actual reflected light. IMPRESSIONISM
Claude Monet ( ) “Sunrise”
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grand- Jatte ( ) by Georges Seurat
Post-Impressionism Breaking free of the naturalism of Impressionism in the late 1880s, a group of young painters sought independent artistic styles for expressing emotions rather than simply optical impressions, concentrating on themes of deeper symbolism. Through the use of simplified colors and definitive forms, their art was characterized by a renewed aesthetic sense as well as abstract tendencies. The Post-Impressionists were an eclectic bunch of individuals, so there were no broad, unifying characteristics. Each artist took an aspect of Impressionism and exaggerated it.
Post-impressionism: the forms behind the reality Paul Cezanne, View of Auvers (1874)
Cézanne, The Mount of St.Victoria ( )
Vincent Van Gogh ( ) Vincent’s chair with pipe (1888)
Van Gogh, Bedroom in Arles (1889)
Cubism Cubism was one of the most influential visual art styles of the early twentieth century. It was created by Pablo Picasso ( ) and Georges Braque ( ) in Paris between 1907 and It was the first style of abstract art which evolved at the beginning of the 20th century in response to a world that was changing with unprecedented speed. Cubism was an attempt by artists to revitalize the tired traditions of Western art which they believed had run their course. The Cubists challenged conventional forms of representation, such as perspective, which had been the rule since the Renaissance.
Photography had begun to replace painting as the tool for documenting the age and for artists to sit illustrating cars, planes and images of the new technologies was not exactly rising to the challenge. Artists needed a more radical approach - a 'new way of seeing' that expanded the possibilities of art in the same way that technology was extending the boundaries of communication and travel. This new way of seeing was called Cubism - the first abstract style of modern art.
Cubism: reality is multi-perspectival Georges Braque, Candlestick and Playing Cards on a Table (1910)
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907)
Wassily Kandinsky, Gorge Improvisation (1914)
Early 20 th Century Music Impressionistic - A term derived from one of Monet's works - Impression, Sunrise. In music it is applied to works of early 20th century composers such as Debussy. Debussy rejected the rules of tonality and created music that is pleasing to the ears as impressionist paintings are appealing to the eyes. This resulted in music that was relaxed, almost dreamlike. Neoclassical - A term applied to the music of early 20th century composers like Stravinsky which reflects 18th century music. Stravinsky's works, particularly after the highly acclaimed The Rite of Spring, did not emphasize tonality but felt restrained.
Igor Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring (1913)The Rite of Spring