William Glasser Degree of teacher control in establishing rules: –Stress student responsibility –Establish rules that lead to success –Accept no Excuses –Call for value judgment –Suggest suitable alternatives –Invoke reasonable consequences –Be persistent –Carry out continual review
William Glasser Student control regarding establishment of rules: –Students are aware of rules and expectations –Behavior is a matter of choice –Good behaviors results from good choices. Bad behavior results from bad choices. –A teacher’s duty is to help studnets make good choices
William Glasser Concern for the students thoughts and feelings: –Recognize students as rational beings, capable of their own behavior. –Care about students and not accept bad behavior –Reasonable consequences follow student behavior whether good or bad.
William Glasser Theoretical Basis: –Behavior is a matter of choice. –Students are rational beings. –Behavioral theoretical basis.
William Glasser View of children in regards to making decisions: –Children have an internal locus. –Children are responsible for their own behaviors and can distinguish between what is acceptable behavior and what is not.
William Glasser Main points of theory –Behavior is a matter of choice –Good behavior results from good choices. Bad behavior results from bad choices. –A teacher’s duty is to help students make good choices.
William Glasser What teachers should do when students misbehave: –Call for value judgmentvalue judgment –Suggest suitable alternatives –Invoke reasonable consequences –Be persistent –Carry out continual review Credits
William Glasser Situation: you have a student working in small groups on a project. You notice, after a while, that one of the students begins to talk in an angry way to another of his group members, stands up, and tosses papers aside.
William Glasser What teacher should do in this case: –See “What teachers should do when students misbehave”“What teachers should do when students misbehave”
Value Judgement (example) Teacher: "What are you doing?" (asked in unthreatening tone of voice.) Student: (Will usually give an honest answer if not threatened.) Teacher: "Is that helping you or the class?" Student: "No." Teacher: "What could you do that would help?" Student: (Names better behavior.; if can think of none, teacher suggests appropriate alternatives and lets student choose.) Return
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Rudolf Dreikurs February 8, 1897, Vienna - May 25, 1972, Chicago American psychiatrist and educator who developed psychologist Alfred Adler's system of individual psychology into a pragmatic method for understanding the purposes of reprehensible behavior in children and for stimulating cooperative behavior without punishment or reward.
Students come to us with a desire to become part of the classroom community, called a genuine goal. When students are unable to attain the genuine goal of belonging, they turn to mistaken goals. Trying to get attention Seeking power Seeking revenge Displaying inadequacy
Since students desire to be part of a community, it is imperative that we create that environment. Providing students with roles within the classroom, including leadership, will help foster a community environment. Encouragement will be more beneficial to students and the learning environment than praise. Encouragement of one student may be a motivating factor for another student. Return to Selection
Main points Targeting behaviors: Win-win discipline Management: Firm but yet still allows students their positions Prevention Collaborative solutions: Parents, students and teachers Learned responsibility: self validation, self confidence, self control, self determination, self directing, self motivated and self informing Kagan structures to engage every student
The three pillars 1.Same Side: Parents, students and teachers work cooperatively on the “same side” 2.Collaboration: Entails working with the students to identify possible solutions 3.Share Responsibility: Involves working with the students so that they learn to make responsible choices
Degree of teacher control Proactive Mediator Expectations communicated up front Balance curriculum, instruction, and management Focus on prevention, thus decreasing discipline issues
Degree of student control Self management Students helping to manage each other Assignment of student roles: Each role empowers students to learn leadership and self management skills (Ex. Taskmaster, cheerleader, quiet captain)
Teachers should... Acknowledge student power State responsible behavior State choices and consequences Allow the choice Accept the need Calm voices Believe it Neither engage in nor manipulation Provide space Offer realistic consequences Ensure appropriate time frame
Concern for students’ thoughts and feelings Students need to feel effective and empowered Validate the student’s positions Acceptances When student’s power is publicly acknowledged they experience a sense of control in the moment Students feel less need to challenge the teacher (no longer needing to refuse in order to show they have control)
References Kagan Publishing & Professional Development - KaganOnline.com. (n.d.). Kagan Publishing & Professional Development - KaganOnline.com. Retrieved February 13, 2011, from http://www.kaganonline.comhttp://www.kaganonline.com Tauber, R. (2007). Classroom management: sound theory and effective practice, 239-241 Return to main menu
Main Points of Theory Dr. Albert believes that students choose their behavior, and teachers have the power to influence—not control—those choices. Steps: indentify the student’s behavior; pinpoint exactly what student wants when he misbehaves.
Details of the Theory Theoretical basis or root: Based on author’s actual experience in the classroom and discussion with teachers around the country. Based on behaviorist theory (response to stimuli) Main points of theory: If students misbehave, there is a reason; teacher identifies reason and applies strategy based on the reason Is there concern for the student’s thoughts, feelings? Teacher is continually monitoring for the motivation driving the student’s behavior
Teacher Voice Degree of teacher control in regard to establishing norms: Teacher must be ready to assess the situation immediately—use strategies efficiently Teacher promotes collaboration Teacher encourages students by responding to behaviors with appropriate strategy
Student Voice Degree of student control in establishing rules, norms: Students contribute to developing the classroom environment Learning objectives attainable by all students Involve students through class meetings
Inappropriate behavior falls into one of four categories: Attention: student wants to distract from teacher and other students to gain attention Power: student wants control of the teacher, the class, themselves Revenge: lash out at teachers or classmates from real or imagined hurts Avoidance of failure: feel inadequate, procrastinate, and make excuses for not doing work
Responses to behavior For Attention: give “the eye” so student knows you mean business; stand close to student, ask direct question to distract; give praise to a nearby student who is on task For Power: avoid confrontation with student—agree or change subject; acknowledge their power; do something unexpected; give a choice For Revenge: revoke a privilege; establish a relationship; require the student to cover loss, meet with parents or other school personnel if necessary For Avoidance of Failure: Acknowledge difficulty of task, but remind of past successes; modify instruction and materials; require student to say I can rather than I can’t; provide peer tutors Must use response strategy or behavior will continue!
Personal Application I begin by assessing behavior and categorize into one of four reasons. I use an appropriate response based on identifying the reason. For example, if student complains about an assignment and refuses to do the work, I identify their behavior as possible avoidance of failure. I acknowledge the difficultly of the work, but remind the student that not completing the assignment will affect their grade. I might remind student of the agreement we made as a class at the beginning of the year. I might also suggest a partner or peer tutor to assist student in completing the assignment My actions do not differ based on race or gender
References Albert, L. (n.d.) Overview of Cooperative Learning. http://cdiscipline.tripod.com/ http://cdiscipline.tripod.com/ Global Learning Communities.(2000). Cooperative Discipline: How to Manage Your Classroom and Promote Self-Esteem. http://www.julieboyd.com.au/ILF/pages/members/cats/bkoverv us/t_and_learn_pdfs/coop_discipline.pdf http://www.julieboyd.com.au/ILF/pages/members/cats/bkoverv us/t_and_learn_pdfs/coop_discipline.pdf Return to Menu
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