Chapter Menu Chapter Preview Section 1: The Sociological Perspective Section 2:The Origins of Sociology Section 3: Theoretical Perspectives
Chapter Preview 1 Chapter Preview · Section 1 The Sociological Perspective (pages 6–13) Sociology studies human social behavior. It assumes a group, rather than an individual, perspective. Sociologists look for the patterns in social relationships. Individuals can benefit by using their sociological imaginations to look at events in their personal lives.
Chapter Preview 2 Chapter Preview · Section 2 The Origins of Sociology (pages 14–22) Sociology is a young science. It started with the writings of European scholars like Auguste Comte, Harriet Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber. Jane Addams and W.E.B. Du Bois helped to focus America’s attention on social issues. After World War II, America took the lead in developing the field.
Chapter Preview 3 Chapter Preview · Section 3 Theoretical Perspectives (pages 23–31) Sociology includes three major theoretical perspectives. Functionalism views society as an integrated whole. Conflict theory looks at class, race, and gender struggles. Symbolic interactionism examines how group members use shared symbols as they interact.
Section 1-Preview Sociology studies human social behavior. It assumes a group, rather than an individual, perspective. Sociologists look for the patterns in social relationships. Individuals can benefit by using their sociological imaginations to look at events in their personal lives.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1-Polling Question How much influence do groups have on your life? A.Much influence B.Some influence C.Little influence D.No influence
Section 1 The Nature of Sociology Perspective is a particular point of view.Perspective Sociology is the study of social structure.Sociology The sociological perspective always focuses on the group as opposed to the individual.sociological perspective The Social Sciences
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 How important is it to examine human behavior on a group level? A.Very important B.Somewhat important C.Not very important D.Not important at all
Section 1 The Importance of Patterns Social structure is the patterned interaction of people in social relationships.Social structure Sociologists focus on a pattern of behavior shared by members of a group or society, not the behavior of an individual. All groups encourage conformity.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Which size group do you think is the most likely to encourage conformity? A.Large B.Medium C.Small D.All have equal influence
Section 1 Acquiring the Sociological Imagination Sociological imagination is the ability of individuals to see the relationship between events in their personal lives and events in their society.Sociological imagination Sociological imagination allows us to question accepted ideas, or the conventional social wisdom. Health Insurance
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Why is it important to understand the sociological perspective? A.To better understand the individual. B.To know which group is the best. C.To better understand the forces that effect our lives. D.To learn how to be social.
Section 2-Preview Sociology is a young science. It started with the writings of European scholars like Auguste Comte, Harriet Martineau, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber. Jane Addams and W.E.B. Du Bois helped to focus America’s attention on social issues. After World War II, America took the lead in developing the field of sociology. Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2-Key Terms positivism social statics social dynamics bourgeoisie capitalist proletariat class conflict mechanical solidarity organic solidarity verstehen rationalization
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section-Polling Question How would you rate changes in our society over the past few years? A.Positive B.Neutral C.Negative D.No real changes
Section 2 European Origins Sudden changes during the late 19th century in Europe caused intellectuals to begin the study of sociology. Auguste Comte Auguste Comte used positivism, scientific observation so that one can be positive of results, to study society.positivism Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Comte distinguished between: –social staticssocial statics –social dynamicssocial dynamics Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Harriet Martineau emphasized sociology as a science and was a pioneering feminist theorist. Harriet Martineau Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Herbert Spencer compared social stability to the parts of the body. Herbert Spencer Spencer introduced Social Darwinism—the idea that evolutionary social changes lead to progress provided people did not interfere. He opposed social reform. Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Karl Marx wanted social scientists to change the world instead of merely studying it. He thought that the bourgeoisie (capitalists) and the proletariat would eventually have a conflict and a classless, or communistic, society would emerge.bourgeoisiecapitalistsproletariat Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Marx felt that the key to the unfolding of history was class conflict.class conflict Karl Marx Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Emile Durkheim believed that: –In preindustrial times societies were based on mechanical solidarity.mechanical solidarity –In industrial times societies are based organic solidarity. organic solidarity Time Line of Early Sociologists
Emile Durkheim Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Durkheim introduced the use of statistical techniques for testing social theories. Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Max Weber claimed that humans act on the basis of their own understanding of a situation. Max Weber Weber believed that the best understanding of the personal intentions of people in groups can be gained through the method of verstehen.verstehen Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Max Weber Weber identified rationalization as a key influence in the change of society.rationalization Time Line of Early Sociologists
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 How did Karl Marx believe a communistic society would arise? A.Through the method of verstehen B.By rationalization C.Class conflict would ensue D.Through the rise of social Darwinism
Section 2 Sociology in America The study of sociology began in Europe, but the greatest development has taken place in the United States. Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 Sociology in America (cont.) Jane Addams was the best known of the early women social reformers in the United States. Addams focused on the women’s suffrage and peace movements, as well as the effects of industrialism on the lower class. Jane Addams Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 Sociology in America (cont.) Addams was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. Jane Addams Time Line of Early Sociologists
Section 2 Sociology in America (cont.) W.E.B. Du Bois experienced and studied racial discrimination and segregation. Du Bois analyzed the sophisticated social structure of African American communities within the United States and throughout the world. W.E.B. Du Bois Time Line of Early Sociologists
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 How were Jane Addams and W.E.B. Du Bois similar? A.They were both from Europe. B.Both focused on people who endured discrimination. C.They left the United States. looking for a better life D.Both graduated from the University of Chicago.
Section 3-Preview Sociology includes three major theoretical perspectives. Functionalism views society as an integrated whole. Conflict theory looks at class, race, and gender struggles. Symbolic interactionism examines how group members use shared symbols as they interact.
Section 3-Key Terms theoretical perspectivetheoretical perspective functionalism manifest functions latent functions dysfunction conflict perspective power symbol symbolic interaction dramaturgy
A.A B.B C.C Section 3-Polling Question As you have grown older, has your perspective of school changed? A.Very much B.A little C.Not at all
Section 3 The Role of Theoretical Perspectives Theoretical perspective, when applied to sociology, means a set of assumptions about the workings of a society accepted as true by the supporters of the theory.Theoretical perspective
Section 3 The Role of Theoretical Perspectives (cont.) Three theoretical perspectives overarch in the field of sociology: –functionalism –conflict theory –symbolic interaction Perception and Perspective A World Turned Upside Down
A.A B.B C.C Section 3 Is it important to have different perspectives? A.Yes B.No C.It depends on the situation
Section 3 Functionalism states that all parts of a society contribute, or function, as an integrated whole.Functionalism A change in one part of a society leads to change in another part.
Section 3 Functionalism (cont.) According to Robert Merton (1969) there are two kinds of functions: –manifest functionsmanifest functions –latent functionslatent functions
Section 3 Functionalism (cont.) Elements of society that make a negative contribution lead to dysfunction.dysfunction According to functionalism, there is a consensus on values that leads to the high degree of cooperation found in any society.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which function is unintended and unrecognized? A.Manifest function B.Dysfunction C.Latent function D.Malfunction
Section 3 Conflict Perspective The conflict perspective emphasizes that groups and societies compete as they attempt to preserve and promote their own special values and interests.conflict perspective Conflict theory is based on a contest for power. power
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which of the following do you feel is the most associated with power? A.Wealth B.Prestige C.Ideas D.Physical ability
Section 3 Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism, according to Herbert Blumer, is defined as the interactions among people based on mutually understood symbols.Symbolic interactionism symbols
Section 3 Symbolic Interactionism (cont.) The basic assumptions of symbolic interactionism include: –We learn the meaning of a symbol from the way we see others reacting to it. –We base our behavior (interactions) on those symbols. –We then use the meanings of symbols to imagine how others will respond to our behavior.
Section 3 To better understand human interaction, Erving Goffman introduced dramaturgy which describes human interaction as a theatrical performance.dramaturgy Symbolic Interactionism (cont.) Assumptions of the Major Theoretical Perspectives
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which term means the depiction of human interaction as a theatrical performance? A.Impression B.Conflict C.Dramaturgy D.Symbol
Vocab 2 sociology the scientific study of social structure (patterned social behavior)
Vocab 3 sociological perspective a view that looks at the behavior of groups, not individuals
Vocab 4 social structure the patterned interaction of people in social relationships
Vocab 5 sociological imagination the ability to see the link between society and self
Vocab 6 positivism the belief that knowledge should be derived from scientific observation
Vocab 7 social statics the study of social stability and order
Vocab 8 social dynamics the study of social change
Vocab 9 bourgeoisie class owning the means for producing wealth
Vocab 10 capitalist person who owns or controls the means for producing wealth
Vocab 11 proletariat working class; those who labor for the bourgeoisie
Vocab 12 class conflict the ongoing struggle between the bourgeoisie (owners) and the proletariat (working) classes
Vocab 13 mechanical solidarity social dependency based on a widespread consensus of values and beliefs, enforced conformity, and dependence on tradition and family
Vocab 14 organic solidarity social interdependency based on a high degree of specialization in roles
Vocab 15 verstehen understanding social behavior by putting yourself in the place of others
Vocab 16 rationalization the mind-set emphasizing knowledge, reason, and planning
Vocab 17 theoretical perspective a set of assumptions accepted as true
Vocab 18 functionalism approach that emphasizes the contributions made by each part of society
Vocab 19 manifest functions intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society
Vocab 20 latent functions unintended and unrecognized consequences of an aspect of society
Vocab 21 dysfunction negative consequence of an aspect of society
Vocab 22 conflict perspective approach emphasizing the role of conflict, competition, and constraint within a society
Vocab 23 power the ability to control the behavior of others
Vocab 24 symbol anything that stands for something else and has an agreed-upon meaning attached to it
Vocab 25 symbolic interactionism approach that focuses on the interactions among people based on mutually understood symbols
Vocab 26 dramaturgy approach that depicts human interaction as theatrical performances
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