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Splash Screen. Chapter Menu Chapter Preview Section 1: The Sociological Perspective Section 2:The Origins of Sociology Section 3: Theoretical Perspectives.

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Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Chapter Menu Chapter Preview Section 1: The Sociological Perspective Section 2:The Origins of Sociology Section 3: Theoretical Perspectives."— Presentation transcript:

1 Splash Screen

2 Chapter Menu Chapter Preview Section 1: The Sociological Perspective Section 2:The Origins of Sociology Section 3: Theoretical Perspectives

3 Chapter Preview 1 Chapter Preview · Section 1 The Sociological Perspective (pages 6–13) Sociology studies human social behavior. It assumes a group, rather than an individual, perspective. Sociologists look for the patterns in social relationships. Individuals can benefit by using their sociological imaginations to look at events in their personal lives.

4 Chapter Preview 2 Chapter Preview · Section 2 The Origins of Sociology (pages 14–22) Sociology is a young science. It started with the writings of European scholars like Auguste Comte, Harriet Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber. Jane Addams and W.E.B. Du Bois helped to focus America’s attention on social issues. After World War II, America took the lead in developing the field.

5 Chapter Preview 3 Chapter Preview · Section 3 Theoretical Perspectives (pages 23–31) Sociology includes three major theoretical perspectives. Functionalism views society as an integrated whole. Conflict theory looks at class, race, and gender struggles. Symbolic interactionism examines how group members use shared symbols as they interact.

6 Chapter Preview-End

7 Section 1-Preview Sociology studies human social behavior. It assumes a group, rather than an individual, perspective. Sociologists look for the patterns in social relationships. Individuals can benefit by using their sociological imaginations to look at events in their personal lives.

8 Section 1-Key Terms perspective sociology sociological perspective social structure sociological imagination

9 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1-Polling Question How much influence do groups have on your life? A.Much influence B.Some influence C.Little influence D.No influence

10 Section 1 The Nature of Sociology Perspective is a particular point of view.Perspective Sociology is the study of social structure.Sociology The sociological perspective always focuses on the group as opposed to the individual.sociological perspective The Social Sciences

11 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 How important is it to examine human behavior on a group level? A.Very important B.Somewhat important C.Not very important D.Not important at all

12 Section 1 The Importance of Patterns Social structure is the patterned interaction of people in social relationships.Social structure Sociologists focus on a pattern of behavior shared by members of a group or society, not the behavior of an individual. All groups encourage conformity.

13 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Which size group do you think is the most likely to encourage conformity? A.Large B.Medium C.Small D.All have equal influence

14 Section 1 Acquiring the Sociological Imagination Sociological imagination is the ability of individuals to see the relationship between events in their personal lives and events in their society.Sociological imagination Sociological imagination allows us to question accepted ideas, or the conventional social wisdom. Health Insurance

15 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Why is it important to understand the sociological perspective? A.To better understand the individual. B.To know which group is the best. C.To better understand the forces that effect our lives. D.To learn how to be social.

16 Section 1

17 Section 2-Preview Sociology is a young science. It started with the writings of European scholars like Auguste Comte, Harriet Martineau, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber. Jane Addams and W.E.B. Du Bois helped to focus America’s attention on social issues. After World War II, America took the lead in developing the field of sociology. Time Line of Early Sociologists

18 Section 2-Key Terms positivism social statics social dynamics bourgeoisie capitalist proletariat class conflict mechanical solidarity organic solidarity verstehen rationalization

19 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section-Polling Question How would you rate changes in our society over the past few years? A.Positive B.Neutral C.Negative D.No real changes

20 Section 2 European Origins Sudden changes during the late 19th century in Europe caused intellectuals to begin the study of sociology. Auguste Comte Auguste Comte used positivism, scientific observation so that one can be positive of results, to study society.positivism Time Line of Early Sociologists

21 Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Comte distinguished between: –social staticssocial statics –social dynamicssocial dynamics Time Line of Early Sociologists

22 Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Harriet Martineau emphasized sociology as a science and was a pioneering feminist theorist. Harriet Martineau Time Line of Early Sociologists

23 Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Herbert Spencer compared social stability to the parts of the body. Herbert Spencer Spencer introduced Social Darwinism—the idea that evolutionary social changes lead to progress provided people did not interfere. He opposed social reform. Time Line of Early Sociologists

24 Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Karl Marx wanted social scientists to change the world instead of merely studying it. He thought that the bourgeoisie (capitalists) and the proletariat would eventually have a conflict and a classless, or communistic, society would emerge.bourgeoisiecapitalistsproletariat Time Line of Early Sociologists

25 Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Marx felt that the key to the unfolding of history was class conflict.class conflict Karl Marx Time Line of Early Sociologists

26 Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Emile Durkheim believed that: –In preindustrial times societies were based on mechanical solidarity.mechanical solidarity –In industrial times societies are based organic solidarity. organic solidarity Time Line of Early Sociologists

27 Emile Durkheim Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Durkheim introduced the use of statistical techniques for testing social theories. Time Line of Early Sociologists

28 Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Max Weber claimed that humans act on the basis of their own understanding of a situation. Max Weber Weber believed that the best understanding of the personal intentions of people in groups can be gained through the method of verstehen.verstehen Time Line of Early Sociologists

29 Section 2 European Origins (cont.) Max Weber Weber identified rationalization as a key influence in the change of society.rationalization Time Line of Early Sociologists

30 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 How did Karl Marx believe a communistic society would arise? A.Through the method of verstehen B.By rationalization C.Class conflict would ensue D.Through the rise of social Darwinism

31 Section 2 Sociology in America The study of sociology began in Europe, but the greatest development has taken place in the United States. Time Line of Early Sociologists

32 Section 2 Sociology in America (cont.) Jane Addams was the best known of the early women social reformers in the United States. Addams focused on the women’s suffrage and peace movements, as well as the effects of industrialism on the lower class. Jane Addams Time Line of Early Sociologists

33 Section 2 Sociology in America (cont.) Addams was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Jane Addams Time Line of Early Sociologists

34 Section 2 Sociology in America (cont.) W.E.B. Du Bois experienced and studied racial discrimination and segregation. Du Bois analyzed the sophisticated social structure of African American communities within the United States and throughout the world. W.E.B. Du Bois Time Line of Early Sociologists

35 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 How were Jane Addams and W.E.B. Du Bois similar? A.They were both from Europe. B.Both focused on people who endured discrimination. C.They left the United States. looking for a better life D.Both graduated from the University of Chicago.

36 Section 2-End

37 Section 3-Preview Sociology includes three major theoretical perspectives. Functionalism views society as an integrated whole. Conflict theory looks at class, race, and gender struggles. Symbolic interactionism examines how group members use shared symbols as they interact.

38 Section 3-Key Terms theoretical perspectivetheoretical perspective functionalism manifest functions latent functions dysfunction conflict perspective power symbol symbolic interaction dramaturgy

39 A.A B.B C.C Section 3-Polling Question As you have grown older, has your perspective of school changed? A.Very much B.A little C.Not at all

40 Section 3 The Role of Theoretical Perspectives Theoretical perspective, when applied to sociology, means a set of assumptions about the workings of a society accepted as true by the supporters of the theory.Theoretical perspective

41 Section 3 The Role of Theoretical Perspectives (cont.) Three theoretical perspectives overarch in the field of sociology: –functionalism –conflict theory –symbolic interaction Perception and Perspective A World Turned Upside Down

42 A.A B.B C.C Section 3 Is it important to have different perspectives? A.Yes B.No C.It depends on the situation

43 Section 3 Functionalism states that all parts of a society contribute, or function, as an integrated whole.Functionalism A change in one part of a society leads to change in another part.

44 Section 3 Functionalism (cont.) According to Robert Merton (1969) there are two kinds of functions: –manifest functionsmanifest functions –latent functionslatent functions

45 Section 3 Functionalism (cont.) Elements of society that make a negative contribution lead to dysfunction.dysfunction According to functionalism, there is a consensus on values that leads to the high degree of cooperation found in any society.

46 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which function is unintended and unrecognized? A.Manifest function B.Dysfunction C.Latent function D.Malfunction

47 Section 3 Conflict Perspective The conflict perspective emphasizes that groups and societies compete as they attempt to preserve and promote their own special values and interests.conflict perspective Conflict theory is based on a contest for power. power

48 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which of the following do you feel is the most associated with power? A.Wealth B.Prestige C.Ideas D.Physical ability

49 Section 3 Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism, according to Herbert Blumer, is defined as the interactions among people based on mutually understood symbols.Symbolic interactionism symbols

50 Section 3 Symbolic Interactionism (cont.) The basic assumptions of symbolic interactionism include: –We learn the meaning of a symbol from the way we see others reacting to it. –We base our behavior (interactions) on those symbols. –We then use the meanings of symbols to imagine how others will respond to our behavior.

51 Section 3 To better understand human interaction, Erving Goffman introduced dramaturgy which describes human interaction as a theatrical performance.dramaturgy Symbolic Interactionism (cont.) Assumptions of the Major Theoretical Perspectives

52 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which term means the depiction of human interaction as a theatrical performance? A.Impression B.Conflict C.Dramaturgy D.Symbol

53 Section 3-End

54 Social Sciences 1 The Social Sciences

55 Social Sciences 2 The Social Sciences

56 Time Line 1 Time Line of Early Sociologists

57 Time Line 2 Time Line of Early Sociologists

58 Snapshot Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2004–2005.

59 Focus on TP

60 World View A World Turned Upside Down

61 Figure 1.1 Perception and Perspective

62 Transparency Menu Comparing Theoretical Perspectives Mixed-Up Calendar Sociology Chapter Transparencies

63 Transparency 1

64 Transparency 2

65 Vocab 1 perspective a particular point of view

66 Vocab 2 sociology the scientific study of social structure (patterned social behavior)

67 Vocab 3 sociological perspective a view that looks at the behavior of groups, not individuals

68 Vocab 4 social structure the patterned interaction of people in social relationships

69 Vocab 5 sociological imagination the ability to see the link between society and self

70 Vocab 6 positivism the belief that knowledge should be derived from scientific observation

71 Vocab 7 social statics the study of social stability and order

72 Vocab 8 social dynamics the study of social change

73 Vocab 9 bourgeoisie class owning the means for producing wealth

74 Vocab 10 capitalist person who owns or controls the means for producing wealth

75 Vocab 11 proletariat working class; those who labor for the bourgeoisie

76 Vocab 12 class conflict the ongoing struggle between the bourgeoisie (owners) and the proletariat (working) classes

77 Vocab 13 mechanical solidarity social dependency based on a widespread consensus of values and beliefs, enforced conformity, and dependence on tradition and family

78 Vocab 14 organic solidarity social interdependency based on a high degree of specialization in roles

79 Vocab 15 verstehen understanding social behavior by putting yourself in the place of others

80 Vocab 16 rationalization the mind-set emphasizing knowledge, reason, and planning

81 Vocab 17 theoretical perspective a set of assumptions accepted as true

82 Vocab 18 functionalism approach that emphasizes the contributions made by each part of society

83 Vocab 19 manifest functions intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society

84 Vocab 20 latent functions unintended and unrecognized consequences of an aspect of society

85 Vocab 21 dysfunction negative consequence of an aspect of society

86 Vocab 22 conflict perspective approach emphasizing the role of conflict, competition, and constraint within a society

87 Vocab 23 power the ability to control the behavior of others

88 Vocab 24 symbol anything that stands for something else and has an agreed-upon meaning attached to it

89 Vocab 25 symbolic interactionism approach that focuses on the interactions among people based on mutually understood symbols

90 Vocab 26 dramaturgy approach that depicts human interaction as theatrical performances

91 Help Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button to access the transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Sociology Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as the Figures, Time Lines, Snapshot of America, World View and others are located at the bottom of relevant screens. To use this Presentation Plus! product:

92 End of Custom Shows


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