Presentation on theme: "ICT and globalisation Simon Oakes. ICT and globalisation Presentation outline Aspects of globalisation Global adoption of connected devices A starter."— Presentation transcript:
ICT and globalisation Presentation outline Aspects of globalisation Global adoption of connected devices A starter quiz on the uses of ICT ICT, supply chains and financial flows ICT and the new geography of retailing ICT, migration flows and global culture ICT and global disaster management The interrelationship between globalisation and ICT
ICT and globalisation ICT drives many aspects of globalisation What possible ‘overlaps’ exist between the categories shown? Economic globalisation Social globalisation Cultural globalisation Political globalisation
ICT and globalisation ICT drives many aspects of globalisation Different aspects of globalisation, or types of global interaction
ICT and globalisation Rapid, on-going connectivity growth There is already an average of more than one connected device (mobile, tablet) per person on the planet. Continued growth in access to connected devices is expected up to and beyond 2020. The forecast growth of global connected devices (global population is 7 billion)
ICT and globalisation A quick starter quiz China Philippines £1 million in the first two weeks 70 million1.4 billion1 in 4 Which country has the biggest social network market? The world’s biggest call centre workforce is found in which country? How much money was donated online in the UK after the 2014 Philippines cyclone? What is the size in millions of the global Irish diaspora (people of Irish descent)? How many global Facebook users were there in 2014? While Amazon online sales grow, what percentage of shops are vacant in Blackpool?
ICT and globalisation ICT is used in many ways As a classroom exercise, discuss how technology helps accelerate each different strand of globalisation (economic, social, cultural, political). In each case, ask: what is the technology used for? And who are the user groups, or players? These could include: citizens, civil society organisations, transnational corporations, small businesses, national governments, multi-governmental organisations (MGOs). Can you provide examples?
ICT and globalisation Technology builds economic networks The growth of global TNCs owes much to technology: Supply chain monitoring Just in time (JIT) ordering from out-sourcing suppliers, from fruit farms to call centres Management of each TNC’s own spatial division of labour Open and closed global production networks
ICT and globalisation Technology shapes complex networks The business structures shown here rely on the connectivity ICT provides. How far was this possible prior to ICT innovation in the 1980s?
ICT and globalisation Technology and business networks Marks and Spencer uses the latest technology to help it regularly update the orders it places with its Kenyan suppliers. Each time the barcode of a food purchase is scanned in a Marks and Spencer store, an automatic adjustment is made to the size of the next order placed with suppliers in distant countries like Kenya. If store till receipts in the UK show a good days sales for a particular product in the run-up to Christmas Day, then an email is automatically sent to Kenya at midnight to increase production quotas the next day.
ICT and globalisation ICT and micro financial flows The mobile personal banking system M- Pesa has spread throughout east Africa and India. Around 10 million people access their bank accounts and send money payments using their mobile phones. In rural areas, farmers use mobiles to check market prices before selling produce to ‘middle men’. Fotolia
ICT and globalisation Connectivity case study Black Star Line is a Ghanaian e-commerce company. Black Star Line helped the chief of a Ghanaian village to realise a business plan: the village has four huts that have been modernised and are now marketed online to newly-married Europeans in search of an ‘eco- honeymoon’ destination. Thanks to Black Starline, the village now earns up to £1,000 a week ± an unthinkable amount of money previously. Find out more at: http://www.21stcenturychallenges.org/focus/herman- chinery-hesse-thesofttribe/http://www.21stcenturychallenges.org/focus/herman- chinery-hesse-thesofttribe/
ICT and globalisation The new geography of online retail UK Christmas spending reached £14.6 billion in 2013. 20% of this was online spending, up from 17% in 2012. One in five goods were bought online at Christmas. Retail sales through shops keep falling in absolute terms, with another 1% fall in 2013–14. HMV, Woolworths, Curry’s have all closed recently. Find out more at: http://www.retailresearch.org/shoppingforxmas.php http://www.retailresearch.org/shoppingforxmas.php
ICT and globalisation The new geography of online retail Amazon is currently testing unmanned drones to deliver goods to customers in the USA. The drones, called Octocopters, could deliver packages weighing up to 2.3 kg to customers within 30 minutes of them placing the order. However, the US Federal Aviation Administration is yet to approve the use of unmanned drones for civilian purposes. Find out more at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-25180906http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-25180906
ICT and globalisation Electronic remittances ICT plays a growing role in supporting global flows of migration. Somali migrants in the UK send US$100 million home annually. Barclays and other banks transfer the funds electronically. ICT also helps migrants stay in touch with families, using Skype. Remittances and other resource flows to lower- income countries, 1990–2014
ICT and globalisation Global diaspora networks 40 million people worldwide claim Scottish ancestry. On-line ancestry websites enable people living all over the world to traces their roots back to Scotland. Scottish tourist industry counted 2.8 million overseas visitors in 2007. GlobalScot is a website run by government-funded Scottish Enterprise that encourages members of the Scottish diaspora to network with one another. Diaspora communities thrive on Facebook and Twitter.
ICT and globalisation ICT and global culture ICT plays a growing role in bringing about global cultural exchanges. Think of recent examples of local cultures ‘going global’ via YouTube or other social media.
ICT and globalisation ICT and natural hazard management ICT can be used to assist with: hazard mitigation (pre- event) the hazard response, at the community, national and international levels post-event rescue, rehabilitation and reconstruction Can you think of examples? Fotolia
ICT and globalisation ICT is used to issue hazard warnings Digital flood warnings SMS messaging Real-time internet / webcams Mobiles and voicemail Digital radio alerts
ICT and globalisation ICT is used during hazard events In October 2013, 150 km h -1 winds felled trees and disrupted commuter trains in England and Wales. Many of the problems caused by severe weather were mitigated by better and earlier communication, through Twitter, websites and email alert. ‘We tweeted pictures of fallen trees to show the extent of the problem and our customers re-tweeted them to their followers and helped get the message out. They even tweeted pictures back to us, Twitter is now an integral part of our communication channels.’ Southeastern Railways
ICT and globalisation ICT is used to increase emergency aid In November 2013, the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC), an umbrella organisation for 14 UK humanitarian aid agencies, used mobile fundraising for its Philippines Typhoon Appeal. The appeal’s mobile donation channel raised over £1 million in mobile donations in 2 weeks.
ICT and globalisation ICT is used after the hazard event New technologies help coordinate relief efforts. Mobile-phone cameras can also be used to help agencies map and document a disaster zone — this can often be a citizen-led response. Aerial photographs allow superior mapping of an area after a disaster has struck Google Earth was a major player in the Haiti 2010 relief effort. The company uploaded laptops with up-to-date post-event aerial photographs and flew them to the disaster zone for NGOs to use
ICT and globalisation ICT and globalisation: analysing the interrelationship According to one view, ICT ‘causes’ globalisation. According to another view, ICT is the ‘result’ of innovation by globalisations leading players. A third view is that everything is linked in a feedback loop. The feedback loop: how technology shapes globalisation and vice versa