Presentation on theme: "Arengu-uuringud 3. Ühiskonna areng Mati Heidmets 2013 sügissemester."— Presentation transcript:
Arengu-uuringud 3. Ühiskonna areng Mati Heidmets 2013 sügissemester
Ühiskonna areng Kas 21 sajandi Eesti on arenenum kui 19 sajandi Eesti? Kas Euroopa aastal 2008 on arenenum kui Euroopa aastal 1898? Mis on arenenud ühiskonna tunnused? Ühiskond – sarnaste tunnustega (keel, kultuur, mälu, territoorium …) inimeste vaheline püsiv suhtevõrgustik, mida toetavad ühised institutsioonid (õigusemõistmine, korratagamine, kirik, riigivõim …) ning mille kaudu ühiskonnaliikmed ennast määratlevad Jaotus arenenud maailmaks ja arenguriikideks? Kust pärit, kellele vajalik? Arengutelg - valdav viis kategoriseerida ja hoiakuid kujundada
Arengusuuna otsingud Tõdemus: inimühiskond oma ajaloo jooksul pidevalt muutunud (kohanenud sise- ja väliskeskkonnale) Kas on olemas ühtne muutuste suund, kuidas seda defineerida, kuidas hinnata? Teaduslikus kontekstis defineerida püütud alates 19 saj keskpaigast, tõukeks darwinism, evolutsionism, arenguparadigma Järgnev: lühipilk arengusuuna otsingutele alates 19 saj lõpust + tänased arenguhindajad, lähenemised, andmebaasid
Auguste Comte (1798-1857) Auguste Comte: areng = inimese (inimkonna) tarkus mõista looduses toimuvat. Liikumissuund - hirmult ja müütidelt arusaamisele ja loodusjõudude ärakasutamisele Auguste Comte, known as father of sociology, formulated the law of three stages human development progresses from the theological stage, in which nature was mythically conceived and man sought the explanation of natural phenomena from supernatural beings, through metaphysical stage in which nature was conceived of as a result of obscure forces and man sought the explanation of natural phenomena from them until the final positive stage in which all abstract and obscure forces are discarded, and natural phenomena are explained by their constant relationship. This progress is forced through the development of human mind, and increasing application of thought, reasoning and logic to the understanding of the world
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Herbert Spencer: liikumine jõuühiskonnast huviühiskonna suunas. Tsentraliseeritud allutamiselt vabatahtliku koostöö ja iseenese vaoshoidmiseni. Sotsiaaldarvinist, olelusvõitlus ühiskonnas, mõnu vs valu, arengu eesmärk - perfektsionism Herbert Spencer, who believed that society was evolving toward increasing freedom for individuals, differentiated between two phases of development, focusing on the type of internal regulation within societies. Thus he differentiated between military and industrial societies. The earlier, more primitive military society has a goal of conquest and defence, is centralised, economically self-sufficient, collectivistic, puts the good of a group over the good of an individual, uses compulsion, force and repression, rewards loyalty, obedience and discipline. The industrial society has a goal of production and trade, is decentralised, interconnected with other societies via economic relations, achieves its goals through voluntary cooperation and individual self-restraint, treats the good of individual as the highest value, regulates the social life via voluntary relations, values initiative, independence and innovation
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) Emile Durkheim: liikumine mehhaaniliselt, jõuga kooshoitavalt ja seetõttu repressiivselt ühiskonnalt indiviidikeskse, spetsialiseerunud ja tööjaotusel baseeruva nn orgaanilise ühiskonna suunas Emile Durkheim, another of the "fathers" of sociology, has developed a dichotomal view of social progress. His key concept was social solidarity, as he defined the social evolution in terms of progressing from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity. In mechanical solidarity, people are self-sufficient, there is little integration and thus there is the need for use of force and repression to keep society together. In organic solidarity, people are much more integrated and interdependent and specialisation and cooperation is extensive. Progress from mechanical to organic solidarity is based first on population growth and increasing population density, second on increasing "morality density" (development of more complex social interactions) and thirdly, on the increasing specialisation in workplace. To Durkheim, the most important factor in the social progress is the division of labour.
Ferdinand Tönnies (1855-1936) Tönnies: liikumine reguleerimata, mitteformaalsest (kaootilisest) ühiskonnast normistatud ja standardiseeritud ühiskonna suunas (vrdl N.Elias!) Ferdinand Tönnies describes the evolution as the development from informal society, where people have many liberties and there are few laws and obligations, to modern, formal rational society, dominated by traditions and laws and are restricted from acting as they wish. He also notes that there is a tendency of standardisation and unification, when all smaller societies are absorbed into the single, large, modern society. Thus Tönnies can be said to describe part of the process known today as the globalization. Tönnies was also one of the first sociologists to claim that the evolution of society is not necessarily going in the right direction, that the social progress is not perfect, and it can even be called a regress as the newer, more evolved societies are obtained only after paying a high cost, resulting in decreasing satisfaction of individuals making up that society.
Max Weber (1864-1920) Maw Weber: liikumine karismaatiliselt ja traditsiooniliselt domineerimistüübilt ratsionaalse domineerimistüübi suunas Max Weber’s theory of tripartite classification of authority can be viewed as an evolutionary theory as well. Weber distinguishes three ideal types of political leadership, domination, and authority: charismatic domination (familial and religious), traditional domination (patriarchs, patrimonalism, feudalism) and legal (rational) domination (modern law and state, bureaucracy). He also notes that legal domination is the most advanced, and that societies evolve from having mostly traditional and charismatic authorities to mostly rational and legal ones.
Lev Gumiljov (1912-1992) Ühiskonna (etnose) elukaar ja elutsüklid. Arengutee?! Etnost kooshoidev jõud – passionaarsus. Samastumine, ühishuvi kõrgemaleseadmine, ohvrimeelsus. Võime ja soov ennast ohverdada illusiooni eest! Etnose elutsükkel ca 1200 aastat, läbib 6 staadiumit Passionaarne tõuge, dünaamiline kujunemisprotsess, passionaarsuse langus, etnilise inertsi faas, lagunemisfaas, mälestustefaas Passionaarsus – looduslik nähtus
Civilizations 7-9 tsivilisatsioonilist rühmitust. Pinged nende vahel. Areng = võistlus ja konkurents The definition, nomenclature, and even the number of civilizations are somewhat ambiguous in Huntington's works. Civilizations may consist of states and social groups (such as ethnic and religious minorities). Predominant religion seems to be the main criterion of his classification, but in some cases geographical proximity and linguistic similarity are important as well. Using various studies of history, Huntington divided the world into the "major" civilizations in his thesis as such: Western civilization, centered on Western Europe (particularly the European Union) and North America, but also including other European-derived countries such as Australia and New Zealand. Huntington also includes the Pacific Islands, East Timor, Suriname, French Guiana, and northern and central Philippines. The Orthodox world of Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine Latin America. May be considered a part of Western civilization, though it has slightly distinct social and political structures from Europe and North America. The Muslim world of Central Asia, North Africa, Southwest Asia, Afghanistan, Albania, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Pakistan, Somalia, Mindanao, and parts of India, Russia and the Balkans.
Civilizations Hindu civilization, located chiefly in India, Nepal, and culturally adhered to by the global Non-resident Indians and People of Indian Origin, the diaspora. The Sinic civilization of China, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam. This group also includes the Chinese diaspora, especially in relation to Southeast Asia. Japan, considered a hybrid of Chinese civilization and older Altaic patterns. The civilization of Sub-Saharan Africa is considered as a possible 8th civilization by Huntington. The Buddhist areas of Bhutan, Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Arunachal Pradesh, Kalmykia, parts of Nepal, parts of Siberia, and the Tibetan government-in-exile are identified as separate from other civilizations, but Huntington believes that they do not constitute a major civilization in the sense of international affairs. Instead of belonging to one of the "major" civilizations, Ethiopia, Haiti, and Turkey are labeled as "Lone" countries. Israel could be considered a unique state with its own civilization, Huntington writes, but one which is extremely similar to the West. In some cases, the Sinic, Hindu, Buddhist and Japonic civilizations are merged into a single civilization called Eastern World.
Trendid Pinged tsivilisatsioonide piiridel! Huntington argues that the trends of global conflict after the end of the Cold War are increasingly appearing at these civilizational divisions. Wars such as those following the break up of Yugoslavia, in Chechnya, and between India and Pakistan were cited as evidence of inter-civilizational conflict. Trend – Lääs kaotab võimsust! Huntington identifies a major shift of economic, military, and political power from the West to the other civilizations of the world, most significantly to what he identifies as the two "challenger civilizations", Sinic and Islam. Lääne väärtused pole universaalsed! Huntington also argues that the widespread Western belief in the universality of the West's values and political systems is naïve and that continued insistence on democratization and such "universal" norms will only further antagonize other civilizations. Huntington sees the West as reluctant to accept this because it built the international system, wrote its laws, and gave it substance in the form of the United Nations. In Huntington's view, East Asian Sinic civilization is culturally asserting itself and its values relative to the West due to its rapid economic growth. Specifically, he believes that China's goals are to reassert itself as the regional hegemon, and that other countries in the region will 'bandwagon' with China due to the history of hierarchical command structures implicit in the Confucian Sinic civilization, as opposed to the individualism and pluralism valued in the West.
Erisused Läänelikust mudelist erinev moderniseerumine – Jaapan, Venemaa! Those who consider the Clash of Civilizations thesis accurate often point to the example of Japan, claiming that it is not a Western state at its core. They argue that it adopted much Western technology (also inventing much technology of its own in recent times), parliamentary democracy, and free enterprise, but has remained culturally very distinct from the West. Perhaps the ultimate example of non-Western modernization is Russia, the core state of the Orthodox civilization. The variant of this argument that uses Russia as an example relies on the acceptance of a unique non-Western civilization headed by an Orthodox state such as Russia or perhaps an Eastern European country. Huntington argues that Russia is primarily a non-Western state although he seems to agree that it shares a considerable amount of cultural ancestry with the modern West. Rebenenud maad! "Huntington refers to countries that are seeking to affiliate with another civilization as "torn countries –Turkey, whose political leadership has systematically tried to Westernize the country since the 1920s, is his chief example. Turkey's history, culture, and traditions are derived from Islamic civilization, but Turkey's Western-oriented elite imposed western institutions and dress, embraced the Latin alphabet, joined NATO, and is seeking to join the European Union. Mexico and Russia are also considered to be torn by Huntington. According to Huntington, a torn country must meet three requirements in order to redefine its civilizational identity. Its political and economic elite must support the move. Second, the public must be willing to accept the redefinition. Third, the elites of the civilization that the torn country is trying to join must accept the country.
Mõtteliinid hargnenud... Sotsiobioloogia: paralleelselt toimunud bioloogiline ja sotsiokultuuriline evolutsioon Sociobiologists have argued for a dual inheritance theory, which posits that humans are products of both biological evolution and sociocultural evolution, each subject to their own selective mechanisms and forms of transmission (i.e. in the case of biology, genes, and cultural evolutionary units are often called memes). Tsivilisatsiooniteoreetikud: väline kontroll sisemiseks sunniks Valikuvabaduse apologeedid: individuaalsed valikud vs väline surve Varia. Current political theories of the new tribalists consciously mimic ecology and the life-ways of indigenous peoples, argumenting them with modern sciences. Ecoregional Democracy attempts to confine the "shifting groups", or tribes, within "more or less clear boundaries" that a society inherits from the surrounding ecology, to the borders of a naturally occurring ecoregion.
... ja pilt kirju Postindustrialiseerumine: tehnokraatia ja pragmatism, teenindusmajandus, IT-domineerimine, uus hierarhia (spetsialistid) In 1974 Daniel Bell, author of The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, introduced the concept of postindustrial society. Like many more classical evolutionists, he divided the history of humanity into three eras: pre-industrial, industrial and postindustrial. He predicted that by the end of the 20th century, United States, Japan and Western Europe would reach the postindustrial stage. A.Toffler: põllumajandusrevolutsioon (10 000 a tagasi), industriaalrevolutsioon (19 saj), postindustriaalne revolutsioon (20 saj II pool). Sisu – võimukeskuste ümberpaiknemine – jõud – raha –teadmine. Moderniseerumine : tehnoloogiline areng + institutsiooniehitus + ratsionaalne ühiskonnakorraldus Theories of modernization have been developed and popularized in 1950s and 1960s and are closely related to the dependency theory and development theory. Western countries are the most developed, and rest of the world (mostly former colonies) are on the earlier stages of development, and will eventually reach the same level as the Western world. Postmoderniseerumine: relativistlik, paljusubjektne, ilma suurte narratiivideta, arenguteema ei huvita Arenguskeptikud: Rooma Klubi, ressursside ammendumine, kliimasoojenemine …
Kokkuvõtteks: ajaloos on liikumissuuna otsingutel enam rõhutamist leidnud … Inimestevaheliste suhete tüüp: indiviid vs kooslus, jõud vs kokkulepe, reegel vs suhted Suhted looduskeskkonnaga: hirm vs teadmine, domineerimine vs kaitsmine, tänased huvid vs tulevikuhuvid Tehnoloogiline areng: tehnoloogia, institutsiooniehitus, ratsionaalne ühiskonnakorraldus, elukvaliteet, Trend: süvenev spetsialiseerumine arengukäsitlustes ja arenguhindamises. Eraldi majandusareng, vabaduse laienemine, inimareng, tervis, haridus, korruptsioon … 19 sajandi lõpu ja 20 saj esimese poole “suure pildi” asemele palju väikeseid. Suur (arengu)narratiiv pudenenud paljudeks väikesteks jutukesteks. Vaikne eeldus – ideaal on olemas nn arenenud lääne kujul, teised vaja järele tuua (F.Fukuyama!)
Tänased arengusuuna otsijad: ÜRO ja Amartya Kumar Sen Amartya Kumar Sen (1933) Professor at Harvard University, an Indian economist, philosopher, and a winner of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 1998, "for his contributions to welfare economics" for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare economics, the underlying mechanisms of poverty, and political liberalism. Sen's revolutionary contribution to development economics and social indicators is the concept of 'capability' developed in his article "Equality of What." Positiivne vabadus – olla ja teha! His capabilities approach focuses on positive freedom, a person's actual ability to be or do something, rather than on negative freedom approaches, which are common in economics and simply focuses on non-interference. He emphasizes functional capabilities ("substantial freedoms", such as the ability to live to old age, engage in economic transactions, or participate in political activities); these are construed in terms of the substantive freedoms people have reason to value, instead of utility (happiness, desire-fulfilment or choice) or access to resources (income, commodities, assets). Poverty is understood as capability-deprivation.
Võimekuse konstrukt Hinnata tuleb mitte ressursse (kõigil on palju raha) ega ka seisundit (kõik on õnnelikud), vaid “võimekust” inimväärselt elada. Viimane sisaldab nii indiviidi “võimeid” (oskus maailma mõista, tundeid läbi elada, suhelda …) + ühiskonnapoolset toetust nende realiseerimisele. Ühiskonna ja riigi ülesanne – inimese võimekuste suurendamine It is noteworthy that the emphasis is not only on how human beings actually function but on their having the capability, which is a practical choice, to function in important ways if they so wish. Someone could be deprived of such capabilities in many ways, e.g. by ignorance, government oppression, lack of financial resources, or false consciousness. This approach to human well-being emphasises the importance of freedom of choice, individual heterogeneity and the multi-dimensional nature of welfare. Capability: võimalus + võimekus. Inimene ja (sotsiaalne) keskkond kui terviklikult arenev süsteem.
10 võimekust 1980date lõpus pakub Sen välja nn 10 võimekust, mis on inimese ja ühiskonna arengu aluseks. Arenguideaal! This approach contrasts with a common view that sees development purely in terms of GNP growth, and poverty purely as income-deprivation. It has been highly influential in development policy where it has shaped the evolution of the human development index HDI has been much discussed in philosophy and is increasingly influential in a range of social sciences. 1-Life. Being able to live to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely, or before one's life is so reduced as to be not worth living. 2-Bodily Health. Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; to be adequately nourished; to have adequate shelter. 3-Bodily Integrity. Being able to move freely from place to place; to be secure against violent assault, including sexual assault and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.
10 võimekust 4-Senses, Imagination, and Thought. Being able to use the senses, to imagine, think, and reason-- and to do these things in a "truly human" way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training. Being able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing works and events of one's own choice, religious, literary, musical, and so forth. Being able to use one's mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression with respect to both political and artistic speech, and freedom of religious exercise. Being able to have pleasurable experiences and to avoid non-beneficial pain. 5-Emotions. Being able to have attachments to things and people outside ourselves; to love those who love and care for us, to grieve at their absence; in general, to love, to grieve, to experience longing, gratitude, and justified anger. Not having one's emotional development blighted by fear and anxiety. (Supporting this capability means supporting forms of human association that can be shown to be crucial in their development.) 6-Practical Reason. Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one's life. (This entails protection for the liberty of conscience and religious observance.)
10 võimekust 7-Affiliation. Being able to live with and toward others, to recognize and show concern for other human beings, to engage in various forms of social interaction; to be able to imagine the situation of another. (Protecting this capability means protecting institutions that constitute and nourish such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedom of assembly and political speech.) Having the social bases of self- respect and non-humiliation; being able to be treated as a dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others. This entails provisions of non-discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual orientation, ethnicity, caste, religion, national origin and species. 8-Other Species. Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants, and the world of nature. 9-Play. Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities. 10-Control over one's Environment. Political. Being able to participated effectively in political choices that govern one's life; having the right of political participation, protections of free speech and association. Material. Being able to hold property (both land and movable goods), and having property rights on an equal basis with others; having the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others; having the freedom from unwarranted search and seizure. In work, being able to work as a human being, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers.
Sen’i käsitlus kujundanud ÜRO arengualast tegevust Ühinenud Rahvaste Organisatsioon, asutatud 1945, 192 liikmesriiki. Keskne ülesanne: arenguhindamine ja arengutoetamine. Organisatsioonide võrgustik üle 200 ÜRO-ga seotud organisatsiooni The UN is involved in supporting development, e.g. by the formulation of the Millennium Development Goals. The UN Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. Organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO), UNAIDS. The World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund (IMF), for example, are independent, specialized agencies and observers within the UN framework, according to a 1947 agreement. Keskne idee – arengul palju dimensioone ja mõõtmeid. Palju olulisi võimekusi, mida tuleb arendada!
UNDP ÜRO Arenguprogramm UNDP: http://www.undp.org/ - kõige mastaapsem arenguinstrument maailmashttp://www.undp.org/ UNDP tegevussuunad/alaprogrammid: : –poverty reduction and achievement of the MDGs; –democratic governance; –crisis prevention and recovery; –environment and sustainable development UNDP analüütiline tegevus: Inimarengu aruanded: http://hdr.undp.org/en/http://hdr.undp.org/en/ 2007/2008 globaalne Inimarengu aruanne: Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world Nii globaalsed, regionaalsed kui rahvuslikud HDR-d saadaval: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/ http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/ Muud publikatsioonid: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/publications/http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/publications/ UNDP arengupildistamine: Inimarengu aruanded
HDR: teemad 2011/12 Rising South 2007/2008: Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world 2006: Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis 2005: International cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in an unequal world 2004: Cultural Liberty in Today's Diverse World 2003: Millennium Development Goals: A compact among nations to end human poverty 2002: Deepening democracy in a fragmented world 2001: Making new technologies work for human development 2000: Human rights and human development 1999: Globalization with a Human Face
Mõõtmisinstrumendid The Human Development Index (HDI) measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. The Human poverty index (HPI-1and HPI-2) Human poverty is primarily a denial of choices and opportunities for living a life one has reason to value. Lack of income is therefore far too narrow to serve as a holistic indicator. As a result, a broader measure was devised in order to capture the many—but not exhaustive—dimensions of human poverty. The HPI-1—human poverty index for developing countries—measures human deprivation in the same aspects of human development as the HDI and the HPI-2—human poverty index for developed countries—includes, in addition to the three dimensions in HPI-1, social exclusion. The Gender Related Development Index (GDI) is a composite index that measures human development in the same dimensions as the HDI while adjusting for gender inequality in those basic dimensions. The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is a composite indicator that captures gender inequality in three key areas: the extent of women's political participation and decision-making, economic participation and decision making-power and the power exerted by women over economic resources. Tugev fookus soolisele võrdsusele!
Inimarengu indeks (HDI) HDI: oodatav eluiga + kirjaoskuse tase + haridustase + SKT inimese kohta The Human Development Index (HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of life expectancy, literacy, educational attainment, and GDP per capita for countries worldwide. It is claimed as a standard means of measuring human development — a concept that, according to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), refers to the process of widening the options of persons, giving them greater opportunities for education, health care, income, employment, etc. Tulemus: jaotus arenenud maailmaks, arengumaadeks ja madala inimarenguga riikideks The basic use of HDI is to rank countries by level of "human development", which usually also implies to determine whether a country is a developed, developing or underdeveloped country.
Tulemus: paljumõõtmeline arengukäsitlus Järjest suurenev hulk (arengu)redeleid, mida mööda rahvad ja riigid üles ronivad Rikkus ja demokraatia, rahumeelsus ja innovaatilisus, tervis ja turvalisus, osalemine ja sallivus, rahulolu ja õnnetunne.... Igal oma konstrukt ja põhjendus, mõõtjad ja kriitikud. Meie – pilk arengumõõdikute maailma. Sealt materjali ka oma arenguanalüüsiks.