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Communication skills in practice A parting well made?

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Presentation on theme: "Communication skills in practice A parting well made?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communication skills in practice A parting well made?

2 And whether we shall meet again I know not. Therefore our everlasting farewell take: For ever, and for ever, farewell, Cassius! If we do meet again,why, we shall smile; If not, why, then, this parting was well made. William Shakespeare Julius Caesar Act V Scene I

3 Does Communication Matter?

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5 Patients give priority to: being treated with humanity, dignity and respect having good communication with health professionals being given clear information about their condition receiving the best possible symptom control receiving psychological support when they need it The NHS Cancer Plan, September 2000

6 Patients ask for Clinicians To be:- honest giving straightforward and clear information sensitive to their emotions involve them in decisions Darzi 2008

7 National reports Department of Health Cancer Plan (2000) NICE Supportive and Palliative Care Cancer Service Guidance (2004) Health Service Ombudsman Report (2006) Cancer Reform Strategy (2007) High Quality Care for All – NHS Next Stage Review, Lord Darzi (2008) End of Life Care Strategy (2008) Equality and Excellence: Liberating the NHS (2010) Improving Outcomes Guidance (2011) National Cancer Survey (2012) NICE Patient Standard (2012)

8 Patient’s Association September % GPs poor communication skills 80% patients want to be more involved in decisions 6/10 GPs have no compassion

9 Rebecca Smith. Medical Editor November 9 th 2012

10 GMC report the state of medical education and practice 2011 Key findings. Complaints up 23% in last year Complaints re poor communication up 69% Over representation More than 20 yrs since qualifying Male, surgeons, psychiatrists and GP

11 Consequences of poor communication Psychological distress and morbidity (Massie et al., 1994) Reduced quality of life (Kerr et al., 2003) Poor adherence to treatment (Kim et al., 2004) Dissatisfaction with care (Zachariae et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2004) Complaints and litigation (Lenckus, 2005) Potential burnout in healthcare professionals (Ramirez et al., 1995, 1996; Berman et al., 2007)

12 What will help us communicate effectively? Minimise Barriers Reduce Blocking Behaviours Pick up Cues Gather patient information Acknowledge patients agenda/concerns Give tailored information effectively Negotiate decision making

13 Barriers to effective communication Fears Beliefs/attitudes Skills / abilities Environment

14 Blocking behaviours Blocking behaviours: Inhibit patient disclosure of feelings and concerns Maguire et al 1996; Wilkinson et al 2008 Del Piccolo et al 2006

15 Cues Something that the patient says or does that is a hint to you that there is something more to be explored. Butow et al 2002 A verbal or non verbal hint which suggests an underlying unpleasant emotion and would need clarification from the health provider. Del Piccolo et al 2006

16 Importance of cues Facilitative questions linked to cues increase the probability of further cues and are key to a patient- centred consultation Zimmerman et al 2003 Open questions linked to a cue are 4.5 times more likely to lead to further significant disclosure than unlinked open Questions Facilitating the first patient cue appears to be important 20% drop in cues during consultation if first cue is not facilitated Fletcher PhD thesis 2006

17 Cues - will it take more time ? Consultations which were cue based were shorter that those in which cues were missed  GP consultations 12.5%  Surgical consultation were 10.7% shorter Levinson et al 2000 In oncology consultations, addressing cues, reduced consultation times by 10-12% Butow et al 2002

18 Facilitative behaviours Goldberg et al 1993; Wilkinson 1991; Maguire et al 1996: Zimmerman et al 2003; Del Piccolo et al 2011; Gathering information Open questions Open directive questions Screening questions Clarification Exploration Pauses Pauses/silence Minimal prompts Picking up cues Active listening skills Reflection (acknowledgment) Paraphrasing (acknowledgement and checking) Summary Empathy Educated guesses

19 Supporting Evidence Silence or minimal prompts most likely to precede disclosure Eide H et al 2004 Giving information reduces likelihood of further disclosure Zimmerman et al 2003 Polarity of words important: Screening questions: “something else” elicited significantly more concerns than “anything else” Heritage J et al 2006

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22 A parting well made? And whether we shall meet again I know not. Therefore our everlasting farewell take: For ever, and for ever, farewell, Cassius! If we do meet again,why, we shall smile; If not, why, then, this parting was well made. William Shakespeare Julius Caesar Act V Scene I


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