Presentation on theme: "Spelling Difficulties and Disabilities"— Presentation transcript:
1Spelling Difficulties and Disabilities Kathleen SpencerWriting Development H-804March 10, 2007
2Overview of Today Why is spelling important? Three big issues to consider before thinking the issue is a learning disabilityLanguage issuesInstructional historySpecific learning disability (dyslexia)Models of spelling (and writing)Research on the spelling/writing quality relationshipInstructional issues and strategies
3Why does spelling matter? These kids are really smart, right?
4Why does spelling matter? Good spellers are generally considered to be better writers, smarter, more hirable, etc., than poor spellers (e.g., Kriener et al., 2002; Schramm & Dortch, 1991).Spelling difficulties can interfere with the composition process (Berninger, 1999; Graham & Harris, 2000)Poor spelling has been linked to overall essay quality (Graham, et al.; 1997; Graham, Harris & Fink Chorzempa, 2002)Spelling difficulties can persist into adulthood, even when related word reading difficulties appear to have resolved (Bos & Vaughn, 2006; Sawyer & Joyce, 2006)Study #1: College students rating peer essays – same essays, some with spelling errors. Essays with a greater number of spelling errors were rated as being of lower quality. More frighteningly, these college students rated the supposedly poor spellers as being less intelligent than the supposedly good spellers. Same essays.Student #2: Just 2 errors in a resume affected the likelihood that someone very qualified would be called in for an interview. So get someone to edit your resumes!
5Is there a “disability”? “The term ‘specific learning disability’ means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.Such term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage” (IDEA, 2004).
6Diagnosis of SLD: Discrepancy approach vs. RTI Discrepancy approach – statistically significant discrepancy between expected performance and actual performanceResponse to Intervention (RTI) – student does not improve a reasonable amount after an appropriate interventionRTI is an acceptable diagnostic approach as of 2004
7First issue to consider Language issuesOrthographic depth of target language. In English, two-way mapping issues, spelling based on root words, homonyms, etc.Accents and Dialects (e.g., regional, AAVE, various dialects based on different Spanish-speaking immigrants, etc.)ELL students. Clear phonological and vocabulary issues. Also, literate in a previous language?
8Second issue Instructional history School characteristics (ratios, teacher skills, indexes of poverty, school resources, etc.)Instructional approaches (programs, philosophies, etc.)Consistency of attendance (both daily and switching between schools)“Instructional casualties” (Vellutino, 2004)Response to Intervention (RTI) approach
9Third issue – what if it is an SLD? Specific Learning Disability (SLD)How do we refer to a student with a disability that affects their spelling? Dyslexic? Reading Disabled (RD)? Dysgraphic?Literacy-based learning disability (LBLD)?Potential interactions between language, previous schooling, and potential LBLD. Hard to tease them apart.
10Treiman chapter (1997)Children with dyslexia have even more trouble with spelling than reading wordsTheir errors are generally similar to those made by much younger children (catching up is tough)BUT: Phonologically-based errors are somewhat more severe among kids with LBLD than with spelling-age matched childrenStudents with LBLD may rely more on orthographic and morphological informationPhonetic vs. non-phonetic errors“Gekuntly” vs. “how” (instead of “who”)“phonetic” vs. “non-phonetic” errors: First, error involving omission of phoneme representation (letter), substitution of one logical letter for another, or inclusion of a letter that makes sense but is still incorrect conventionally (Boston accent and extra “r’s” at the end of words: Santer)Non-phonetic: errors that involve some inversion, omission of a major phoneme representation, a chunk of the word is missing.As Treiman points out, there are differences in how people distinguish between the two types of errors. Plus, some errors deemed “non-phonetic” look a lot like errors made by young children. Using strict standards, the great majority of errors made by students with RD are considered “phonetic” by Treiman. The others are there, though.
11Theories of spelling development Just as there are different models of reading development; different and changing models of spelling/writing developmentDifferent assumptions about the source of errors, latent or explicit, in each theoryDifferent diagnoses and intervention options stressed depending on which theory of development is dominant
12Stage models of spelling development Piagetian and Vygotskian theory. Stages of development; instructional goals tailored to stage (Frith, 1980; Ganske, 2000; Ehri, 1997; Bear et al., 2003)Spelling difficulties due to slower development, but follow the same general trajectory (e.g., Treiman, 1997).Student may miss something from one stage, but move on in other areas. Therefore, possible uneven spelling/writing performanceInstruction – focus on knowledge appropriate to the student’s stage of development, then move to next logical task.First bullet: Qualitatively different stages of development in many areas, including spelling. Spelling will look different at each stage based on what they child can understand and how well they can express that understanding. Instruction based on knowing what stage the child is at and then scaffolding their transition into a more sophisticated stage. At each stage, learner constructs rules to organize the regularities they observe in their language’s orthography.Second bullet: Impediment could be a constitutionally-based deficit such as a phonological processing deficit or an experiential impediment, such as poor instruction or no instruction.Instruction: Words Their Way (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2008)Many activitiesFocus on mapping sounds to symbols (or symbols to sounds)Word sorts – noticing patternsWord families can be used as basis of spelling by analogy approachREADING WORDS DOES NOT MEAN SPELLING WORDS
13Dual-route theoryAssumes two routes to storing and retrieving spelling information – phonological and visual/orthographic (e.g., Coltheart, 1978; Foorman, 1994)Phonological: e.g., phonological encoding, sound sequencing, auditory memory (Sawyer & Joyce, 2006).Visual/orthographic: direct access to lexical unit stored in visual memory (Leong, Tan, Cheng, & Hau, 2005).General move from phonological route to orthographic route, but students with dyslexia tend to rely more on orthographic route than peersRelevant terms: “Dyseidetic” or “surface” dyslexiaDual route theorists tend to argue that spelling development is qualitatively different for students with RD/LD than for typically-developing students. Kamhi & Hinton (2000)Controversy: some evidence for dual routes. People with reading disorders are more likely to use memory when reading, specifically if they have difficulty with phonological processing (cite). See Kamhi & Hinton (2000).Theory: Spelling difficulty can result from a phonological processing weakness OR from difficulty with the orthographic route OR both.Surface dyslexia is a controversial concept. In my experience, I have seen a few children who really do fit that profile, however.Either a great amount of repetition is required, or accommodation may be the way to go if someone has resistant surface dyslexia.Instruction: emphasis on both phonological work and memorization of visual patterns. Accommodation for route that is not functioning properly. For example, editing help or word prediction software for surface dyslexia.
14Purely Phonological approach Phonological Processing foundation of disabilities affecting spellingPhonological Encoding (enter data)Phonological Memory (store data)Phonological Retrieval (retrieve data)Difficulties at each level may manifest as different types of difficulties/disabilitiesLearns slowly or does not seem to learn conceptsLearns then forgets or holes in knowledgeSlow production or looks like one of the first twoAlso possible that what is called the orthographic route is more sophisticated phonological processing. So, instead of associating sounds with letters, then letter clusters or syllables, we begin to associate them with even larger chunks, words or root words. These root words can then be modified, transformed into different parts of speech, whatever, but we have that sound/symbol
15Connectionist/neurological theories Spelling involves a complex interaction between phonological, orthographic, and semantic systems (Holmes & Caruthers, 1998; Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989.)Trying to retrieve word, speller activates networkProblem in an area or weak connections could result in poor word reading/spelling, and vis versaSpelling attempts may not reflect a clear, stage progression if student has LBLD/dyslexia.“Spelling by analogy” (Goswami, 1988; Sawyer & Joyce, 2006). Also, exercises that connect vocabulary, concepts, and written representations.First bullet: In other words, the brain is 3-D. Other theories not antithetical to this approach, but are more two-dimensional. Think of if we had a big ball of yarn and spend the next half hour tossing it about. Some people may get it more often, so, thicker mass. More of a connection. Now imagine we could have gravity defying suits and some of us were on the ceiling, still wasting our lovely time with these suits catching a ball of yarn at intervals. You end up with a much more complex network, though some connections will still be stronger than others.Students with RD may have more difficulty forming certain kinds of connections which could affect their spelling. They may need more exposure and direct instruction. Focus on spelling in addition to word reading. Again, though the processes are related, practice in one does not necessarily translate to skill in the other, especially for kids with RD, and especially if you like this connectionist approach. If network is shaky, need extra time to build it up.Spelling by analogy (Goswami, 1988). Makes sense with other models, but goes hand in hand with this approach. Use network related to one word to help with another word. May also strengthen associations with both words, and probably with the letter sequences in question in general. Still can cause some trouble for kids with LD. Retrieval difficulty.
16Constructivist approach Assumptions: reading and writing are meaning-making activities that are closely related to speechChildren actively construct knowledge and will pick up spelling during meaningful writing experiencesWhole language approach is one exampleLittle evidence that this approach is better than direct instruction (Graham, 2000) and it is a disaster for students with LBLD/dyslexiaBUT, it is important not to maroon kids with LBLD in phonics-land. Meaningful interaction with text is important
17Other factors that may affect spelling Executive function issues (e.g., ADHD)Verbal Memory, short and long termVisual-spatial difficultiesMotor difficulties…usually, these issues affect areas in addition to literacy, though they may be underidentified
18Some types of spelling errors Unconventional but legal (modelling, cote/coat)“Mishearing” sounds (Gekundly)Pronunciation influence (pahty, jrive)Omission of phoneme/morpheme (bush teeth)Homonym (there, their)Retrieval of related but incorrect word (how for who)Misordering of letters to form undecodable word (dgo for dog)Other?
19Some points about instruction Emphasis on phonological awareness (oral language) and phoneme-grapheme mappingWord families and spelling by analogy (list of key words)Chunking strategies – syllables, affixes/root words, familiar/unfamiliar partsFocus on words the child uses or may be interested in. Over-emphasis on single word work can backfireSpelling is not word reading. Do not assume transfer for a struggling speller
20Exercise: students with marked LBLD What spelling strengths does each student have?Describe each students’ difficulties with spelling.What would you guess is the main source of this child’s spelling difficulty? You may consider:Different models of developmentNature of spelling errors/attemptsYour experience or information from readingsHow would you instruct each child? Would you use a particular method? What would you target first?What does your child know? (Look at others with remaining time)What difficulties is your child having? Can you categorize the errors?Why do you think this child is having difficulty? There is no right answer here. If you were working with this child, you would develop an initial hypothesis to guide instruction, then gather more information as you go. Looking at this one sample, what is your first guess?How would you instruct your child? Would you focus on a particular method? What skill or area of knowledge would you focus on first?
21How does spelling affect writing? Poor spelling or lack of automaticity distracts from other writing processes (Berninger, 1999)Correlational studies suggest a strong relationship (Graham t al., 1997; Spencer, 2008), BUT…Spelling intervention has an effect on sentence-level quality but not overall quality (Graham, Harris, & Chorzempa, 2002).How is sentence-level quality assessed here?Combination spelling and composition intervention had the biggest impact on essay quality vs. spelling alone and composition alone (Berninger, Vaughan et al., 2002)The spelling-only approach had no significant effect on writing quality
22Factoring in Vocabulary Correlational study looking at the relationship between general spelling ability and writing quality (Spencer, 2008)Considers possibility that there might be an interaction between students’ spelling ability and the words they either know in general or use in their essaysFocus on somewhat older students (fourth through eighth graders). Less work on this age group in LBLD research.Essays were transcribed and corrected of all spelling errors prior to scoring. Assumption that spelling affects other writing processes.
23Looking at a group of children with LBLD A group of 67 Fourth through eight graders at a school for children with literacy difficulties. Note admissions criteria and PPVT-III scores. Very few fourth graders, somewhat more fifth graders, so really a middle school sample.Students in close to ideal circumstances: one hour of tutoring/day, separate writing class, very small classes, everyone at the school has a similar disability so faculty are able to target instruction to a particular popultion and be consistent between grades – work hard at consistencyStudents were asked to do a variety of tasks, among them to take the standardized assessments you see here and to write a persuasive essay.For now, look at the first three lines of the table. (Describe tasks, standardized scores, and standard devitation concept). As a group, the students are struggling with spelling, though not all of them. Note that these are not times tasks and that they had a lot of time for the essay. Love to develop a timed spelling test, though it may push many struggling spellers over the edge.
24Standardized score on KTEA-II Spelling Subtest Fourth through Eighth Grade Students with RD: Relationship of spelling scores to essay ratingsExplain two axes and control variables. Essays were corrected for spelling errors and basic punctuation errors before they were scored. Tell them to ignore the three lines for now. If someone knows about and is interested in the interaction between spelling and performance on the Word ID task, you can talk with me afterwards.Main point here is to look at the trend. On average, poor spellers in this group write essays that receive lower quality ratings. Better spellers, at least according to the KTEA subtest, tend to write higher quality essays. Remember, the scorers were looking at essays with no spelling errors on them. Since these students’ performance on an independent spelling measure is a strong predictor of their essay quality rating, on average, it is likely that trouble with spelling affects their ability to compose.Standardized score on KTEA-II Spelling Subtest
25Summary of findingsResults indicate a relationship between spelling ability and essay quality for this group of students (controlling for other variables)This relationship is moderated by the complexity of the words students use in text.Overall vocabulary knowledge did not play a role. Words they know vs. words they use.
26Why inconsistent findings? Essay QualitySentence QualitySpellingIs this the right model to use when considering the effects of spelling on writing quality and sentence quality (aka, writing fluency) for struggling spellers and/or writers?