Presentation on theme: "Paleo Foods Learn from our ancestors? Learn from nature? David Sands MSU Professor of PLANT PATHOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:
Paleo Foods Learn from our ancestors? Learn from nature? David Sands MSU Professor of PLANT PATHOLOGY
Even before Paleo times we looked carefully at food before we ate it.
Readings: “Before the Dawn” Nicolas Wade 2006 “Pandora’s Seed” Spencer Wells 2010 “The Journey of Man” Spencer Wells 2004 “The 10,000 Year Explosion” Cochran X
From Pandora’s Seed by Spencer Wells X Y Paleo Shift to cereal grains
The ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids in the Inuit diet is… 2:1 or 1:1 Our Western Diet ratio is 25:1
Omega-3 Fatty Acids… An important nutrient to focus on in crop production. High in some Paleo Foods Re: The Paleo Diet By Loren Cordain Colorado State Univ.
Basic Biochemistry of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA’s): Natural constituents of animal and plant lipids Long carbon chain with one end methyl group, other carboxyl group
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS In the Western population is a chronic shortfall in consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly those of marine origin, such as EPA and DHA. Source: Rev. chil. nutr. v.32 n.1 Santiago abr
Why Omega-3’s? I need omega-3 Brain Cells
Omega-3’s Enhance Mental Acuity Mice in maze Dogs (Trainability) People Our interest is in classroom performance
Camelina sativa Romans used to eat the meal and burn the oil in their lamps Oil of Olay and other cosmetics It grows well in Montana High in omega-3 and high in antioxidants (tocopherols, mainly gamma) We have high omega-3 peanut butter, beef, eggs, cheese, milk, bread and salad oil And if there is any left, it is biodiesel
Jet Fuel from an omega-3 crop? The camelina meal is 40% protein and 13% oil Approved for beef and poultry rations. Yum. Omega-3 eggs, and beef.
Omega-3 Bread Development of camelina bread is a cooperative project with Wheat Montana Bakery Culinary Applications
Focus on Gluten Free Crops/Products: Gluten Intolerance: 2 million Americans (at least) 30 million people worldwide Most are HLA-DQ2 or DQ8
Celiac Disease Normal Intestinal Villi Celiac Intestinal Villi
Gluten is the seed storage protein in Wheat, Rye, Barley, and Triticale Certain grassy weeds also contain gluten.
A grain used by Native Americans 7,000 years ago. It has no detectable gluten. The Amazing Grains Cooperative in Ronan, Montana has 53 growers dedicated to producing this grain. Our Research: New Gluten-Free Crops Indian Ricegrass
Essential amino acidIndian Rice Grass Wheat Lysine Méthionine Threonine Isoleucine Valine Leucine Arginine Histidine Phenylalanine % total Protein Indian Rice Grass vs. Wheat
Montina Gluten-Free Flour Is fortification needed in gluten- free products? YES!
Most oats are hulled Most oats are about 12 % protein Most oats are not produced GF MSU released PrOatina, a nude oat with about 20% protein (Gluten Free Processors, Belgrade, Montana), produces and packages this GF product as a hot cereal and as a flour. PROATINA : HIGH PROTEIN GLUTEN FREE OATS
Timtana Timothy is a pasture grass It is a favorite of horses When we made flour from timothy seed we were pleasantly surprised! Timtana resulted, a high protein, flavorable, gluten-free flour for baking. Timtana is a stand alone flour for baking Timtana is available now, processed and milled in Belgrade MT, at MTGluten Free Processors
Type 2 Diabetes cases reported in US by the CDC
Something Has Gone Wrong…
1999 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 1999, 2009 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
Diabetes Obesity Combined CDC Data
Bohannen, J. 25 SEPTEMBER 2009 VOL 325 SCIENCE,
Zinc addition to Turkish Crop - Wheat
Zinc deficiency In Turkey, 50% of the arable soils were found to be zinc deficient. The deficiency also occurs in Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Syria, Human symptoms of zinc deficiency include, geophagia, stunting, abnormal behavior- depression and violence.. A penny is 98% zinc…
Seeds – A good place to start Seed coat Endosperm Plantlet Nutrient and energy reserves
Man’s priorities for seeds Large seed, easy to harvest. Digestible protein with quick release of appropriate essential amino acids. No toxins. Soluble polymers. Acceptable taste. Long storage life. No rot, no rancidity of oils. Soluble fibers.
Plants’ priorities for seeds Embryo must stay alive. Control dehydration - rehydration: – polymerize all small hydrophilic molecules – (starch, protein, cellulose, hemi cellulose). – remove ions such as phosphate, Zn, Fe, from solution (Insoluble inositol hexaphosphate = phytic acid ). Store oils, in fat bodies. Feeding animals is not on the list!
The Problem: Nutrient Poor Foods Solutions: 1.No more empty calories 2.More and better protein in grains 3.Less Omega-6 and more Omega-3 oils 4.Vitamins and Minerals 5.More Fiber 6.Affordable 7.Oh!… Gluten Free and tasty!
Cereal-Based Diets, Egypt
Insects selectively eat the more nutritious plants. They have lysine taste receptors Take home lesson: We have been breeding against nutrition for centuries. The Breeder’s Dilemma: Yield vs Nutrition Morris and Sands: Nature Biotechnology Sept The Breeder’s Dilemma
6 Independent/Non-biased Evaluators 4 Rows/Variety (HL37-A1 was wild type) 2 day Compiled Results of Grasshopper Predation Conclusions- Recipes, anyone, for grasshopper soup ? Grasshopper damage to high lysine wheat cultivars WILD TYPE
The Selection Against Nutrition, A Conundrum Aphids, grasshoppers, rats and deer all have the ability to taste essential amino acids, and they selectively choose the plants highest in nutrition. Therefore: Plant breeders inadvertently select for the least nutritious plants because of animal predation. “The Breeder’s Dilemma” C.E. Morris and D.C. Sands 2006 Nature Biotechnology
Superprotein : Looks something like this. OR THIS
Superprotein Oh! No! The Devil Made Me do It …the GMO Word! Protein LysIleMetThrTrpTotal Lactalbumin Barley Superprotein* Percent of protein * Designed supplemental nutritional protein, Jaynes,Sands ‘84
Amylose Supercoils when heated Digested slowly (LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX-GOOD) Slow synthesis in seed Amylopectin Cannot coil Digested quickly (HIGH GLYCEMIC INDEX-BAD) Rapid synthesis in seed STRAIGHT BRANCHED Starches (Amylose, amylopectin) and seeds
The World Food Problem
Striga Research, Maseno, Kenya Striga
Comparison of Kenya strains of Foxy S Experiment at KARI Expt. Stn., Kibos, Kenya, by Sila Nzioki Strains collected by Ben Kanyenji and John Sands CC
The search for the Perfect Nutritional Protein Safe Non-allergenic Contains all the essential amino acids Completely digestible Neutral taste
PROTEIN PINE BARK BEETLE
So what to do? MSU? Assess Montana’s principle crops for their nutritional value. Could we lead the nation in improving the nutritional value of: Durum Wheat? YES By lowering the glycemic index Spring and Winter Wheat? YES ditto Peas? YES ditto Potatoes YES ditto Camelina YES BY selecting for higher Omega-3 content. This is not rocket science but It takes money )(OH GOOD) Cross-talk with nutritionists (NOT FUN-HUMILIATING) Market demand for enhanced nutritional foods (FACEBOOK?) A little bit of high throughput biochemistry (INNOVATION)
Agronomic drivers for enhanced nutrition in crops. 1.Striga resistance 2.Stem rust resistance 3.Saw fly resistance 4.Roundup resistance 5.Salt tolerance 6.Nitrogen efficiency The concept = Use valuable improvements in agronomic traits that improve production as above, as an opportunity to piggy-back in some nutritional traits that would not otherwise be inserted into new crop varieties. That way we get a two-for, better yields and better nutrition.
World wheat production: 225 M ha ca. 25% of the surface is planted to varieties with genes for resistance to stem rust that are ineffective against the new race UG99 Genetic landscape of wheat
Concept Farmers are subsidized for growing crops, nutritious or not. Continue to subsidize but only for crops with improved nutrition! More nutritious crops would give us health benefits. Subsidies to medical programs would go down.
“ In the Future, the safest, most-nutritious food may well be: organically- grown and genetically-modified. ”
Example: P. syringae pv. atropurpurea Leaf Blight on Barley—Globally distributed
Checking wheat seed for infestation by P. syringae on BCBRVB selective medium P. syringae pv. atropurpurea is seed borne And seed transmitted.
Quantify number of biological ice nuclei and their T°C of activity Crude samples lysozyme-treated boiled Immersion freezing assay Determine the abundance of bacterial and other biological ice nuclei in precipitation
Pseudomonas syringae ♣ P. fluorescens P. viridiflava ♣ Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) ♣ Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens ♣ INA bacteria Gram – negative non spore-forming ♣ epiphytic, some are plant pathogens Incitants of Frost Injury
Bacterial ice nuclei: the most active naturally-occurring ice nuclei Warmest temperature of activity of some ice nucleation-active materials silver iodide-8°C pollen-5°C forest aerosols (tree oils + iodine)-4°C atmospheric dust-8°C cristalline metaldehyde-0.4°C Pseudomonas syringae-2°C
Seed for 400 hectares treated, planted, P. syringae moved in within 3 weeks. From where? North central Montana, 1980
Bioprecipitation concept Sands et al, 1982, 1985 Morris et al, 2004 epiphytic bacterial growth aerosolization upward flux ice nucleation enhanced precipitation Conceivably bacteria via this cycle move down wind across a continent
Betts 2004 Fig 3. Difference in annual mean precipitation (mm/day) between simulations with and without vegetation: VEG - NOVEG.
Books “Genome” and “The Agile Gene” Matt Ridley “Nexus” and “Ubiquity”, both by M.Buchanan “Mountains beyond Mountains” “Guns Germs and Steel” and “Collapse” by Jared Diamond “A Short History of Nearly Everything” by Bill Bryson “Before the Dawn” by Nicolas Wade “The Journey of Man” by Spencer Wells “Beyond Structure (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions) by Kuhn
Barbed Wire My barbed wire of DNA Encompasses and delimits me. With shortcomings written in code. Within these boundaries, I concoct a life Of opportunities and misconceptions, Encoded and scripted from a brief whim. Empowered hope embodied in double strands, Wound around each other like paired lovers.. Transparent to light and yet, Their messages sometimes sorely visible, Randomly delivered by the postman of time.