Presentation on theme: "Learn from our ancestors? Learn from nature?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Learn from our ancestors? Learn from nature? David Sands MSUProfessor of PLANT PATHOLOGYPaleo FoodsLearn from our ancestors?Learn from nature?
2 Even before Paleo times we looked carefully at food before we ate it.
3 Readings: X “Before the Dawn” Nicolas Wade 2006 “Pandora’s Seed” Spencer Wells 2010“The Journey of Man” Spencer Wells 2004“The 10,000 Year Explosion” Cochran 2009Readings:33
4 From Pandora’s Seed by Spencer Wells XPaleoShift to cereal grainsY
5 Our Western Diet ratio is 25:1 The ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids in the Inuit diet is… 2:1 or 1:1Our Western Diet ratio is 25:1
6 Omega-3 Fatty Acids…An important nutrient to focus on in crop production.High in some Paleo FoodsRe: The Paleo DietBy Loren CordainColorado State Univ.
7 Basic Biochemistry of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA’s): Natural constituents of animal and plant lipidsLong carbon chain with one end methyl group, other carboxyl group
8 ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDSIn the Western population is a chronic shortfall in consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly those of marine origin, such as EPA and DHA.Source: Rev. chil. nutr. v.32 n.1 Santiago abr. 2005.
9 Why Omega-3’s?I need omega-3I need omega-3Brain Cells
10 Omega-3’s Enhance Mental Acuity Mice in mazeDogs (Trainability)PeopleOur interest is inclassroom performance
11 Camelina sativaRomans used to eat the meal and burn the oil in their lampsOil of Olay and other cosmeticsIt grows well in MontanaHigh in omega-3 and high in antioxidants (tocopherols, mainly gamma)We have high omega-3 peanut butter, beef, eggs, cheese, milk, bread and salad oilAnd if there is any left, it is biodiesel
12 Jet Fuel from an omega-3 crop? The camelina meal is 40% protein and 13% oilApproved for beef and poultry rations.Yum. Omega-3 eggs, and beef.12
13 Omega-3 Bread Culinary Applications Development of camelina bread is a cooperative project with Wheat Montana Bakery
14 Focus on Gluten Free Crops/Products: Gluten Intolerance:2 million Americans(at least)30 million people worldwideMost are HLA-DQ2 or DQ8
16 Gluten is the seed storage protein in Wheat, Rye, Barley, and Triticale Certain grassy weedsalso contain gluten.
17 Our Research: New Gluten-Free Crops A grain used by Native Americans 7,000 years ago.It has no detectable gluten.The Amazing Grains Cooperative in Ronan, Montana has 53 growers dedicated to producing this grain.Indian Ricegrass
18 Indian Rice Grass vs. Wheat Essential amino acidIndian Rice GrassWheatLysine3.22.4Méthionine2.10.5Threonine3.72.8Isoleucine5.3Valine3.5Leucine7.94.6Arginine9.32.2Histidine3.91.2Phenylalanine5.84.7% total Protein42.226.8
19 Is fortification needed in gluten-free products? YES! Montina Gluten-Free FlourIs fortification needed in gluten-free products? YES!
20 PROATINA : HIGH PROTEIN GLUTEN FREE OATS Most oats are hulledMost oats are about 12 % proteinMost oats are not produced GFMSU released PrOatina, a nude oat with about 20% protein(Gluten Free Processors,Belgrade, Montana), produces and packages this GF product as a hot cereal and as a flour.
21 Timtana Timothy is a pasture grass It is a favorite of horses When we made flour from timothy seed we were pleasantly surprised!Timtana resulted, a high protein , flavorable, gluten-free flour for baking.Timtana is a stand alone flour for bakingTimtana is available now, processed and milled in Belgrade MT, at MTGluten Free Processors21
22 Type 2 Diabetes cases reported in US by the CDC
28 Zinc deficiencyIn Turkey, 50% of the arable soils were found to be zinc deficient. The deficiency also occurs in Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Syria,Human symptoms of zinc deficiency include, geophagia, stunting, abnormal behavior- depression and violence..A penny is 98% zinc…28
29 Seeds – A good place to start Seed coatEndospermPlantletNutrient and energy reserves
30 Man’s priorities for seeds Large seed, easy to harvest.Digestible protein with quick release of appropriate essential amino acids.No toxins.Soluble polymers.Acceptable taste.Long storage life.No rot, no rancidity of oils.Soluble fibers.
31 Plants’ priorities for seeds Embryo must stay alive.Control dehydration - rehydration:polymerize all small hydrophilic molecules(starch, protein, cellulose, hemi cellulose).remove ions such as phosphate, Zn, Fe, from solution (Insoluble inositol hexaphosphate = phytic acid ).Store oils, in fat bodies.Feeding animals isnot on the list!
32 The Problem: Nutrient Poor Foods Solutions: No more empty caloriesMore and better protein in grainsLess Omega-6 and more Omega-3 oilsVitamins and MineralsMore FiberAffordableOh!… Gluten Free and tasty!32
34 High Lysine Bacteria Tested In 100 Million Loaves in Egypt 34
35 The Breeder’s DilemmaInsects selectively eat the more nutritious plants. They have lysine taste receptorsTake home lesson:We have been breeding against nutrition for centuries.The Breeder’s Dilemma: Yield vs NutritionMorris and Sands: Nature Biotechnology Sept. 200635
36 Grasshopper damage to high lysine wheat cultivars WILD TYPE6 Independent/Non-biased Evaluators4 Rows/Variety (HL37-A1 was wild type)2 day Compiled Results of Grasshopper PredationConclusions- Recipes, anyone, for grasshopper soup ?
37 The Selection Against Nutrition, A Conundrum Aphids, grasshoppers, rats and deer all have the ability to taste essential amino acids, and they selectively choose the plants highest in nutrition.Therefore: Plant breeders inadvertently select for the least nutritious plants because of animal predation.“The Breeder’s Dilemma” C.E. Morris and D.C. Sands 2006 Nature Biotechnology
39 Superprotein Oh! No! The Devil Made Me do It …the GMO Word! Percent of proteinProteinLysIleMetThrTrpTotalLactalbumin220.127.116.11.22.225Barley18.104.22.168.314Superprotein*22.214.171.1240.868* Designed supplemental nutritional protein, Jaynes ,Sands ‘84
40 (Amylose, amylopectin) and seeds Starches(Amylose, amylopectin) and seedsSTRAIGHTAmyloseSupercoils when heatedDigested slowly (LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX-GOOD)Slow synthesis in seedAmylopectinCannot coilDigested quickly (HIGH GLYCEMIC INDEX-BAD)Rapid synthesis in seedBRANCHED4040
49 So what to do? MSU?Assess Montana’s principle crops for their nutritional value.Could we lead the nation in improving the nutritional value of:Durum Wheat? YES By lowering the glycemic indexSpring and Winter Wheat? YES dittoPeas? YES dittoPotatoes YES dittoCamelina YES BY selecting for higher Omega-3 content.This is not rocket science but It takes money )(OH GOOD)Cross-talk with nutritionists (NOT FUN-HUMILIATING)Market demand for enhanced nutritional foods (FACEBOOK?)A little bit of high throughput biochemistry (INNOVATION)
50 Agronomic drivers for enhanced nutrition in crops. Striga resistanceStem rust resistanceSaw fly resistanceRoundup resistanceSalt toleranceNitrogen efficiencyThe concept =Use valuable improvements in agronomic traits that improve production as above, as an opportunity to piggy-back in some nutritional traits that would not otherwise be inserted into new crop varieties.That way we get a two-for, better yields and better nutrition.
51 Genetic landscape of wheat World wheat production: 225 M haca. 25% of the surface is planted to varieties with genes for resistance to stem rust that are ineffective against the new race UG99
52 Concept Farmers are subsidized for growing crops, nutritious or not. Continue to subsidize but only for crops with improved nutrition!More nutritious crops would give us health benefits.Subsidies to medical programs would go down.
53 “In the Future, the safest, most-nutritious food may well be: organically- grown and genetically-modified.”
54 Example: P. syringae pv. atropurpurea Leaf Blight on Barley—Globally distributed
55 P. syringae pv. atropurpurea is seed borne And seed transmitted. Checking wheat seedfor infestation byP. syringae on BCBRVB selective medium
56 Immersion freezing assay Determine the abundance of bacterial and other biological ice nuclei in precipitationQuantify number of biological ice nuclei and their T°C of activityCrude samples lysozyme-treated boiledImmersion freezing assay
57 ♣ epiphytic, some are plant pathogens Incitants of Frost Injury INA bacteriaPseudomonas syringae ♣P. fluorescensP. viridiflava ♣Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) ♣Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens ♣Gram – negativenon spore-forming♣ epiphytic, some are plant pathogensIncitants of Frost Injury
58 Bacterial ice nuclei: the most active naturally-occurring ice nuclei Warmest temperature of activity of some ice nucleation-active materialssilver iodide -8°Cpollen -5°Cforest aerosols (tree oils + iodine) -4°Catmospheric dust -8°Ccristalline metaldehyde -0.4°CPseudomonas syringae -2°C58
59 North central Montana, 1980Seed for 400 hectares treated, planted, P. syringae moved in within 3 weeks. From where?
60 enhanced precipitation Bioprecipitation conceptSands et al, 1982, 1985Morris et al, 2004ice nucleationenhanced precipitationaerosolizationupward fluxepiphytic bacterial growthConceivably bacteria via this cycle move down wind across a continent
61 Betts Fig 3. Difference in annual mean precipitation (mm/day) between simulations with and without vegetation: VEG - NOVEG.
62 Books “Genome” and “The Agile Gene” Matt Ridley “Nexus” and “Ubiquity”, both by M.Buchanan“Mountains beyond Mountains”“Guns Germs and Steel” and “Collapse” by Jared Diamond“A Short History of Nearly Everything” by Bill Bryson“Before the Dawn” by Nicolas Wade“The Journey of Man” by Spencer Wells“Beyond Structure (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions) by Kuhn
63 Encompasses and delimits me. With shortcomings written in code. Barbed WireMy barbed wire of DNAEncompasses and delimits me.With shortcomings written in code.Within these boundaries, I concoct a lifeOf opportunities and misconceptions,Encoded and scripted from a brief whim.Empowered hope embodied in double strands,Wound around each other like paired lovers..Transparent to light and yet,Their messages sometimes sorely visible,Randomly delivered by the postman of time.