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Learn from our ancestors? Learn from nature?

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Presentation on theme: "Learn from our ancestors? Learn from nature?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Learn from our ancestors? Learn from nature?
David Sands MSU Professor of PLANT PATHOLOGY Paleo Foods Learn from our ancestors? Learn from nature?

2 Even before Paleo times we looked carefully at food before we ate it.

3 Readings: X “Before the Dawn” Nicolas Wade 2006
“Pandora’s Seed” Spencer Wells 2010 “The Journey of Man” Spencer Wells 2004 “The 10,000 Year Explosion” Cochran 2009 Readings: 3 3

4 From Pandora’s Seed by Spencer Wells
X Paleo Shift to cereal grains Y

5 Our Western Diet ratio is 25:1
The ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids in the Inuit diet is… 2:1 or 1:1 Our Western Diet ratio is 25:1

6 Omega-3 Fatty Acids… An important nutrient to focus on in crop production. High in some Paleo Foods Re: The Paleo Diet By Loren Cordain Colorado State Univ.

7 Basic Biochemistry of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA’s):
Natural constituents of animal and plant lipids Long carbon chain with one end methyl group, other carboxyl group

8 ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS In the Western population is a chronic shortfall in   consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly   those of marine origin, such as EPA and DHA. Source: Rev. chil. nutr. v.32 n.1 Santiago abr. 2005.

9 Why Omega-3’s? I need omega-3 I need omega-3 Brain Cells

10 Omega-3’s Enhance Mental Acuity
Mice in maze Dogs (Trainability) People Our interest is in classroom performance

11 Camelina sativa Romans used to eat the meal and burn the oil in their lamps Oil of Olay and other cosmetics It grows well in Montana High in omega-3 and high in antioxidants (tocopherols, mainly gamma) We have high omega-3 peanut butter, beef, eggs, cheese, milk, bread and salad oil And if there is any left, it is biodiesel

12 Jet Fuel from an omega-3 crop?
The camelina meal is 40% protein and 13% oil Approved for beef and poultry rations. Yum. Omega-3 eggs, and beef. 12

13 Omega-3 Bread Culinary Applications
Development of camelina bread is a cooperative project with Wheat Montana Bakery

14 Focus on Gluten Free Crops/Products:
Gluten Intolerance: 2 million Americans (at least) 30 million people worldwide Most are HLA-DQ2 or DQ8

15 Celiac Disease Normal Intestinal Villi Celiac Intestinal Villi

16 Gluten is the seed storage protein in Wheat, Rye, Barley, and Triticale
Certain grassy weeds also contain gluten.

17 Our Research: New Gluten-Free Crops
A grain used by Native Americans 7,000 years ago. It has no detectable gluten. The Amazing Grains Cooperative in Ronan, Montana has 53 growers dedicated to producing this grain. Indian Ricegrass

18 Indian Rice Grass vs. Wheat
Essential amino acid Indian Rice Grass Wheat Lysine 3.2 2.4 Méthionine 2.1 0.5 Threonine 3.7 2.8 Isoleucine 5.3 Valine 3.5 Leucine 7.9 4.6 Arginine 9.3 2.2 Histidine 3.9 1.2 Phenylalanine 5.8 4.7 % total Protein 42.2 26.8

19 Is fortification needed in gluten-free products? YES!
Montina Gluten-Free Flour Is fortification needed in gluten-free products? YES!

20 PROATINA : HIGH PROTEIN GLUTEN FREE OATS
Most oats are hulled Most oats are about 12 % protein Most oats are not produced GF MSU released PrOatina, a nude oat with about 20% protein (Gluten Free Processors, Belgrade, Montana), produces and packages this GF product as a hot cereal and as a flour.

21 Timtana Timothy is a pasture grass It is a favorite of horses
When we made flour from timothy seed we were pleasantly surprised! Timtana resulted, a high protein , flavorable, gluten-free flour for baking. Timtana is a stand alone flour for baking Timtana is available now, processed and milled in Belgrade MT, at MTGluten Free Processors 21

22 Type 2 Diabetes cases reported in US by the CDC

23 Something Has Gone Wrong…

24 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 1999, 2009
(*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 1990 1999 2009 No Data <10% %–14% %–19% %–24% %–29% ≥30%

25 Diabetes Obesity Combined
CDC Data

26 Bohannen, J. 25 SEPTEMBER 2009 VOL 325 SCIENCE, 16-14-1617

27 Zinc addition to Turkish Crop - Wheat

28 Zinc deficiency In Turkey, 50% of the arable soils were found to be zinc deficient. The deficiency also occurs in Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Syria, Human symptoms of zinc deficiency include, geophagia, stunting, abnormal behavior- depression and violence.. A penny is 98% zinc… 28

29 Seeds – A good place to start
Seed coat Endosperm Plantlet Nutrient and energy reserves

30 Man’s priorities for seeds
Large seed, easy to harvest. Digestible protein with quick release of appropriate essential amino acids. No toxins. Soluble polymers. Acceptable taste. Long storage life. No rot, no rancidity of oils. Soluble fibers.

31 Plants’ priorities for seeds
Embryo must stay alive. Control dehydration - rehydration: polymerize all small hydrophilic molecules (starch, protein, cellulose, hemi cellulose). remove ions such as phosphate, Zn, Fe, from solution (Insoluble inositol hexaphosphate = phytic acid ). Store oils, in fat bodies. Feeding animals is not on the list!

32 The Problem: Nutrient Poor Foods Solutions:
No more empty calories More and better protein in grains Less Omega-6 and more Omega-3 oils Vitamins and Minerals More Fiber Affordable Oh!… Gluten Free and tasty! 32

33 Cereal-Based Diets, Egypt
33

34 High Lysine Bacteria Tested In 100 Million Loaves in Egypt
34

35 The Breeder’s Dilemma Insects selectively eat the more nutritious plants. They have lysine taste receptors Take home lesson: We have been breeding against nutrition for centuries. The Breeder’s Dilemma: Yield vs Nutrition Morris and Sands: Nature Biotechnology Sept. 2006 35

36 Grasshopper damage to high lysine wheat cultivars
WILD TYPE 6 Independent/Non-biased Evaluators 4 Rows/Variety (HL37-A1 was wild type) 2 day Compiled Results of Grasshopper Predation Conclusions- Recipes, anyone, for grasshopper soup ?

37 The Selection Against Nutrition, A Conundrum
Aphids, grasshoppers, rats and deer all have the ability to taste essential amino acids, and they selectively choose the plants highest in nutrition. Therefore: Plant breeders inadvertently select for the least nutritious plants because of animal predation. “The Breeder’s Dilemma” C.E. Morris and D.C. Sands 2006 Nature Biotechnology

38 Superprotein : Looks something like this OR THIS

39 Superprotein Oh! No! The Devil Made Me do It …the GMO Word!
Percent of protein Protein Lys Ile Met Thr Trp Total Lactalbumin 9.1 6.2 2.5 5.2 2.2 25 Barley 3.4 4.3 1.4 1.3 14 Superprotein* 21.6 8.1 16.3 10.8 68 * Designed supplemental nutritional protein, Jaynes ,Sands ‘84

40 (Amylose, amylopectin) and seeds
Starches (Amylose, amylopectin) and seeds STRAIGHT Amylose Supercoils when heated Digested slowly (LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX-GOOD) Slow synthesis in seed Amylopectin Cannot coil Digested quickly (HIGH GLYCEMIC INDEX-BAD) Rapid synthesis in seed BRANCHED 40 40

41 The World Food Problem

42

43

44 Striga Research, Maseno, Kenya

45 Comparison of Kenya strains of Foxy S
Experiment at KARI Expt. Stn., Kibos, Kenya, by Sila Nzioki Strains collected by Ben Kanyenji and John Sands

46

47 The search for the Perfect Nutritional Protein
Safe Non-allergenic Contains all the essential amino acids Completely digestible Neutral taste

48 PINE BARK BEETLE PROTEIN

49 So what to do? MSU? Assess Montana’s principle crops for their nutritional value. Could we lead the nation in improving the nutritional value of: Durum Wheat? YES By lowering the glycemic index Spring and Winter Wheat? YES ditto Peas? YES ditto Potatoes YES ditto Camelina YES BY selecting for higher Omega-3 content. This is not rocket science but It takes money )(OH GOOD) Cross-talk with nutritionists (NOT FUN-HUMILIATING) Market demand for enhanced nutritional foods (FACEBOOK?) A little bit of high throughput biochemistry (INNOVATION)

50 Agronomic drivers for enhanced nutrition in crops.
Striga resistance Stem rust resistance Saw fly resistance Roundup resistance Salt tolerance Nitrogen efficiency The concept = Use valuable improvements in agronomic traits that improve production as above, as an opportunity to piggy-back in some nutritional traits that would not otherwise be inserted into new crop varieties. That way we get a two-for, better yields and better nutrition.

51 Genetic landscape of wheat
World wheat production: 225 M ha ca. 25% of the surface is planted to varieties with genes for resistance to stem rust that are ineffective against the new race UG99

52 Concept Farmers are subsidized for growing crops, nutritious or not.
Continue to subsidize but only for crops with improved nutrition! More nutritious crops would give us health benefits. Subsidies to medical programs would go down.

53 “In the Future, the safest, most-nutritious food may well be: organically- grown and genetically-modified.”

54 Example: P. syringae pv. atropurpurea
Leaf Blight on Barley—Globally distributed

55 P. syringae pv. atropurpurea is seed borne And seed transmitted.
Checking wheat seed for infestation by P. syringae on BCBRVB selective medium

56 Immersion freezing assay
Determine the abundance of bacterial and other biological ice nuclei in precipitation Quantify number of biological ice nuclei and their T°C of activity Crude samples  lysozyme-treated  boiled Immersion freezing assay

57 ♣ epiphytic, some are plant pathogens Incitants of Frost Injury
INA bacteria Pseudomonas syringae ♣ P. fluorescens P. viridiflava ♣ Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) ♣ Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens ♣ Gram – negative non spore-forming ♣ epiphytic, some are plant pathogens Incitants of Frost Injury

58 Bacterial ice nuclei: the most active naturally-occurring ice nuclei
Warmest temperature of activity of some ice nucleation-active materials silver iodide -8°C pollen -5°C forest aerosols (tree oils + iodine) -4°C atmospheric dust -8°C cristalline metaldehyde -0.4°C Pseudomonas syringae -2°C 58

59 North central Montana, 1980 Seed for 400 hectares treated, planted, P. syringae moved in within 3 weeks. From where?

60 enhanced precipitation
Bioprecipitation concept Sands et al, 1982, 1985 Morris et al, 2004 ice nucleation enhanced precipitation aerosolization upward flux epiphytic bacterial growth Conceivably bacteria via this cycle move down wind across a continent

61 Betts Fig 3. Difference in annual mean precipitation (mm/day) between simulations with and without vegetation: VEG - NOVEG.

62 Books “Genome” and “The Agile Gene” Matt Ridley
“Nexus” and “Ubiquity”, both by M.Buchanan “Mountains beyond Mountains” “Guns Germs and Steel” and “Collapse” by Jared Diamond “A Short History of Nearly Everything” by Bill Bryson “Before the Dawn” by Nicolas Wade “The Journey of Man” by Spencer Wells “Beyond Structure (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions) by Kuhn

63 Encompasses and delimits me. With shortcomings written in code.
Barbed Wire My barbed wire of DNA Encompasses and delimits me. With shortcomings written in code. Within these boundaries, I concoct a life Of opportunities and misconceptions, Encoded and scripted from a brief whim. Empowered hope embodied in double strands, Wound around each other like paired lovers.. Transparent to light and yet, Their messages sometimes sorely visible, Randomly delivered by the postman of time.

64 DISCOVERY


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