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CDOs – the flightdeck perspective Captain Spencer Norton AOA Environment Conference 28 th April 2014

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Why not all the time? CDOs/CDAs are beneficial in terms of noise and fuel efficiency Pilot needs to consider 3 things: 1. Height vs track miles 2. Speed reduction vs track miles 3. Rate of Descent vs track miles

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Using our 3 times table Height vs track miles 8000ft x 3 = 24nm 7000ft x 3 = 21nm 6000ft x 3 = 18nm 5000ft x 3 = 15nm 4000ft x 3 = 12nm

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Reducing our speed We need to reduce our speed – we need distance to do this 1nm per 10 knots reduction of speed For example: To reduce from 250kts to 220kts Δ 30kts 1x3 = 3nm required

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Rate of Descent Dependent on speed A very ‘general’ rule of thumb: 1. Indicated speed – add a zero (220kts = 2200) 2. Divide this number by 2 (2200/2 = 1100fpm) Example 2: IAS = 160kts 1600/2 = 800fpm

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Let’s put you in the hot-seat

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Indicated Airspeed AltitudeGroundspeed Wind Runway (EGPH 24) Aircraft

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Flight Management Computer The ‘To’ Waypoint Miles to go

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You are inbound to EDI RWY 24, expecting no delay and have just taken up a radar heading from TARTN. ATC have given you no indication of expected track miles to run. The CI24 point is at 10nm on the ILS for 24. Speed = 250kts Altitude = 9000ft Miles to go = 30nm

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Are we? HIGH ON PROFILE LOW PLAY YOUR CARDS RIGHTPLAY YOUR CARDS RIGHT

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PLAY YOUR CARDS RIGHTPLAY YOUR CARDS RIGHT

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This also agrees with the ‘raw data’ calculation of track miles required. Height AAL9000’ x 3 = 27 Decel to 220kts (1nm/10kts) 3 x 1 = 3 30 nm

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This is actually one of the ‘gates’ we aim for. Speed = 250kts Altitude = 9000ft Miles to go = 30nm

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How are we doing now? Looks similar to our first example, doesn’t it?

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Are we? HIGH ON PROFILE LOW PLAY YOUR CARDS RIGHTPLAY YOUR CARDS RIGHT

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PLAY YOUR CARDS RIGHTPLAY YOUR CARDS RIGHT

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Spot the tail-wind! Any head/tail-wind must be accounted for in our calculations: Height AAL9000’ x 3 = 27 Decel to 220kts 3 x 1 = 3 Head/Tail wind (1nm/10kts) 3 x 1 = 3 33nm now required

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Conclusion CDO approaches are beneficial in terms of noise and efficiency CDOs require thought – advise crews they are required!

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Conclusion

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CDO approaches are beneficial in terms of noise and efficiency CDOs require thought – Advise crews they are required Essential components to fly a CDO 1. Accurate track miles from ATC 2. Speed reduction to be considered 3. Correct rate of descent used 4. Wind conditions to be considered

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Beyond the Flight Deck

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