Presentation on theme: "The Effect of Parental Education on Family Conflict, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Academic Achievement Jackson, H. M., Gibson, B. W., Fox, R. T., & Dula,"— Presentation transcript:
The Effect of Parental Education on Family Conflict, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Academic Achievement Jackson, H. M., Gibson, B. W., Fox, R. T., & Dula, C. S. APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY LABORATORY East Tennessee State University Johnson City, Tennessee INTRODUCTION For more information, contact: Heather Jackson at email@example.com or Chris S. Dula at firstname.lastname@example.org Abd-El-Fattah, S. (2006). Effects of family background and parental involvement on Egyptian adolescents‘ academic achievement and school disengagement: A structural equation modeling analysis. Social Psychology of Education, 9(2), 139-157. Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2000). (TITLE?) Journal of Family Psychology, 14(3), 349-364. Buriel, R., Perez, W., De Ment, T. L., Chavez, D. V., & Moran, V. R. (1998). The relationship of language brokering to academic performance, biculturalism, and self-efficacy among Latino adolescents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20(3), 283-297. Graziano, F., Bonino, S., & Cattelino, E. (2009). Links between maternal and paternal support, depressive feelings and social and academic self-efficacy in adolescence. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6(2), 241-257. Guo, R., Deng, S., Liang, J., & Yan, Y. (2009). Influence of family factors on self-efficacy of the middle school students in Baise City. Weisheng Yanjiu, 38(3), 320 -322. Nicholas-Omoregbe, O. S. (2010). The effect of parental education attainment on school outcomes. IFE Psychologia: An International Journal, 18(1), 214-223. Schlechter, M., & Milevsky, A. (2010). Parental level of education: Associations with psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescence. Educational Psychology, 30(1), 1-10. Smith, B. A. (2005). The relationship between metacognitive skill level and academic self-efficacy in adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65, Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Spencer, M., Cole, S. P., DuPree, D., & Glymph, A. (1993). Self-efficacy among urban African American early adolescents: Exploring issues of risk, vulnerability, and resilience. Development and Psychopathology, 5(4), 719-739. REFERENCES METHOD (cont’d) RESULTS Although a parent's role in their children's learning evolves as kids grow, one thing remains constant: we are our children's learning models. Our attitudes about education can inspire theirs and show them how to take charge of their own educational journey. (H1): Spencer et al. (1993) found mother’s education was a significant predictor of academic self-efficacy for males, while results from Guo and colleagues (2009) show that self-efficacy of both male and female adolescents is affected by education of the mother. (H2): Further results from Guo found relationships between self-efficacy, family environment, and parents’ education, while Spencer found that higher levels of mother’s education as well as less family conflict were related to an increase in academic self-esteem of. From these results, it can be inferred that higher levels of parental education would be related to lower levels of family conflict. (H3): Previous research has established a link between parental education and academic achievement (Nicholas-Omoregbe, 2010; Abd-El-Fattah, 2006; Spencer et al., 1993). The objective of the current study was to assess relationships between combined parental education, family conflict, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. DISCUSSION Results showed a significant positive relationship between combined parental education and academic self-efficacy, supporting H1. Results also showed a significant positive relationship between combined parental education and GPA, supporting H2. Contrary to H3, no significant negative relationship was found between combined parental education and family conflict. Drawing on research from Kirk and colleagues (2011), it is speculated that higher parental education would be related to higher parental expectations, which would then be related to higher levels of academic self-efficacy as well as academic achievement. Limitations Sample consisted of middle school aged students from a specific rural geographic region. Thus, results may not fully generalize to students of other ages or from other areas of the country. The data was collected from the survey using self-report measures, thus limiting validity due to common factors such as social desirability and context dependency. Future Research In the future, research should include samples with greater diversity with regard to culture, ethnicity, geographical location, and age. A Pearson’s correlation was calculated to assess the relationship between combined parental education, family conflict, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement (GPA). A significant positive relationship was observed between combined parental education and academic self-efficacy (r =.213, p <.05). No significant negative relationship was found between combined parental education and family conflict (r = -.143, p =.061). Results also revealed a significant positive relationship between combined parental education and academic achievement (r =.211, p <.05). Measures Parental Education Education levels for both parents were obtained by asking the question “How much education have your father and mother completed?” with answers ranging from “Did not finish high school” to “Has a graduate or professional degree.” Answers were then converted to a Likert Scale and combined for a total parent education score. Family Conflict A subscale of the Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1986). Consists of six questions that examined specific dimensions of the family environment, such as the interpersonal relationships within a family, the importance placed on personal growth within the family, and the organization of the family structure; all of which are areas important to the positive development of a family. Academic Self-Efficacy Academic Self-Efficacy: multiple items were used to measure academic self-efficacy, such as “I can do well in Math,” “I know I can do very well in school if I want to,” anchored by “Strongly Agree” and “Strongly Disagree.” Academic Achievement (GPA) Cumulative GPA for the full academic year the student was in 8 th grade. HYPOTHESES H1: There will be a significant positive relationship between combined parental education and academic self-efficacy. H2: There will be a significant negative relationship between combined parental education and family conflict. H3: There will be a significant negative relationship between combined parental education and academic achievement (GPA). METHOD Participants Participants included 174 8th grade students from rural middle schools in the Southeastern United States. A total of 74 were male (42.8%) and 100 were female (57.2%). Procedure One week prior to data collection, student’s parents were given a packet containing information about the study and an opt-out consent form. Students who did not have opt-out forms sent back to the school by their parents/guardians were allowed to participate after gaining their assent; participation was voluntary and could be stopped any time. Participants were excused from one class period and asked to participate in a brief survey. Grades were attained directly from the schools’ offices with consent of parents and assent of students. Combined Parent Education Academic Self-Efficacy Family Conflict Academic Achievement Combined Parent Education 1.21*-.14.21* Academic Self-Efficacy.21*1-.24*.46* Family Conflict -.14-.21*1 Academic Achievement.21*.43*-.21*1
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