Presentation on theme: "1 New Zealand HRD practitioner competencies: application of the ASTD competency model 人力資源發展研討 (1) ， 3/7 Model vs. practice."— Presentation transcript:
1 New Zealand HRD practitioner competencies: application of the ASTD competency model 人力資源發展研討 (1) ， 3/7 Model vs. practice
2 of 32 APA style 遵守你的指導教授要求的格式寫 reference. 遵守要投稿的期刊規定 APA style, AMJ style Gray, L. (1999). New Zealand HRD practitioner competencies: application of the ASTD competency model. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 10(6), 1046-1059.(SSCI)
3 of 32 Introduction Problems in New Zealand’s HRD professionals: –the competence of HRD practitioners has been a concern. Establish standard Shortage of professional
4 of 32 Introduction Established certification programs by 2 institutions –IPMNZ- Institute of Personnel Management New Zealand –NZATD- New Zealand Association for Training and Development No national recognition –For example- the IPD (Institue of Personnel and Development) in UK established standards and qulailty check.
5 of 32 Definition After reviewing 337 citations, the competence was defined as: Page and Wilson （ 1994 ） “the skills, abilities, and personal characteristics required by an effective or good manager”. 將職能定義為「一個好的經理人所要求 的技能、能力及個人特質。」
6 of 32 Definition Boyatizs （ 1982 ） An underlying characteristic of a person which results in effective and/or superior performance in a job. 認為「職能是指一個人所具備的潛在特質，而 這些潛在特質是導致及影響個人在工作上能有 傑出表現的原因。」 An underlying characteristic –Include a motive, trait, skill, an aspect of one’s self image or social role, or a body of knowledge. – 動機、特性、自我概念、知識及技能。
7 of 32 Definition 延續 Boyatizs, Spencer 及 Spencer （ 1993 ） defined competence as : “underlying characteristic of an individual that is causally related to criterion referenced effective and/or superior performance ina job or situation”. 強調 competence 與 performance 要相關，如 此才使是 practical implications for HRM. Eg. Motive: strong desire for money, not necessary related to job success.
8 of 32 Definition Seligman’s example of selecting for key personal competencies (1991) Superior insurance sales vs. poor sales –Personal characteristic of optimism. – 易將挫折合理化 – 傳統選才基於專業保險知識 –Metropolitan Life ( 美商大都會人壽 ) 有 50% turnover. – 改用 competence 選才， turnover 降到 20% –(min. require for industry-knowledge)
9 of 32 Definition Moy (1991) examined 10 HRD competency studies (1976-1989) –8 studies focused on what HRD actually do; McLagan (1983, 1989) prescribe current and future practice. Boam and Sparrow’s (1992) review managerial competency 以上研究都較著重 interpersonal/personal competencies, 呼應了 Spencer & Spencer 的理論。
10 of 32 AIM 目的 1.To examine the relevance of the model to New Zealand HRD practice 2.To see exactly what types of competencies employers were seeking from HRD practitioners. 3.Model used: ASTD 1987 model. 4. 記得補充 ASTD 發展回顧 5. 選用求職廣告中雇主刊登之職能來檢驗 文獻中之發現。
11 of 32 Method Data collection: HRM job advertisements from 3 newspapers (Wednesday and Saturday in 1996). Source: secondary data: microfilms from library Coding: 用 Moy (1991) and McLagan (1989) 發展之 HRD categories 587 HRM job advertisements (Moy (1991) and McLagan (1989) 的文獻為本文作者主要之 theoretical frameworks)
12 of 32 Results 200 HRD jobs (34%) from 587 HRM jobs. –Indicated 在 NZ, HRD 佔不少比例 1113 comp. ( 平均每個工作 needs 6 comp.) 分屬於 5 個職能群 (see Table 8) –Technical, business, interpersonal, intellectual and personal
15 of 32 Results-personal competencies McLagan’s (1989) model omits personal competencies. Similar to Redman and Mathews (1997)’s study
16 of 32 Results-business skills Business competencies have management, economics, and administration base. 5 out of 9 comp. in McLagan’s were identified. Project management
17 of 32 Results-Intellectual skills The least demanded in job ad. The job ad is not seen as an appropriate place to request such competencies.
18 of 32 Conclusions and implications ASTD model should be the important tool for HRD practitioners to develop themselves, but it failed to provide one important comp.=>personal Employer job ad must be viewed with some caution => no thorough analysis Job ad with personal com. Is more effective than traditional ad. Selecting for personal com. is much simpler than trying to develop them.
19 of 32 Conclusions and implications 1.The ASTD model neglects personal competencies that employers and the literature suggest are crucial to success as a practitioner 2.The prevalence of technical skills in job advertisements is logical given their ability to discriminate quickly between possible applicants 3.There is a need to investigate whether competencies in general, and personal competencies in particular, are related to any thorough competency analysis of the job in question. 4.Given the significance of personal competencies, employers need to be aware that selecting for personal competencies is more important than trying to develop them in practitioners. 結論是否從發現中衍生出 ?
20 of 32 Comments 用很簡單的方法探討有意涵的問題研究，結果 對學術界實務界皆有意義，值得學習。 為何選擇 ASTD 1987 Model? – 美國 model 在 NZ 代表性 ( 外部效度 )? Data collection 來源太單一 See Table 1: 沒有 entry level position (eg.: assistant) – 宜增加哪些資料收集管道 ? Method 未解釋清楚 – 何謂 HRM job – 多少人做 coding? 如何避免 coder bias?
21 of 32 Selection for Knowledge-based competences or Personal competences What are the pros or cons?