Presentation on theme: "PRESENTED BY ALLISON HAYASHIDA NAO OGATA KAAN USTUN Culturally Speaking: Face, (Im)Politeness and Rapport by Helen Spencer-Oatey (2008)"— Presentation transcript:
PRESENTED BY ALLISON HAYASHIDA NAO OGATA KAAN USTUN Culturally Speaking: Face, (Im)Politeness and Rapport by Helen Spencer-Oatey (2008)
Previously on SLS 480U… Chapter 7 : Gender & Age Chapter 12: Gender, politeness & stereotypes Linguistic Politeness: Japanese Proper Social Conduct with Tactful Consideration of Others Chapter 14: Analyzing Discourse Who says what to whom when & where?
Today on SLS 480U… 6 Keypoints: Interactional Rapport affected by 3 factors Rapport management happens in certain situations. Speech Act Strategies are really important There are different Communication Styles The factors influencing use of Rapport Management Strategies Main Point: Awareness Necessity
Rapport Management Management of face Management of social rights & obligations Management of interactional goals
Other Domains of Rapport Management Different Domains of politeness: Illocutionary Domain: Apologies, Requests, Compliments Discourse Domain: Topic Choice & Management Participation Domain: Turn Taking, Inclusion/Exclusion Stylistic Domain: Choice of Tone, Syntax, Lexis, Honorifics Non Verbal: Gestures, Body movement
3 elements of Speech Acts strategies Speech acts = Apologies, Requests, Compliments= Illocutionary Domain Introduction Managing Face + Managing Sociality Rights/Obligations = Managing Rapport Wording: Selection of Speech Acts Components Degree of Directness – Indirectness Type & Amount of Upgraders – Downgraders In all languages, every level of language can play a role in each of the rapport management domains.
3 elements of Speech Acts strategies: Definitions Semantic Components: Head Act – Conveys the main illocutionary force of the set of utterances Directness/Indirectness: Degree Variance – One form rather than the other can have a major impact on social relations Up graders / Down graders: + or – Force of Speech Boosters/ Hedges Intensifiers / Down toners Maximizers / Minimizers (For detailed examples: Tables 2.2 – 2.3 – 2.4)
Example of Request Do you mind if I ask you a big favor? I know you don’t like lending your car, But I was wondering if I could possibly borrow it just for an hour or so on Tuesday night If you are not using it then. Preparator Disarmer Head Act Imposition Downgrader
Example of Directness / Indirectness Wash the dishes! I want you to wash the dishes. How about washing the dishes? Can you wash the dishes? What a lot of dishes there are!
Communication Styles Associative expressiveness-restraint Indirectness-directness Self-enhancement – self-effacement
Rapport management strategies Three main factors influence people's use of rapport management strategies; 1. Rapport orientation 2. Contextual variables 3. Pragmatic principles and conventions
Rapport management strategies 1.Rapport orientation o Rapport enhance orientation o Rapport maintenance orientation o Rapport neglect orientation o Rapport challenge orientation
Rapport management strategies 2. Contextual variables o Participants and their relations i.Power ii.Distance iii.Interrelationship between power and distance iv.Number of participants o Message content: cost-benefit considerations o Social/Interactional roles o Activity type
Rapport management strategies 3. Pragmatic principles and conventions o Sociopragmatic principles o Pragmalinguistic conventions
Rapport management strategies 1. Rapport orientation 2. Contextual variables 3. Pragmatic principles and conventions
Rapport management outcomes and across cultures Rapport management outcomes Rapport management across cultures Rapport management could vary depending on culture and individual. Sensitivity and mindfulness is required!
Discussion Questions & Activity Role Playing ( 4 groups of 4 ) Group 1Group 2Group 3 Group 4 KellyJuliaYun ShiLennie Birte MercedesKentoMorgan JohnMattJonahMaria LeeAnneLunLunTankiaCori Q 1: Is the situation likely to affect interpersonal rapport? Why? Why not? Q2: During this past week, was there an occasion when someone annoyed or upset you, and you felt offended or hurt? What did they say or do?
References Spencer-Oatey, H. (2008). Face, (Im)Politeness and Rapport. Culturally Speaking.