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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Art and Photos in PowerPoint ® Concepts of Genetics Ninth Edition Klug, Cummings, Spencer, Palladino Chapter 14.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Art and Photos in PowerPoint ® Concepts of Genetics Ninth Edition Klug, Cummings, Spencer, Palladino Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Art and Photos in PowerPoint ® Concepts of Genetics Ninth Edition Klug, Cummings, Spencer, Palladino Chapter 14 The Genetic Code and Transcription Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 Figure 14.1

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.1The Genetic Code Uses Ribonucleotide Bases as “Letters” triplet unambiguous degenerate start and stop signals commaless nonoverlapping almost universal

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.2Early Studies Established the Basic Operational Patterns of the Code The Triplet Nature of the Code

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.2

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.2a

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.2b

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.2Early Studies Established the Basic Operational Patterns of the Code The Nonoverlapping Nature of the Code The Commaless and Degenerate Nature of the Code

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.3Studies by Nirenberg, Matthaei, and Others Led to Deciphering of the Code Synthesizing Polypeptides in a Cell-Free System

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.3

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.3Studies by Nirenberg, Matthaei, and Others Led to Deciphering of the Code Homopolymer Codes Mixed Copolymers

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 14.1

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.4

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.3Studies by Nirenberg, Matthaei, and Others Led to Deciphering of the Code The Triplet Binding Assay

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14-5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Figure 14.5

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 14.2

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.3Studies by Nirenberg, Matthaei, and Others Led to Deciphering of the Code Repeating Copolymers

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.6

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 14.3

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14-7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Figure 14.7

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.4The Coding Dictionary Reveals Several Interesting Patterns among the 64 Codons Degeneracy and the Wobble Hypothesis

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 14.4

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.4The Coding Dictionary Reveals Several Interesting Patterns among the 64 Codons The Ordered Nature of the Code Initiation, Termination, and Suppression

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.6The Genetic Code Is Nearly Universal

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 14.5

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.8

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.8a

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.8b

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.8Transcription Synthesizes RNA on a DNA Template

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 14.9Studies with Bacteria and Phages Provided Evidence for the Existence of mRNA

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 14.6

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc RNA Polymerase Directs RNA Synthesis Promoters, Template Binding, and the  Subunit Initiation, Elongation, and Termination of RNA Synthesis

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.9

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.9a

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.9b

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.9c

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc Transcription in Eukaryotes Differs from Prokaryotic Transcription in Several Ways Initiation of Transcription in Eukaryotes Recent Discoveries Concerning RNA Polymerase Function Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA and Its Processing: Caps and Tails

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.10

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 14.7

40 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc The Coding Regions of Eukaryotic Genes Are Interrupted by Intervening Sequences

41 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.11

42 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.12

43 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 14.8

44 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc The Coding Regions of Eukaryotic Genes Are Interrupted by Intervening Sequences RNA Editing Modifies the Final Transcript

45 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc Transcription Has Been Visualized by Electron Microscopy

46 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.15


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