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Pragmatics "1. How do people communicate more than what the words or phrases of their utterances might mean by themselves, and how do people make these.

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Presentation on theme: "Pragmatics "1. How do people communicate more than what the words or phrases of their utterances might mean by themselves, and how do people make these."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pragmatics "1. How do people communicate more than what the words or phrases of their utterances might mean by themselves, and how do people make these interpretations? 2. Why do people choose to say and/or interpret something in one way rather than another? Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 5, pp London: Hodder Education, p. 70.

2 Pragmatics 3. How do people's perceptions of contextual factors (for example, who the interlocutors are, what their relationship is, and what circumstances they [75:] are communicating in) influence the process of producing and interpreting language?" Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 5, pp London: Hodder Education, p. 70.

3 Code-Model of Communication "…communication is seen as an encoding-decoding process, where a code is a system that enables the automatic pairing of messages (that is, meanings internal to senders and receivers) and signals (that is, what is physically transmitted (sound, smoke signals, writing) between the sender and the receiver). According to this view, communication is successful to the extent that the sender and the receiver pair signals and messages in the same way, so that the message broadcast in the form of a given signal is identical to the one received when that signal is decoded." Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 5, pp London: Hodder Education, pp

4 Expansion of Code-Model of Communication Good, as far as it goes, BUT: “human communicative behaviour relies heavily on people's capacity to engage in reasoning about each other's intentions, exploiting not only the evidence presented by the signals in the language code but also evidence from other sources, including perception and general world knowledge.” Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 5, pp London: Hodder Education, p. 71.

5 Sample Dialogue [1] Kiki: Where are you going tonight? [2] Sharon: Ministry. [3] Kiki: Ministry? [4] Sharon: Ministry of Sound. A club in London. Heard of it? [5] Kiki: I've been clubbing in London before. [6] Sharon: Where to? [7] Kiki: Why do you want to know? [8] Sharon: Well, I may have been there. [9] Kiki: It was called 'The End'. [10] Sharon: Nice one! [11] Kiki: I hope you have a good time at the Ministry. (Contributed by Kelly-Jay Marshall) Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 5, pp London: Hodder Education, p. 71.

6 Contextual Meaning “ These observations show that the meaning of an utterance is not fully determined by the words that are used: there is a gap between the meaning of the words used by the speaker and the thought that the speaker intends to represent by using those words on a particular occasion. More technically, the linguistic meaning of an utterance underdetermines the communicator's intended meaning. This gap is filled by the addressee's reasoning about what the communicator (may have) intended to communicate by his or her utterance. Hence, pragmatics plays a role in explaining how the thought expressed by a given utterance on a given occasion is recovered by the addressee.” Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 5, pp London: Hodder Education, p. 73.

7 Cultural Literacy Knowledge Background: Louis Warren is the publisher for the author Appin Dungannon. Everyone hates Dungannon because he is a vile human being. Warren also hates him. Warren goes to Dungannon's hotel room where he discovers that Dungannon has been murdered. “Louis Warren kept staring at the body, idly wondering if he had two more wishes coming.” McCrumb, Sharyn Bimbos of the Death Sun. New York: Ballantine Books, p. 114.

8 Cooperative Principle of Conversation " 'Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.' (Grice, 1989: 26)" Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 5, pp London: Hodder Education, p. 73.

9 Grice ’ s Maxims of Conversation 1. TruthfulnessQuality 2. InformativenessQuantity 3. RelevanceRelation 4. StyleManner

10 Explaining the Impact of Social Factors Politeness Principle Pragmalinguistic Perspective Sociopragmatic Perspective Face Model of Politeness Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 5, pp London: Hodder Education, pp

11 Getting Something at the Table I am eating at a table with other people. I want the salt. It is relatively far from me. What can I do / what should I do or say? 1. Reach for it. [Not in chapter.] 2. Stand up and reach for it. 3. Reach and say: "Pardon my boarding house reach." [Not in chapter.] 4. Say: "Pass the salt, will you?" 5. Say: "Can you pass the salt, please." 6. Say: "I like my food quite salty." Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 5, pp London: Hodder Education, p. 76.

12 Pragmatics and Language Learning and Teaching Possibility (or likelihood) of pragmatic transfer Pragmatic proficiency and the value of language instruction Materials and methods for developing pragmatic proficiency Pragmatic performance and learner identity Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 5, pp London: Hodder Education, pp

13 Implications for Language Teaching, Learning, and Use  The Importance of Context  The Complexity of Meaning Construction  The Impact of Speech Act Theory  Sociolinguistic Rules[NOT in Chapter]  The Possibility (or Likelihood) of Pragmatic Transfer)  People's Sensitivities to Face Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, pp An Introduction to Applied Linguistics. London: Arnold, Chapter 5, pp

14 Sociopragmatic Issues— What and What Not to Teach Consider whether you should teach students to do the following; especially when you know their culture differs in the way it approaches these issues. …say "Bless you" after someone sneezes …call you by your first name …say "thank you" in response to a compliment …insist people respond positively to offers …give fewer compliments that others may take as insincere …be more open on taboo subject Spencer-Oatey, Helen & Vladimir Zegarac Pragmatics. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, pp An Introduction to Applied Linguistics. London: Arnold, Chapter 5, p. 89. With additions by R. L. Good.


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