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Designing for effective e- learning - feeding pedagogical research into practice Gráinne Conole University of Southampton

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Presentation on theme: "Designing for effective e- learning - feeding pedagogical research into practice Gráinne Conole University of Southampton"— Presentation transcript:

1 Designing for effective e- learning - feeding pedagogical research into practice Gráinne Conole University of Southampton Email: E-Learning symposium: pedagogy and practice, 14 th December 2005

2 Outline Education in a modern context The rise and impact of e-learning Gap between potential and reality Mediating artefacts Designing learning activities

3 Education in a modern context Giddens, Becks, Castells –Unpredictable, constantly changing world –Increasing impact of technology –Unintended consequences and manufactured risks –Networked society –Culturally rich and complex society with changing norms and values

4 Communication tools Email, discussion boards, chat Assessment tools TOIA, QuestionMark Integrated learning environments Blackboard, WebCT Online information tools Gateways and portals Growth of e-learning tools

5 Impact of e-learning Organisational level Tutor skills & changing roles Virtual learning environments Interactive & engaging materials Unintended consequences

6 The holy grail of e-learning To what extent is this true? What is the link between the pedagogy and the technology? New forms of learning Pedagogical re-engineering A global connected society Learning anywhere anytime Rich multimedia representation Smart, adaptable, personalised

7 Patch use of communication tools Stilted collaborations VLEs for admin and as content repositories Information overload Not pedagogically informed -ve Negative aspects

8 Critical mass of mediating tools and resources Shift from individual to socially situated Learning in context or through problem solving New innovative uses of e-learning +ve Positive aspects

9 Manipulating data Word, Excel Presentation The Web, PowerPoint Finding information Search engines, portals Types of tools Managing Databases, Project Manager Personal management Diaries, calendars

10 Communication Email, discussion forums Visualisation Mindmaps, visual tools Guidance and support Wizards, tutorials Evaluation CAA tools, Web tracking Types of tools Analysis SPSS, NVIVO

11 ICT affordances Access to wealth of resourcesInformation overload, quality issues New forms of dialogueLiteracy skills issues New forms of communityLearner identity and confusion Speed of access, immediacyLack of permanency, surface Virtual representationsLack of reality, real is fake Accessibility Speed of change Diversity Communication & collaboration Reflection Multimodality Risk Immediacy Monopolisation Surveillance

12 Learning by doing Through experience Through dialogue Socially situated Through reflection Mercer Vygotsky LaurillardPapart Kolb Dewey Lave Jarvis Paiget Wenger Theories of learning Key characteristics of learning In the company of others

13 The gap between potential and reality Plethora of tools and resources Enormous potential but underused Wealth of knowledge about learning Didactic/behaviourists models predominate Gap between the potential of the technologies (confusion over how they can be used) and application of good pedagogical principles (confusion over which models to use)

14 Context TasksPedagogy Learning activity Mediating artefacts Peer dialogue Case studies Narratives Expert guidance Networked communication Lesson plans Tips and tricks FAQs Demonstrations Toolkits Models/Patterns

15 Mediating artefacts Mediate between user and learning activity Help inform decision making Support re: context, pedagogy or tasks or a combination Contextually rich to more abstract Range of formats – textual, dialogic, visual, structural

16 MA affordances Accessibility – ease of retrieval, simplicity Speed of change - adaptability Diversity - tailored to individual needs Communication and collaboration - ‘peer dialogue’ MA better than a ‘lesson plan’ MA Reflection– toolkits designed to encourage the user to revisit and adapt

17 MA Affordances Immediacy - degree of contextualisation Multimodality – navigational routes, toolkits more multimodal than lesson plans Risk - a more tightly MA has less unintended consequences Monopolisation - ‘one-size-fits-all’ cf bespoke, contextually located MAs Surveillance - in-built tracking and recording mechanisms

18 A toolkit for learning design Reviewed –Learning theories identified key elements of learning –Tools and resources their use and impact Definition of a learning activity –Distilled out practitioners’ implicit thinking –Derived a definition for a learning activity and associated taxonomy –Reality checked the taxonomy with real examples










28 Using e-learning to support different types of activities Negotiating goals –Face-to-face discussion with tutor –Choice of goals mapped to resources (VEOU) Explore new concepts –Lectures and group work –Interactive resources supported by discussion forum or linked to face-to-face sessions Evaluate concepts –Tutor-led tutorial –Peer-to-peer evaluation online, tutor as facilitator Share and discuss –Group work –Online discussion via chat, email and discussion boards

29 Using e-learning to support different types of activities Solve problems –Exercises or experiments –Multimedia scenarios and simulations coupled with online discussions Apply concepts –Exercise in class or as homework –Interactive whiteboards and voting systems Visualise and present concepts –Tutor explanation and testing of understanding –Mind-mapping, presentation software, bite-size chunks on mobiles Assessment –Tutor sets tests and provides feedback –Online quizzes and activities so learners can assess their own learning; peer-assessment, e-portfolios

30 Examples Linguistics: Item bank (Associative) –Learners develop skills through structured tasks –Practising, drill and practice, item bank, individual learners, formative assessment Multi-lingual ESOL group (C ognitive/constructive) –Learners develop skills through doing –Voting system, interactive whiteboard Virtual Interactive Practice (VIP) (Situative) –Learners developing understanding together –Scenarios followed by peer-group critique

31 Making the link Pedagogical approach – didactic Learning outcome – knowledge Tasks – assimilative Assessment - focusing on re- production of knowledge –MCQs, drills, short answer, essays –Tutor feedback, tutor assessed

32 Making the link Pedagogical approach – cognitive Learning outcome – application Tasks - experiential Assessment - focusing on use of concepts in different contexts –Report, field work, project –Tutor assessed; may be peer- or self- evaluated

33 Making the link Pedagogical approach – problem- based Learning outcome – analysis Tasks – information handling Assessment – focus on application of concepts to problems –Exercise, practical, project –Tutor assessed or peer- or self- evaluated

34 Making the link Pedagogical approach – dialogic Learning outcome – evaluation Tasks – communicative Assessment - focus on critiquing and argument –Group presentation –Peer-evaluated

35 Uses Guidance –On the development of learning activity –Mapping pedagogy to tools and resources Repurposing –Query database of existing learning activities Research –Development of new e-learning models Quality assurance

36 References Conole, G. (2005), ‘Mediating artefacts to guide choice in creating and undertaking learning activities’, presentation at CALRG seminar, Open University, 1st November Conole (2002), ‘The evolving landscape of learning technology research’, ALT-J, 10(3), 4-18 Conole, Dyke, Oliver, and Seale, (2004), ‘Mapping pedagogy and tools for effective learning design’, Computers and Education, June 2004 Conole and Dyke, (2004), ‘What are the affordances of Information and Communication Technologies?’, ALT-J, 12.2 Conole (2004), ‘Report on the effectiveness of tools for e- learning’, report for the JISC commissioned ‘Research Study on the Effectiveness of Resources, Tools and Support Services used by Practitioners in Designing and Delivering E- Learning Activities JISC Effective practice with e-learning, JISC Innovative practice with e-learning,

37 Designing for effective e- learning - feeding pedagogical research into practice Gráinne Conole University of Southampton Email: E-Learning symposium: pedagogy and practice, 14 th December 2005

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