Presentation on theme: "Week 10 1 Z514: Social Aspects of IT. Open Access to What? ESSENTIAL: to all 2.5 million annual research articles published in all 25,000 peer-reviewed."— Presentation transcript:
Open Access to What? ESSENTIAL: to all 2.5 million annual research articles published in all 25,000 peer-reviewed journals (and peer-reviewed conferences) in all scholarly and scientific disciplines, worldwide OPTIONAL: (because these are not all author give-aways, written only for usage and impact): 1. Books 2. Textbooks 3. Magazine articles 4. Newspaper articles 5. Music 6. Video 7. Software 8. “Knowledge” (or because author’s choice to self-archive can only be encouraged, not required in all cases): 9. Data 10. Unrefereed Preprints Slides for Promoting OA Mandates and Metrics
Open Access (OA) Movement (Harnad, 2008) 3 Why Open Access? Maximize research access Maximize research impact increase productivity & rewards (avg. 336% more citations, Lawrence, 2001) Lawrence, S. (2001) Free online availability substantially increases a paper's impact. Nature, 411 (6837), 521.
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: The earlier you mandate Green OA, the sooner (and bigger) your university's competitive advantage: U. Southampton School of Electronics and Computer Science was the first in the world to adopt an OA self-archiving mandate.
GoldGreen The Two Open-Access Strategies: Gold and Green 6 Open-Access Publishing e.g., Public Library of SciencePublic Library of Science 1. Create or Convert 23,000 open- access journals (apx. 1000 exist currently < 5%) 2. Find funding support for open- access publication costs ($500- $1500+) 3. Persuade the authors of the annual 2,500,000 articles to publish in new open-access journals instead of the existing toll-access journals (see: http://www.doaj.org/ ) http://www.doaj.org/ Open-Access Self-Archiving 1. Persuade the authors of the annual 2,500,000 articles they publish (> 95%) in the existing toll-access journals to also self-archive them in their institutional open- access archives.
OA Journal/Publisher Policies 7 FULL-GREEN = Postprint, PALE-GREEN = Preprint, GRAY = neither yet 95% Green Journal Policies: http://romeo.eprints.org/publishers.htmlhttp://romeo.eprints.org/publishers.html
Digital Rights Management 8 Society for Automotive Engineering International’s DRM Society for Automotive Engineering International’s Need a DRM software to view articles Limit to on-screen viewing from a single computer and one printed copy Does not work on Linux or UNIX platforms MIT rejects SAE’s DRM policy See SAE’s FAQs for DRM: http://store.sae.org/drm- overview.htmhttp://store.sae.org/drm- overview.htm http://www-tech.mit.edu/V127/N26/drm.html
Open Access (OA) Movement 9 Three criteria for effectively published scholarly documents (Kling & McKim, 1999): Publicity Trustworthiness Accessibility Disciplinary Repository Publishing Model E.g., ArXiv.org, E.g., dList (http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/)http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/ Institutional Repository Publishing Model
Constructing the Structure Underlying Open Access Practices (Xia, 2011) 10 Content intake (making contributions) E-journals that charge authors—e.g., PLOS One ($1350) Publisher-motivated OA Unconditional OA—e.g., D-Lib Magazine, First Monday Subject repositories—e.g., arXiv.org Institutional repositories Content access (searching for materials) Is GoogleScholar is the answer? Content use (reading & citation) OA articles has more citations and downloads Xia, J. (2011). Constructing the structure underlying open access practices. Journal of Information Science, 37(3), 322-331.
Increase in Open Access Journals (Enserink, 2012) 11 As of November 2012, the number of journals registered in the Directory of Open Access Journal was 8355. Springer has about 300 OA journals Some predatory publishers (e.g., use fake editors) exist, one of which just launched 141 new medical journals. Enserink, M. (2012). As open access explodes, how to tell the god from the bad and the ugly? Science, 338(6110), 1018.
Registry of Open Access Repositories 12 Geographic locations: United States (219 420) United Kingdom (106 223) Japan (43 105) [138 in 2011] Germany (82 135) Brazil (54 105) [112 in 2011] Spain (30 115) India (27 87) Italy (28 71) Canada (41 71) Sweden (34 42) [65 in 2011] Australia (33 62) [65 in 2011] France (39 67) Netherlands (24 32) [36 in 2011] http://roar.eprints.org/ Note: (2009 2012)
Refereed “Post-Print” Accepted, Certified, Published by Journal Impact cycle begins: Research is done Researchers write pre-refereeing “Pre-Print” Submitted to Journal Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts – “Peer- Review” Pre-Print revised by article’s Authors Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal 12-18 Months New impact cycles: New research builds on existing research Slides for Promoting OA Mandates and Metrics
Refereed “Post-Print” Accepted, Certified, Published by Journal Impact cycle begins: Research is done Researchers write pre-refereeing “Pre-Print” Submitted to Journal Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts – “Peer- Review” Pre-Print revised by article’s Authors Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal 12-18 Months New impact cycles: New research builds on existing research This limited subscription-based access can be supplemented by self- archiving the Postprint in the author’s own institutional repository as follows: Slides for Promoting OA Mandates and Metrics
New impact cycles: New research builds on existing research Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal Refereed “Post-Print” Accepted, Certified, Published by Journal Impact cycle begins: Research is done Researchers write pre-refereeing “Pre-Print” Submitted to Journal Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts – “Peer-Review” Pre-Print revised by article’s Authors Post-Print is self-archived in University’s Eprint Archive 12-18 Months More impact cycles:
But only about 15% of the annual 2.5 million research articles are being made freely accessible on the WWW spontaneously today. Slides for Promoting OA Mandates and Metrics
Across all countries and disciplines, 95% of researchers report that they would comply with a self-archiving mandate from their funders and/or employers, and over 80% report that they would do so willingly. -- But only 15% self-archive spontaneously, if it not mandated. Slides for Promoting OA Mandates and Metrics
Institutional Repository (Foster & Gibbons, 2005) 18 IR ~= prosumption Without content, an IR is empty Different “technological frames” between users and developers Green=understanding Red=misunderstanding, lack of understanding, Or disinterest
30. Several other important proposals to mandate Green OA self-archiving are under consideration in the USA, Europe, and elsewhere Among the 30 university mandates worldwide so far, Europe has the Southampton, Liège and other institutional mandates; the US has the Harvard (FAS and Law) and Stanford (FE) mandates. Among the 30 research funder mandates worldwide so far, Europe has the RCUK, ERC and other mandates; the US has the NIH mandate. Slides for Promoting OA Mandates and Metrics ROARMAP (Registry of OA Repository Mandates): http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/
Social Media Ownership (Marshall & Shipman, 2011) 20 Who owns the content posted on social media? Four Rights of Ownership: Save Share Publish Remove
Social Media Ownership (Marshall & Shipman, 2011) 21 Ownership & Control for one’s own tweets Respondents were more careful with sharing on Facebook than they publish the same content on a blog (p<0.05) Why do you think this is the case? Right of removal: If the removal destroyed surrounding material too, the response tended negative Institutional ownership: The difference between research access and full access is significant (p>0.001)
Social Media Ownership (Marshall & Shipman, 2011): 22 Who owns social media, and who controls it? Sharing Your Content and Information (https://www.facebook.com/legal/terms)https://www.facebook.com/legal/terms You own all of the content and information you post on Facebook, and you can control how it is shared through your privacy and application settings. In addition: For content that is covered by intellectual property rights, like photos and videos (IP content), you specifically give us the following permission, subject to your privacy and application settings: you grant us a non-exclusive, transferable, sub-licensable, royalty-free, worldwide license to use any IP content that you post on or in connection with Facebook (IP License). This IP License ends when you delete your IP content or your account unless your content has been shared with others, and they have not deleted it. When you delete IP content, it is deleted in a manner similar to emptying the recycle bin on a computer. However, you understand that removed content may persist in backup copies for a reasonable period of time (but will not be available to others). When you use an application, the application may ask for your permission to access your content and information as well as content and information that others have shared with you. We require applications to respect your privacy, and your agreement with that application will control how the application can use, store, and transfer that content and information. (To learn more about Platform, including how you can control what information other people may share with applications, read our Data Use Policy and Platform Page.) When you publish content or information using the Public setting, it means that you are allowing everyone, including people off of Facebook, to access and use that information, and to associate it with you (i.e., your name and profile picture). We always appreciate your feedback or other suggestions about Facebook, but you understand that we may use them without any obligation to compensate you for them (just as you have no obligation to offer them).
Social Media Ownership (Marshall & Shipman, 2011) 23 Dropbox Terms of Service By submitting your stuff to the Services, you grant us (and those we work with to provide the Services) worldwide, non- exclusive, royalty-free, sublicenseable rights to use, copy, distribute, prepare derivative works (such as translations or format conversions) of, perform, or publicly display that stuff to the extent reasonably necessary for the Service. This license is solely to enable us to technically administer, display, and operate the Services. (July 2, 2011) http://lifehacker.com/5819430/should-i-be-worried-about-the-change-to- dropboxs-terms-of-service
Social Media Ownership (Marshall & Shipman, 2011) 24 By using our Services you provide us with information, files, and folders that you submit to Dropbox (together, “your stuff”). You retain full ownership to your stuff. We don’t claim any ownership to any of it. These Terms do not grant us any rights to your stuff or intellectual property except for the limited rights that are needed to run the Services, as explained below (as of November 3, 2012).