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The American Pageant Chapter 16 The South and the Slavery Controversy, 1793-1860 Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Pageant Chapter 16 The South and the Slavery Controversy, 1793-1860 Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Pageant Chapter 16 The South and the Slavery Controversy, Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Adapted from: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

2 “Cotton’s Is King!” Before cotton gin:Before cotton gin: –slavery = dying business –South was burdened with: depressed pricesdepressed prices unmarketable goodsunmarketable goods over-cropped landsover-cropped lands –After the gin was invented (1794) growing cotton = wildly profitable & easiergrowing cotton = wildly profitable & easier more slaves neededmore slaves needed

3 Changes in Cotton Production

4 Slaves Using the Cotton Gin

5 Characteristics of the Antebellum South 1.Primarily agrarian. 2.Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” 3.“Cotton Is King!” * 1860  5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). 4.Very slow development of industrialization. 5.Rudimentary financial system. 6.Inadequate transportation system.

6 “Cotton’s Is King!” North:North: –transports cotton to Eng. (& rest of Europe) –So? Meant North part responsible for slave tradeMeant North part responsible for slave trade South:South: –produced more than ½ world’s supply of cotton Believed:Believed: –since England = dependent on them that, if there was a civil war England would support the South that it so heavily depended on.

7 Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports

8 “Hauling the Whole Week’s Pickings” William Henry Brown, 1842

9 The Planter “Aristocracy” 1850:1850: – only 1733 families owned 100+ slaves each they = wealthy aristocracy of the Souththey = wealthy aristocracy of the South –big houses & huge plantations. Southern aristocrats:Southern aristocrats: –widened gap b/w rich & poor –hampered public-funded education by sending children to private schools. –favorite author = Sir Walter Scott, author of Ivanhoe About an idealized feudal societyAbout an idealized feudal society Saw themselves as kings & queensSaw themselves as kings & queens –& slaves as their subjects.

10 The Planter “Aristocracy” plantation system:plantation system: –shaped lives of southern women Mistresses of the house command a sizable householdMistresses of the house command a sizable household –mostly female slaves who cooked, sewed, cared for the children & washed things –Mistresses could be kind or cruel all of them did at one point or another abuse their slaves to some degreeall of them did at one point or another abuse their slaves to some degree there was no “perfect mistress.”there was no “perfect mistress.”

11 Slaves of the Slave System Cotton production spoiled the earthCotton production spoiled the earth profits were quick & highprofits were quick & high –But land was ruined –cotton producers were always in need of new land Southern economic structure = increasingly monopolisticSouthern economic structure = increasingly monopolistic –as land ran out, smaller farmers sold their land to the large estate owners

12 Slaves of the Slave System over-speculation in land & slaves caused many planters to go into debtover-speculation in land & slaves caused many planters to go into debt –Slaves = valuable but were a gamblebut were a gamble they might run away or be killed by diseasethey might run away or be killed by disease dominance of King Cotton led to a one- crop economydominance of King Cotton led to a one- crop economy –price level at the mercy of world conditions

13 Slaves of the Slave System Southerners resent Northerners who got rich at their expenseSoutherners resent Northerners who got rich at their expense –they were dependent on North for clothing, food & manufactured goods. South repelled immigrants from EuropeSouth repelled immigrants from Europe –They went to the North, making it richer

14 The White Majority Below aristocracy = whites that owned 1-2, or a small family of slavesBelow aristocracy = whites that owned 1-2, or a small family of slaves –worked hard on the land w/ their slaves –only difference b/w them & their northerners = slaves living with them Beneath these people = slaveless whites (a full 3/4 of the white population)Beneath these people = slaveless whites (a full 3/4 of the white population) –raised corn & hogs –sneered at rich cotton “snobocracy” –lived simply & poorly

15 The White Majority Slaveless (continued)Slaveless (continued) –poorest known as “poor white trash,” “hillbillies” & “clay-eaters” described as listless, shiftless, & misshapen.described as listless, shiftless, & misshapen. now known that these people weren’t lazynow known that these people weren’t lazy Sick--suffering from malnutrition & parasites like hookworm (they got eating/chewing clay for minerals)Sick--suffering from malnutrition & parasites like hookworm (they got eating/chewing clay for minerals) –defended slavery hoped to own a slave or two some dayhoped to own a slave or two some day Took pleasure knowing that they were, they “outranked” Blacks.Took pleasure knowing that they were, they “outranked” Blacks.

16 The White Majority Mountain whitesMountain whites –lived isolated in the wilderness –hated white aristocrats and Blacks –were key in crippling the Southern secessionists during the Civil War.

17 Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy” [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] 6,000,000 Black Freemen Black Slaves 3,200, ,000 Total US Population  23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]

18 Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters By 1860:By 1860: –free Blacks in South = ~250,000. –In upper South, these Blacks descended from those freed by the idealism of the Revolutionary War (“all men were created equal”). –In deep South, usually mulattoes (Black mother, White father who was usually a master) freed when their masters died.freed when their masters died.

19 Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters Many owned propertyMany owned property few owned slavesfew owned slaves Free Blacks =Free Blacks = –prohibited from working in certain occupations –forbidden from testifying against whites in court –Whites resented them. In North, free Blacks =In North, free Blacks = –Unpopular several states denied their entranceseveral states denied their entrance most denied them the right to votemost denied them the right to vote Most barred them from public schools.Most barred them from public schools.

20 Early Emancipation in the North

21 Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters Northern Blacks = especially hated by the IrishNorthern Blacks = especially hated by the Irish –they competed for jobs with them Anti-black feeling = stronger in the NorthAnti-black feeling = stronger in the North –people liked the race but not the individual In the South… people liked the individual (with whom they’d often grown up), but not the race.In the South… people liked the individual (with whom they’d often grown up), but not the race.

22 Plantation Slavery slave importation banned in 1808slave importation banned in 1808 –smuggling continued due to high demand & despite death sentences to smugglers Slave increase (4 million by 1860) = mostly due to natural reproductionSlave increase (4 million by 1860) = mostly due to natural reproduction Slaves = an investmentSlaves = an investment –many cases = treated better & more kindly – were spared most dangerous jobs putting a roof on a houseputting a roof on a house draining a swampdraining a swamp blasting caves.blasting caves. –Irishmen were used to do that sort of work

23 Plantation Slavery Slaves = majorities or near-majorities in the Deep SouthSlaves = majorities or near-majorities in the Deep South states of South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, & Louisiana had ½ of all slaves in Southstates of South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, & Louisiana had ½ of all slaves in South Breeding slaves was not encouragedBreeding slaves was not encouraged –1000s of slaves were “sold down the river” to toil as field-gang workers –women who gave birth to many children = prized –Some promised freedom after 10 children

24 Southern Population

25 Slave-Owning Population (1850)

26 Plantation Slavery Slave auctions = brutalSlave auctions = brutal –Slaves were inspected like animals –families separated –Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote about this in her Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

27 Slave Auction Notice, 1823

28 Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856

29 Life Under the Lash Slave life varied from place to placeSlave life varied from place to place –for slaves everywhere = hard workhard work no civil or political rightsno civil or political rights whipping if orders weren’t followed.whipping if orders weren’t followed. Laws trying to protect slaves = difficult to enforce.Laws trying to protect slaves = difficult to enforce. Lash beatings weren’t that commonLash beatings weren’t that common –master could lower the value of slave if he whipped him too much.

30 Life Under the Lash Forced separation of spouses, parents & children = more common in upper South, among smaller plantationsForced separation of spouses, parents & children = more common in upper South, among smaller plantations most slaves = raised in stable two- parent households & continuity of family identity across generations = commonmost slaves = raised in stable two- parent households & continuity of family identity across generations = common –widespread practice of naming children for grandparents or adopting the surname of a forebear’s master contrast to the White planters, Africans avoided marriage of first cousins.contrast to the White planters, Africans avoided marriage of first cousins.

31 Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.

32 Life Under the Lash Africans mixed Christian religion w/their native religionAfricans mixed Christian religion w/their native religion Often sang Christian hymns as signals & codes for news of possible freedomOften sang Christian hymns as signals & codes for news of possible freedom many of them sang songs that emphasize bondagemany of them sang songs that emphasize bondage –“Let my people go.”

33 The Burdens of Bondage Slaves life:Slaves life: –no dignity –Illiterate –no chance of achieving “American dream.” Devised countless ways to make trouble w/o getting punished too badly.Devised countless ways to make trouble w/o getting punished too badly. –worked slowly as they could w/o getting lashed –stole food & sabotaged expensive equipment. –Occasionally, they poisoned their masters’ food.

34 Slave Master Brands Slave Accoutrements Slave muzzle

35 Anti-Slave Pamphlet

36 Slave tag, SC Slave Accoutrements Slave leg irons Slave shoes

37 The Burdens of Bondage Rebellions weren’t successfulRebellions weren’t successful –1800 insurrection by a slave named Gabriel Prosser in Richmond, Virginia –1822 Charleston rebellion led by Denmark Vesey (Stono Slave Rebellion) –1831 revolt semiliterate preacher Nat Turner, –did scare whites, which led to tightened rules.

38 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South 1822 Gabriel Prosser 1800

39 Abolitionism: Slave Rebellion In 1829, David Walker (“An Appeal... to the Colored Citizens”) justified slave rebellion, warning of a slave revolt if their freedom was delayed.In 1829, David Walker (“An Appeal... to the Colored Citizens”) justified slave rebellion, warning of a slave revolt if their freedom was delayed.

40 A Call for Revolution David Walker ( ), who ran a used-clothing shop in Boston, Massachusetts, spent his own savings to issue An Appeal…to the Colored Citizens of the World, a learned and passionate attack against racial slavery. In the Appeal, published in 1829, Walker depicts Christ as an avenging “God of justice and of armies” and raises the banner of slave rebellion. A year later he was found in his shop, dead from unknown causes.David Walker ( ), who ran a used-clothing shop in Boston, Massachusetts, spent his own savings to issue An Appeal…to the Colored Citizens of the World, a learned and passionate attack against racial slavery. In the Appeal, published in 1829, Walker depicts Christ as an avenging “God of justice and of armies” and raises the banner of slave rebellion. A year later he was found in his shop, dead from unknown causes.

41 Abolitionism: Slave Rebellion As Walker called for a violent black rebellion in Boston, Nat Turner staged a bloody revolt in Southampton County, Virginia.As Walker called for a violent black rebellion in Boston, Nat Turner staged a bloody revolt in Southampton County, Virginia.

42 Abolitionism: Slave Rebellion Turner, a slave, believed that he was chosen to carry Christ’s burden of suffering in a race war.Turner, a slave, believed that he was chosen to carry Christ’s burden of suffering in a race war. –Turner’s men killed 60 whites in 1831 –Hoped other slaves would rally to his cause, but few did –They were dispersed by a white militia. –Vengeful whites began to take the lives of blacks at random –Turner was captured & hanged.

43 Nat Turner, artist unknown No pictures of famed slave revolt leader Nat Turner are known to exist, but this nineteenth-century painting illustrates how one artist imagined the appearance of Turner and his fellow conspirators. White southerners lived in terror of scenes such as this and passed severe laws designed to prevent African Americans from ever having such meetings. (Granger Collection) Nat Turner, artist unknown Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

44 Abolitionism: Slave Rebellion Virginia’s Response?Virginia’s Response? –The Virginia legislature had been debating a bill for emancipation & colonization –They were Shaken by Turner’s Rebellion –The bill was rejected Southern states toughened their slave codes & prohibited anyone from teaching a slave to read.Southern states toughened their slave codes & prohibited anyone from teaching a slave to read.

45 Early Abolitionism American Colonization Society (1817)American Colonization Society (1817) –founded for the purpose of transporting Blacks back to Africa –1822: the Republic of Liberia was founded for Blacks to live. –Most Blacks didn’t want to go strange civilizationstrange civilization been partially Americanizedbeen partially Americanized By 1860, virtually all slaves were not Africans, but native-born African-Americans.By 1860, virtually all slaves were not Africans, but native-born African-Americans.

46 Early Abolitionism 1830s1830s –abolitionism increases the Second Great Awakening and other things providing support.the Second Great Awakening and other things providing support. Theodore Dwight Weld was among those who were inflamed against slavery.Theodore Dwight Weld was among those who were inflamed against slavery. –Inspired by Charles Grandison Finney –preached against slavery and even wrote a pamphlet, American Slavery As It Is.

47 Garrison & Evangelical Abolitionism A dedicated group of northern & Midwestern evangelical whites launched a moral crusade to abolish slavery.A dedicated group of northern & Midwestern evangelical whites launched a moral crusade to abolish slavery. William Lloyd Garrison: abolitionist leaderWilliam Lloyd Garrison: abolitionist leader –Founded The Liberator in 1831 –Spearheaded the formation of the New England Anti-Slavery Society the next year. –Condemned the American Colonization Society –Attacked the U.S. Constitution for its implicit acceptance of racial bondage –Demanded the immediate abolition of slavery.

48 Theodore Dwight Weld & Evangelical Abolitionism 1834: Theodore Dwight Weld (The Bible against Slavery)1834: Theodore Dwight Weld (The Bible against Slavery) –inspired group of students at Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati to form an antislavery society. Weld & Angelina & Sarah Grimké provided the abolitionist movement with a mass of evidence in American Slavery as It Is: Testimony of a Thousand WitnessesWeld & Angelina & Sarah Grimké provided the abolitionist movement with a mass of evidence in American Slavery as It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses –depicted the actual condition of slavery in the U.S.

49 Evangelical Abolitionism In 1833,Weld, Garrison, & Arthur & Lewis Tappan, along with other delegates, established the American Anti-Slavery Society in Philadelphia.In 1833,Weld, Garrison, & Arthur & Lewis Tappan, along with other delegates, established the American Anti-Slavery Society in Philadelphia. Women abolitionists quickly established their own organizations, such as the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society & the Anti-Slavery Conventions of American Women.Women abolitionists quickly established their own organizations, such as the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society & the Anti-Slavery Conventions of American Women.

50 Evangelical Abolitionism The abolitionist leaders:The abolitionist leaders: –Appealed to public opinion –Assisted blacks who fled from slavery via the underground railroad –Sought support from legislators. Thousands of men & women were drawn to the abolitionist movement, including Ralph Waldo Emerson & Henry David ThoreauThousands of men & women were drawn to the abolitionist movement, including Ralph Waldo Emerson & Henry David Thoreau

51 Radical Abolitionism Sojourner TruthSojourner Truth –freed Black woman –fought for black emancipation & women’s rights Martin DelaneyMartin Delaney –one of the few people who seriously reconsidered Black relocation to Africa –fought for Black rights

52 Radical Abolitionism Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass –greatest Black abolitionist –was an escaped black –was a great speaker –fought for the Black cause despite being beaten & harassed. –Autobiography=Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass depicted his remarkable struggledepicted his remarkable struggle

53 Radical Abolitionism Douglass looked to politics to solve the slavery problemDouglass looked to politics to solve the slavery problem –backed the Liberty Party in 1840 –the Free Soil Party in 1848 –the Republican Party in the 1850s Many abolitionists supported war as the price for emancipationMany abolitionists supported war as the price for emancipation

54 The South Lashes Back Abolitionist efforts increasingly came under attack & fire in the SouthAbolitionist efforts increasingly came under attack & fire in the South “Positive Good”“Positive Good” –Southerners organize a campaign talking about slavery’s positive good forget about how their previous doubts about “peculiar institution’s” (slavery’s) moralityforget about how their previous doubts about “peculiar institution’s” (slavery’s) morality –pointed out how masters: taught their slaves religion taught their slaves religion made them civilizedmade them civilized treated them welltreated them well gave them “happy” lives.gave them “happy” lives.

55 The South Lashes Back “Positive Good” continued:“Positive Good” continued: –Said northern free Blacks, now were persecuted and harassed –Said southern Black slaves treated well, given meals, & cared for in old age.treated well, given meals, & cared for in old age. “gag resolution” (1836)“gag resolution” (1836) –Southern House members passed a bill requiring all antislavery appeals to be tabled without debate Angered northerners like John Quincy Adams.Angered northerners like John Quincy Adams.

56 Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda

57 The South Lashes Back Southerners hated the flood of propaganda in the form of pamphlets, drawings, etcSoutherners hated the flood of propaganda in the form of pamphlets, drawings, etc

58 The Abolitionist Impact in the North Abolitionists like the extreme Garrisonians = unpopularAbolitionists like the extreme Garrisonians = unpopular –Many Northerners believed the values of the slavery compromises in the Constitution. –Also, his secessionist talks contrasted against Webster’s cries for union South owed the North $300 million by the late 1850sSouth owed the North $300 million by the late 1850s Northern factories depended on southern cotton to make goodsNorthern factories depended on southern cotton to make goods

59 Many abolitionists’ speeches provoked violence & mob outbursts in the NorthMany abolitionists’ speeches provoked violence & mob outbursts in the North –1834 trashing of Lewis Tappan’s New York House. 1835: Garrison miraculously escaped a mob that dragged him around the streets of Boston1835: Garrison miraculously escaped a mob that dragged him around the streets of Boston The Abolitionist Impact in the North

60 Reverend Elijah P. Lovejoy of Alton, IllinoisReverend Elijah P. Lovejoy of Alton, Illinois –had his printing press destroyed 4X –killed by a mob in 1837 –became an abolitionist martyr By the 1850s, abolitionist outcries had an impact on northernersBy the 1850s, abolitionist outcries had an impact on northerners –Began to sway more toward their side The Abolitionist Impact in the North

61 Distribution of Slave Labor in 1850

62 Tara – Plantation Reality or Myth? Hollywood’s Version?

63 A Real Georgia Plantation

64 Scarlet and Mammie (Hollywood Again!)

65 A Real Mammie & Her Charge Nurse and charge Slavery did not prevent white children and their slave nurses from forming attachments to each other. (Valentine Museum, Cook Collection)

66 The Southern “Belle”

67 A Slave Family


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